– i –
– ii –
– iii –
III BEGINNING OF THE CIVIL WAR ……………………………………………………………………………13
– iv –
– 1 –
Based upon the experiences of the Indian Wars, Governor Stevens was instrumental in obtaining
amendments to the Militia Laws of 26 January 1855 to provide authority for the Governor to call out the
Militia in the event of an emergency. Through either oversight or design, this provision had been omitted
from the original Militia act. The amendments were approved by the Legislative Assembly on 4 February
1858 and the complete text is as follows:
SEC 1. Act to organize the militia, how amended. Term of office of the General Staff.
SEC 2. County Assessor to make return to the adjutant general of all persons liable for militia duty.
SEC 3. Who liable for militia duty.
SEC 4. Formation and arming of companies and detachments. Number constituting a company or
detachment. Officers of same Commission and oath of.
SEC 5. When citizens of different counties may unite in the formation of a company.
SEC 6. Colonel, lieutenant colonel and major, when to be elected; command of each.
SEC 7. Companies to adopt what regulations. Oaths of members in actual service.
SEC 8. Quartermaster general to forward arms to the county commissioners; how to be issued.
Commanding officer to make return to the quartermaster general. Upon resignation or removal,
to account to county commissioners.
SEC 9. Adjutant general and commissary general, duties of Quartermaster general, duties of. To have
custody of all military property; to report to the Legislature the state of same. To report to the
Governor the condition of the militia. Compensation of.
SEC l0. Governor, when to forward arms to county commissioners. County commissioners to report to
quartermaster general.
SEC 11. Quota to each county.
SEC 12. Staff of Governor, etc., rank and how appointed. Governor to fill certain vacancies. Persons
failing to qualify, office declared vacant.
SEC 13. Authority of Governor to call out the militia.
SEC 14. Volunteers in active service to be governed by the rules and regulations of the U. S. Army as far
as applicable.
SEC 15. Repealing clause, proviso.
WASHINGTON, That the act entitled, an act to organize the militia, be, and is hereby amended by
striking out in section (lst) first in said act the words “and each Council district in said territory shall
constitute one regimental district”; and by striking out in section (10) ten all after the words “commissary
general” and insert the words “who shall hold their office for three years, unless sooner removed by the
Legislature”, and that the remaining portion of said act, be, and the same is hereby repealed.
SEC 2. It shall be the duty of the county assessor of each county in this Territory, in taking the census of
their respective counties, to make return in writing to the adjutant general of the Territory, of all persons
in their respective counties who may be liable to militia duty as is hereafter provided; and for such service
they shall receive such compensation as the county commissioners of their respective counties may deem
just and proper, to be paid out of the county treasury.
– 2 –
SEC 3. Every white male citizen between the ages of (18) eighteen and (50) fifty, not disqualified by
bodily infirmity, shall be liable to militia duty, and subject to be called upon for such purpose by the
Governor, in case of emergency.
SEC 4. Whenever any number of persons liable to militia duty as aforesaid, not exceeding one hundred
nor less than twenty five, shall form themselves into a company or detachment, for the purpose of
permanent or temporary defense as volunteers, elect their own officers as hereinafter provided, and report
the fact to the Adjutant general, he shall thereupon make a requisition upon the quartermaster general, to
be approved by the Governor, for suitable arms for said company, which shall be issued as hereinafter
provided for the purpose of such organization, fifty two persons and upwards to one hundred, shall
constitute a company, and shall choose one Captain, one first and one second Lieutenant, four sergeants
and four corporals; every less number shall be considered a detachment, and shall choose one Lieutenant,
two sergeants and two corporals. Said officers shall hold their respective offices for the term of one year,
unless sooner removed by a sentence of a court martial; and said captains and lieutenants shall be
commissioned by the Governor, and on receiving said commission, each shall take an oath, to be endorsed
on the back thereof, before an officer authorized to administer oaths, that he will support the constitution
of the United States and faithfully discharge the duties of his office.
SEC 5. Whenever by reason of neighborhoods, it shall be more convenient for citizens of a portion of one
county to join a company or detachment of an adjoining county, it shall be lawful for them to do so;
PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That the company shall be deemed to belong to the county where the majority
SEC 6. Whenever several companies organized aforesaid, shall be united together for active service, or
otherwise, if two only, they shall proceed to elect a major to command the same; if four, to elect one
major and one Lieutenant colonel, and if more than four and less than ten, to elect in addition to the
aforesaid officers, one Colonel, who shall have command of all said companies so assembled together.
SEC 7. It shall be lawful for every organized company or detachment of volunteers to adopt such
regulations for its government and discipline as they may see fit, subject to the approval of the Governor
and the Brigadier General and they may impose fines for non-attendance at drill or review, the proceeds
of which shall form a company fund, to be expended in ammunition or other necessaries; and they may
adopt such uniforms as are suitable for their particular service; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That whenever
companies may be called for when in actual service, each member thereof shall take an oath to support the
constitution of the United States and the laws of the Territory, faithfully to discharge his duties, and to
obey the lawful commands of the superior officers placed over him.
SEC 8. The quartermaster general shall, with the approval of the Governor, upon receiving from the
adjutant general the returns of any volunteer company or detachment, organized as hereinbefore provided,
forward to the county commissioners of the county wherein the same is formed, a suitable quantity of
arms and equipments, of the kind required by said company or detachment; and it shall be the duty of
such commanding officer to make return of such arms and equipments, showing their condition to the
quartermaster general, at least one month before the meeting of the legislature of each year; and each
commanding officer shall, upon the election of his successor, or his resignation of removal from office or
disability to act, or upon disbanding, of his company or detachment, turn over such arms or equipments to
the county commissioners, who may then cancel his bond; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That he shall be
liable for all loss and damage not arising from the fortune of war or unavoidable accident. PROVIDED
FURTHER, Each member of a detachment or company receiving arms or equipments, shall give his
receipt to the commanding officer for same, which on their return, shall be cancelled; he shall, on failure
to return them when called upon, pay double of the government valuation; said receipt to be received by
the commissioners, in lieu of the arms and equipments from the commanding officer.
– 3 –
SEC 9. The adjutant general and the commissary general shall perform the same duties as the
corresponding officers in the service of the United States, except as herein modified. The quartermaster
general shall have the custody of all the military property belonging to the Territory, embracing arms and
equipments, ammunition, ordnance and ordnance stores, and such as are not distributed among the several
counties, he shall preserve in good order in some suitable place at the seat of the Legislature, until they
are legally disposed of. He shall annually report to the Legislature the number and condition of said arms
and other property embracing not only those in his custody, but also those issued to the several counties,
and giving an abstract of the reports of the commanding officers of companies, and the county
commissioners; with officers responsible for arms or property, and their securities, and the amount of
their respective bonds; and shall annually report to the Governor the number of organized companies, the
names of the officers, and the number of the rank and file in each, together with such other information
relative thereto, as shall be in his possession. He shall receive for his services a reasonable compensation,
to be allowed him by the Legislature.
SEC 10. On application of the board of county commissioners for any county, the Governor may, in his
discretion, forward to them at the expense of the Territory, the whole or any portion of its quota of arms
as, defined hereinafter, to be kept by them or issued to companies or detachments, under the same
regulations as above provided; and it shall be the duty of such board to report annually to the quartermaster
general the amount of arms and equipments received, on hand and issued, show to whom issues
have been made, and the amount of the bonds taken, with names of the sureties.
SEC. 11. The quota of arms of each county, shall be in proportion to the number of persons liable to
militia duty, as hereinafter provided.
SEC 12. The Governor may appoint his staff, consisting of two aids, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.
The Brigadier General may appoint his aids with the rank of Captain. The Quartermaster, adjutant and
commissary generals may appoint their assistants and acting assistants, to rank the same as in the Army of
the United States. The Regimental and Battalion commanders may appoint their commissioned and noncommissioned
staff. The Governor shall fill all vacancies caused by death, resignation or otherwise, on
the part of the officers elected by the Legislative Assembly, and provided for by this act, and in case any
persons so elected shall fail to qualify within 10 days after he receives his commission, the office shall be
deemed vacant, and it shall be competent for the Governor to fill the same by appointment; and it shall be
the duty of such officer so elected or appointed, to notify the Governor of his having qualified.
SEC.13. Whenever, in case of emergency, the Governor shall deem it necessary to call upon the people of
the Territory for active service, he shall have authority so to do, and the troops so called for shall be
organized in accordance with, and subject to the provisions of this act.
SEC.14. Whenever the volunteers of this Territory are called into service by proclamation of the
Governor, they shall be governed by the rules and regulations that govern the army of the United States,
as far as applicable.
SEC.15. All acts and parts of acts not in conformity to the provisions of this act, are hereby declared void;
PROVIDED, That nothing in this act shall be so construed as to vacate offices heretofore filled by the
Legislative Assembly, under and by virtue of the said act entitled, “an act to organize the militia”.
In the meantime, at its previous session in January 1857, the Legislative Assembly elected
Hamilton H. J. G. Maxon, Brigadier General. Also Isaac N. Ebey was elected Adjutant General to replace
James Tilton. He was later murdered by the Northern Indians on l3 August 1857 and Governor Stevens
appointed George Gallagher to the vacancy. William W. Miller resigned in 1857 and Richard Lane was
appointed by Governor Stevens to this vacancy. He also appointed J. J. H. Van Bokkelen Commissary
General to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of H. K. Stevens. These appointments were
continued by the Legislature in 1858 appointing each of the incumbents for another three years.
– 4 –
History does not appear to have recorded any of the Company or detachment formations as
provided in the foregoing amended act, however, at least token compliance with both the Federal and
Territorial laws must have been taken by the citizens as evidenced by continuous receipt of their quota of
territorial arms in the years which followed. You may recall that the Territory received no heavy
armament during the Indian Wars. From their quota allotted by the War Department in 1857 the following
equipment was listed on the turn-over from the Governor to QM General in 1858:
2- 12 lb Mountain Howitzers at $165 each 330.00
2- 12 lb mountain howitzer carriages,
complete $50 each 100.00
2- sets of implements and accouterments
as follows: at $18 per set 36.00
2 gunners haversacks
2 gunners pincers
2 handspikes
4 lanyards friction tubes
2 fuze plug reamers
2 priming wires
2 sponge covers
2 longes and rammers
2 thumbstalls
2 taurpaulins 5 x 5
4 tube patches
2 vent covers, leather
6 packsaddles and harness, complete at $20 each 120.00
12 lashing lines and ropes (packsaddle)
4 ammunition chests do
26 Percussion rifles and appendages at $12.88 each 334.88
26 rifle screw drivers
26 wipers
26 cones, extra
2 ball screws
2 spring vices
2 bullet molds
2 ammunition chests
8 packing boxes
2 packing cribbs
TOTAL $920.00
Evidence also of token compliance with the laws covering the enrollment of the militia was
uncovered and which as a result of their being submitted the War Department annually resulted in the
receipt of letters from the Ordnance Officer asking for their annual requisition. The following is typical of
the type of letter received by the Governor:
– 5 –
Washington Jany. 10,1861
His Excellency
The Governor of Washington Territory
In order that arrangements may be made to answer the calls of the State and Territories for arms to
be issued during this year under the laws for arming and equipping the militia, you are respectfully
requested to inform this office what description of arms will be required by the Territory for the year
The quota assigned to the Territory for this year amounts to 137 muskets, from which is being
deducted 1-4/13 muskets over-drawn on last year’s quota their remain now due 135-9/13 muskets.
The States and Territories are credited with their annual quotas in terms of muskets. If other
descriptions of small arms or field artillery are required, they are charged at their cost by their equivalent
in muskets, as per accompanying statement.
* * * * * *
Your obedient servant,
F. K. Craig
Colonel of Ordnance
10 Percussion Muskets, including appendages, Cal. .69, equal to 10-2/13 muskets
10 Rifle Muskets, and appendages, new pattern, Cal. .58 10-9/13 do
10 Percussion Rifles and appendages, Cal. .54 9-11/13 do
10 Long Range Muskets, with sword bayonets, Cal. .58 13-5/13 do
10 Cadets’ Muskets and appendages, Cal. .58 11-9/13 do
10 Hall’s Carbines and appendages 13-1/13 do
10 Percussion Pistols and appendages 5-5/13 do
10 Sharpes’ Carbines with appendages 23-3/13 do
10 Cavalry Sabres 6-7/13 do
10 Horse Artillery Sabres 4-3/13 do
10 Foot Artillery swords 3-1/13 do
10 Non-commissioned officer’s swords 4-3/13 do
10 Musician’s swords 3-5/13 do
10 sets of Infantry accouterments 3-1/13 do
10 sets of Rifle accouterments 2-1/13 do
10 sets of accouterments for long range rifles 3-6/13 do
10 sets of Cavalry accouterments 4-12/13 do
10 Horse Artillery Sabre Belts 1-1/13 do
10 Foot Artillery Sword Belts 1-2/65 do
10 Non-Commissioned officer’s or Musician Sword Belts 73/130 do
1- 6 pounder gun 31-1/13 do
1-12 lb Howitzer 27-11/13 do
1- 6 pounder gun or 12 pounder Howitzer carriage, w/impl. & Equip. 25-5/13 do
l – Mountain Howitzer Carriage with implements 9-11/13 do
l – Caisson with tools and spare parts 29-9/13 do
1 – Travelling Forge with tools 34-5/13 do
1 – Battery wagon with tools 59-7/13 do
1 set of Artillery Harness for two wheel horses 5-2/13 do
1 set of Artillery Harness for two lead horses 4-4/13 do
– 6 –
It may recalled from the previous volume that Colonel George Wright, after the Volunteers were
disbanded, left Lieut. Col. Steptoe in charge of the troops in the Walla Walla Valley. He occupied Fort
Walla Walla about 20 November 1856 and received his supplies by boat from the Dalles. In the meantime
J. W. Nesmith, late Colonel of the Oregon Volunteers, was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs for
both Oregon and Washington. Also the trouble with the Indians seemed to have ended. Also in 1857,
General Newman S. Clark replaced Major General Wool as Department Commander of the Pacific. U. S.
Troops at that time were distributed as follows: Three companies of the 9th Infantry were at Fort Simcoe,
under the command of Major R. S. Garnett. Three companies were at the Dalles under Colonel Wright;
Col. Steptoe’s command consisted of one company of the lst Dragoons, one company of the 3rd Artillery,
one company of the 9th Infantry and one company of the 4th Infantry. He was augmented in the latter part
of 1857 by a company of dragoons from Southern Oregon under the command of Captain A. J. Smith.
In April of 1858, Lieut. Col. Steptoe reported that he had received a petition from Colville, signed
by forty persons, asking for protection from the Indians who had recently murdered two white men and
had made several raids on government cattle in the area. He recommended an expedition through the
country to the Colville mines, intending only to impress upon the Indians that a military power was still
stationed in that area. He received permission and began his march from Fort Walla Walla on 6 May 1858
with about one hundred and thirty dragoons. He proceeded to the Nez Perce country, being ferried over
the Snake River by a friendly Indian Chief. Disregarding a report that the Spokanes were opposed to his
entering their country he proceeded northward until he found himself almost surrounded by about six
hundred Indians in war paint. They had chosen their position overlooking a ravine through which the road
passed. Colonel Steptoe called a halt and attempted to parley with the War Chief of the Spokanes who
informed him they had heard he had come to the Spokane country to make war and that they would not let
him cross the Spokane River. Withdrawing his troops to a distance he attempted to discuss the purpose of
his visit without success and the Spokanes still refused to ferry him across the river. On the 17th of April
he decided to return to Walla Walla and began his march in that direction. The Spokanes then decided he
should not escape and attacked him. After considerable fighting and casualties on both sides, on the night
of April 18th, with their ammunition running low, the regulars withdrew in the middle of the night,
reaching the Snake River on the morning of the 19th and returned to Fort Walla Walla.
In June of 1858, General Clarke, after consultation with Colonels Wright and Steptoe, determined
to make an expedition with a large force in an effort to subdue the hostile Spokanes and Yakimas.
Accordingly he ordered three companies of artillery from San Francisco, one company of the 4th Infantry
from Fort Jones, Calif. and another company of the 4th Infantry from Fort Umpqua, Oregon. These troops
were concentrated at Fort Walla Walla and thoroughly drilled in Indian warfare. The command was given
to Colonel Wright. At the same time a second expedition was decided upon, which was designated to go
against the Yakimas simultaneously. These troops, numbering about 300 were placed under the command
of Major Garnett. This command was to move from Fort Simcoe on the 15th of August towards Colville,
through Yakima country with a view to driving the hostiles towards one center on the Spokane where they
would be met by Wright’s command. On the 7th of August, Captain Keyes with a detachment of dragoons
was ordered to the Snake River crossing and erect a Fort. The point selected was at the mouth of
Tucannon River and named Fort Taylor in honor of Captain Taylor who had been killed with Steptoe in
his engagement with the Spokanes in April. Major Garnett’s command consisted of Companies C, G and I
of the 9th Infantry. When Colonel Wright began his march northward to Fort Taylor on 18 August, his
command was composed of Companies C, E, H, I and a detachment of Company D, of the lst Dragoons.
Companies A, B, G, and K and M of the 3rd Artillery and Companies B and E of the 9th Infantry,
numbering about 800 men. The Infantry and Artillery were organized as a Rifle Brigade and armed with
Sharpe’s Long Range rifles using the minie ball, both of which the Indians were unfamiliar with.
– 7 –
Before leaving Walla Walla Colonel Wright engaged a company of Nez Perce to serve as Scouts
and guides. By the 31st of August he had reached a point in his march northward within twenty miles of
the Spokane River, when the Indians showed themselves along the hills. Colonel Wright encamped his
troops for a much needed rest. However, the Indians decided to give the troops no respite and began to
mass their warriors on the crest of the hills about two miles distant from Wright’s camp. On 1 September
1858, heavy fight ensued lasting until the 5th in which the regulars inflicted heavy casualties on the
Indians with minor losses to Wright’s’ command. As a result the Spokane Chief “Gary”, on the 7th
through interpreters informed Wright that he desired to talk to him. Wright met “Gary” and immediately
informed him that he was there to make war, not talk peace but that he was tired of war, he would talk
peace but on his own terms. He than informed “Gary” that everything must be surrendered – arms
property, women and children and that they must trust in his mercy. “Gary” then left to inform his people
of Wright’s edict. Colonel Wright also informed another Chief by the name of “Polatkin” of the same
terms, but detained him for suspected murder.
On the 8th of September, Colonel Wright began his march towards the Spokane and after going
about nine miles discovered that the Indians were driving their stock towards the mountains instead of
surrendering. A skirmish followed in which about 800 horses were captured and herded back to camp
where most of them were destroyed. As a result of being practically dismounted, the Spokanes agreed to
a. Council which began on 17 September at Wright’s camp about 16 miles above Spokane Falls. Father
Joset and Chief “Vincent” were present at the Council at which “Vincent” acknowledged the crimes of his
people, said he regretted it and hoped for forgiveness. Colonel Wright said such would be granted but
only under certain conditions. He than demanded that the men who struck the blow against Col. Steptoe
be immediately surrendered. Also one Chief with four warriors and their families were to be turned over
as hostages. After several other stipulations a treaty was prepared which was signed by Wright and by
“Polatkin” for the Spokanes. A similar treaty was entered into with the Yakimas, but Kamiakin did not
come into camp, fearing he would be taken to Walla Walla. After the conference, “Owhi” of the Yakimas
came into camp and was immediately arrested for breaking his agreement of 1856. Wright then ordered
“Owhi” to send for his son “Qualchin” to come into camp under a threat that he would be hanged if he did
not comply. “Qualchin” showed up unexpectedly and was immediately hanged without trial. “Owhi”
attempting to escape on the return march to Walla Walla was shot by one of Wright’s officers and died an
hour later. Upon his arrival at Fort Walla Walla he was met by the Palouses, who desired peace also.
Colonel Wright refused to deal with them, but instead hanged several of them. Several Walla Wallas were
also hanged by Colonel Wright as an example to their people. General Clarke continued his policy of
keeping the country closed to settlement and it was not until 1859 when General Harney relieved General
Clarke as General commanding the Pacific that it was again opened to settlement.
In the meantime, Territorial authorities were still trying to secure certain Chiefs responsible for the
murders during the Indian Wars and 1855-56, but received little cooperation from the Commander at Fort
Steilacoom. General Harney, however, indicated a. willingness to cooperate as evidenced by the
following letter:
– 8 –
Headquarters, Department of Oregon
Fort Vancouver, W. T., November 30th, 1858
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 17th inst., desiring the
assistance of the Military force at Fort Steilacoom, in the apprehension of the two Indian sub-chiefs
“Nelson” and “Kitsap”, who were concerned in the massacre of a family on White river in 1855.
I have accordingly, directed the Commanding Officer at Fort Steilacoom, to cause these Indians to
be arrested, and turned over to such Civil authority, as you may deem proper to designate, and I have
further required that every assistance be given, hereafter, to the Civil authorities in the apprehension of
Indians in case it is needed.
I am, Sir, Very respectfully, etc.
Brigadier General
His Excellency, C. H. Mason
Acting Governor, Washington Territory
During 1859 and 1860 the War Department continued to maintain large numbers of troops in
Washington and Oregon to prevent further trouble with the Indians. In Washington regular army troops
garrisoned the posts of Vancouver, Bellingham, Colville, Port Townsend, Steilacoom, Cascades and
Walla Walla. According to the Report of the Secretary of War, the following troops were stationed in the
north west (Department of Oregon) on 31 December 1860, under the command of Colonel George
Wright, who maintained his Headquarters at Fort Vancouver:
At Fort Vancouver under the command of Major Wm. S. Ketchum – Companies A, B, C, D, G and M, 3rd
Artillery; At Fort Vancouver under the command of Lieut. Wm. T. Welcker – Vancouver Ordnance Depot
and detachment; at Fort Colville under the command of Major Pinkney Lugenbeel – Companies A, C, I
and K, 9th Infantry; At Camp Pickett, San Juan Island under the command of Captain George A. Pickett,
Company D, 9th Infantry; At Fort Steilacoom under the command of Lieut. Col. Silas Casey – Companies
F and H, 9th Infantry; At Fort Walla Walla under the command of Major Enoch Steen – Companies C, E
and I, lst Dragoons and Companies B and E, 9th Infantry; At Fort Dalles under the command of Captain
Joseph H. Whittlesey – Company H, lst Dragoons and Company G, 9th Infantry; At Fort Yamhill, O. T.
under the command of Captain David A. Russell – Company K, 4th U S Infantry; At Fort Hoskins, O. T.
under the command of Captain Christopher C. Auger – Companies F and G, 4th Infantry; At Fort
Cascades under the command of Captain Henry D. Wallen – Company H, 4th Infantry; At Camp Chehalis
under the command of Captain Maurice Maloney – Company A, 4th Infantry; At Port Townsend under the
command of Captain Lewis C. Hunt – Company G, 4th Infantry.
On 15 January 1861 the Departments of California and Oregon were merged into the Department
of the Pacific under the command of Brigadier General Albert S. Johnston. In the meantime the regular
army troops were being readied for service elsewhere. The following is a chronological happening of
events pertaining to this territory from 1 January 1861 to December 31, 1865:
Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Terr. Jan. 5,1861
General Joseph E. Johnston
Quartermaster General, USA, Washington D. C.
General: I take the liberty and feel it my duty to call your attention to the Fort Benton Wagon Road, as I
believe from experience in the service, and crossing the plains frequently for the past thirty years, that the
cost of sending recruits or horses to this coast by that route will be ten times as much as by the route from
Fort Leavenworth via Forts Kearny, Laramie, Hall and Boise to this post; for by the boat to Benton each
soldier will cost $100 and each wagon the same; then to get mules or oxen for the wagons would be
– 9 –
double, the cost that it would be to Leavenworth. Purchase your horses, wagons and oxen or mules to
transport your supplies at Leavenworth and if the transportation is not needed here on arrival, it can be
sold at public auction for its full value in, the States. By this means each soldier will hardly cost $10,
whereas by the Fort Benton route each one would cost $300 by his arrival here. One more suggestion.
Could not the $100,000 already appropriated, and not yet expended, be transferred to the old road I speak
of? It is much the shortest and best route, and imigrants come through every season arriving by the end of
September, their animals in very good condition. A post is to be established at Boise in the spring, and
there will always be troops at Fort Hall to protect emigration, and all that are needed are ferries at these
posts, and very little work on the road. There will then be grass, water, and all that is requisite for a
military or emigrant road. I do believe that if the $100,000 is expended and the Benton Road finished, that
not ten imigrants will travel it for twenty years to come. But suppose you make the road from St. Paul to
Benton, then you must establish a line of posts through the Sioux and Blackfoot country requiring at least
1,500 soldiers at a cost of half a million annually, and there would be a war at a cost of $300,000,000 or
400,000,000 more. In a conversation with Major Blake, of the Army, who came by the Benton route with
300 recruits last summer, he spoke favorably of the route, and said he would apply to bring over horses
from St. Paul via Benton to this Department. Now, I am satisfied that the cost by that route will be ten
times as much as the route from Leavenworth, via Laramie, Hall and Boise, and in addition, the major’s
route is much the longest, and in the months of May and June from St. Paul west say 1,000 miles, you
have much wet and marshy prairie, which I consider impassable. Starting in July, then, you could not
come through the same season and wintering in the mountains northeast of us would cause much expense,
the loss of many animals and much suffering among the men.
I am sir, respectfully, etc.
E. STEEN, Maj. 1st Dragoons, Comdg.
On January 6, 1861 the Commanding General of the Department of the Pacific directed that two of
the Artillery companies stationed at Fort Vancouver would be immediately sent to San Francisco.
On January l0, 1861, Lieut. Col. Silas Casey advised General Johnston, the General Commanding
the Pacific of continued activity by the Indians killing settlers and that his command at Fort Steilacoom
consisting of two companies be increased for operations against the hostiles in the vicinity of the
Muckleshoot river.
On 15 January 1861 Major Grier with 40 dragoons was ordered to proceed from Fort Walla Walla
to the Umatilla to apprehend Indians who had recently stole horses, mules and property from the settlers.
Simultaneously, Captain Whittlesey with 29 men was ordered from the Dalles on a similar mission on
Willow and Bitter Creeks.
Steamer Pacific
Baker’s Bay, Wash. Terr. Jan. 18, 1861
Captain James A. Hardie,
Actg Asst Adj Gen, Hq. Dept. of Oregon
Sir: I would respectfully state that a field operations of the military road from Walla Walla to Fort Benton
will be resumed by the lst of April and that an escort of not less than eighty men and two officers be
granted me, under the instructions from the War Department, to protect my work and its operations, and
that they may be provided with subsistence and clothing for fifteen months. I desire to leave Walla Walla
by the lst of April.
John Mullan
1st Lieut., 2nd Artillery, in charge of Military Road. Exped.
– 10 –
Washington D. C., Jan. 2, 1891
Honorable J. Holt
Secretary of War
Sir: In the latter part of December, I submitted to the Department, with a recommendation, the project of
Lieut. Mullan, U. S. Army, in charge of the military road from Fort Benton to Fort Walla Walla, for
continuing the operations during the ensuing season through the next winter and the following spring and
summer (in all about fifteen months from 1st April next), together with an estimate of the expense of
executing the work. The amount available for this operation, including the probable amount of sales of
animals and other property at the conclusion of the field work, was estimated by Lieut. Mullan to be on lst
April next $85,000. The sum was probably in excess about $2,500. Having understood that the abovementioned
paper has been mislaid, and that it is desired I should submit a substitute for it, I beg leave to
say that it is not in my power to state the exact number of assistants and employees and extent of outfit
and the monthly cost of maintaining the party proposed by Lieut. Mullan, nor should I wish to make out a
project in detail to govern that officer, as it might cramp him and impair the efficiency of his party. After
a careful examination or his project I propose that the number of his assistants should be one less than he
asked for, and that instead of employing a physician an assistant surgeon should be detailed to accompany
his escort (100) strong, and be directed by the Surgeon General to attend the Civil employees of the party.
Much of the work to be done upon the road consists of building bridges, and Lieut. Mullan proposed that
the party should winter on the route, and be employed during that season upon those constructions, and
resuming the other labors upon it in the spring, reach Fort Benton in time to descend the Missouri in the
latter part of the summer. Whether more time would be lost by this plan of operations, or by returning to
Walla Walla toward the end of the fall and discharging the party and reorganizing it again and taking the
field in the following spring, it is difficult to decide. I propose, therefore, that discretionary authority
should be given to Lieut. Mullan to send back to Walla Walla and discharge a portion or the whole of his
party toward the approach of winter, and to enjoin upon him the strictest economy in his expenditures
consistent with efficiency. The estimated expense of Lieut. Mullan’s party was about, or near $4,600 per
month. The amount of the appropriation for the road now in the treasury subject to requisition is $68,000.
Lieut. Mullan requested that the sum of $30,000 should be placed to his credit in New York.
He will probably require:
3 assistants (civil engrs. and clerk) at $125.00 per mo $375
1 guide and interpreter, at. $125 per mo 125
1 wagon master, at $100 per mo 100
2 blacksmiths, at $80 per mo 160
4 carpenters, at $75 per mo 300
30 laborers and teamsters, at $50 per mo 1,500
4 herders, at $30 per mo. 120
2 cooks at $30 per mo 60
50 enlisted men on extra duty at 35 cents per day 525
Subsistence of party, 47 hands at 50 cents per day 705
Contingencies at 10 percent 397
Total expense of party $4,367
Expense of party for 16 months $70,000
Estimated cost or outfit 12,500
Aggregate $82,500
– 11 –
I beg leave to suggest that Lieut. Mullan be instructed that the project submitted by him is
approved, excepting the number of assistants, which should be one less that he proposes, and excepting
the employment of a physician, if an assistant surgeon accompanies the escort; that the strictest economy
be exercised by him in his expenditures, and that in no event should the amount of the appropriation be
exceeded, and that he will in his discretion winter with the whole party enroute, or reduce it upon the
approach of winter or return and disband it at Walla Walla.
Very respectfully, etc.
Captain, Topographical Engineer, in charge
San Francisco, California
April 8,1861
Major W. W. Mackall,
Asst Adjt Gen, Hq., Dept. of the Pac., San Francisco.
Sir: I have the honor to report that in obedience to instructions from the War Department, I am about to
resume work upon the Fort Walla Walla and Fort Benton Military road, and anticipate taking the field
from Fort Walla Walla at a date not later than the 5th proximo, and in conformity to a notification from
the department that an escort of 100 men, 3 officers and a physician would be furnished me by the general
commanding the Department of the Pacific, I would respectfully make requisition for said escort to join
me at Walla Walla, or such other points as the interests of the service may permit. By the plan of
operations submitted to and approved by the War Department, our field work will occupy a period of not
less than fifteen months, but to provide against contingencies I shall take in the field supplies for sixteen
months which will take the expedition to Fort Benton, enabling us to winter in the Bitter Root valley, or
some other equally suitable point. Having reached the Missouri River, a period of two months will be
necessary for a return to Walla Walla, and the supplies needed for these two months could be
economically and judiciously shipped from Saint Louis in the spring of 1862, and for which a special
requisition should be hereafter made. With a view to economy and a regard to the movements of the
expedition into the Bitter Route Mountains, I have thought it best to start from Walla Walla with a wagon
train with supplies for one-half the period, eight months, thus establishing a depot at the Coeur d’Alene
Mission, from which point the train could return to the mouth of the Palouse for the remaining eight
months, to be there shipped at a date depending upon the freshet of the Snake River, which last supplies
would be thrown forward to the Bitter Root valley to cover our winter’s wants. The train thus empty
would be then occupied in moving the party leisurely toward our winter camp as the work progressed. I
would therefore respectfully make a requisition for commissary supplies for the escort for a period of
sixteen months with wagon transportation for eight months. The allowance of Pork or Bacon should not
exceed one-third the meat ration, the remainder to be beef on the hoof. A judicious supply of
antiscorbutics should be furnished. I would make requisition for clothing for twelve months and would
ask that two pair of boots be allowed each man in lieu of the same number of pairs of shoes, the snows of
the mountains rendering this necessary, looking forward to the comfort of the men, etc. Twelve month’s
supply of medicines would be ample for the entire period of the field work. A supply of ammunition
sufficient to cover the ordinary allowance for target practice and the contingencies of the march through
the Indian country should be had. I know not how we shall find the mood of the Indians, but I am
confident that the elements of disturbance still exist to a certain extent with the Coeur d’Alene, but I trust
our wants for ammunition may be limited to target practice alone. It would be well, provided it be not
consistent with the interests of the department, could one of the officers who accompany the expedition be
detailed from Fort Vancouver or Fort Walla Walla who could acts as commissary and quartermaster to the
escort, and with whom I could confer in arranging and directing such details as the wants of our
movements suggest before we move into the field. Walla Walla is quite a good outfitting point, but to
provide against contingencies, I shall mostly provide my civil party with its equipment from Portland,
– 12 –
I have not entered into the minutiae as regards to special wants of the escort in each particular department,
they being such, however, as are needed with a body of troops moving into the Indian country with wagon
train transportation for a period of eight months. I would state that I leave for Oregon tomorrow, and shall
without delay proceed to Fort Walla Walla, to there organize an expedition for the prosecution of the
work on the road.
I am sir, respectfully, etc,
John Mullan
1st Lt., Second Arty, in charge of Military Road Expedition
San Francisco, April 8,1861
NO. 50
1. A detachment of two subalterns, two sergeants, two corporals and ninety-six picked men will be
selected from Companies A, C, I and K, 9th Infantry at Fort Colville, and E and B, 9th Infantry at Fort
Walla Walla, proportioned as follows: viz; from Colville, two subalterns, Second Lt. Nathaniel Wickliffe
and Brevet 2nd Lieut. Salem S. Marsh, three non-commissioned officers and seventy-six men; and from
Walla Walla, one sergeant and twenty men.
2. This detachment will form the guard to the Walla Walla and Fort Benton road party, and be
under the command of First Lieut. J. Mullan, 2nd Artillery.
3. The command will be furnished with provisions and clothing, and medical stores, for sixteen
months, and 300 rounds of ammunition.
4. The meat ration will consist of one-third pork and two-thirds cattle on the hoof; a reasonable
supply of desiccated vegetables will be taken.
5. Eight months provisions will be taken from Walla Walla, and the remainder under arrangements
to be made by the chief commissary of the department.
6. The detachment from Colville will be supplied with no more provisions than may be necessary
to reach the Coeur d’Alene Lake and wait the arrival of Lieut. Mullan.
7. The detachment from Colville will move to Coeur d’Alene Lake at such time and by such route
as may be notified to the commanding officer at Fort Colville; the detachment from Walla Walla will
move under the immediate orders of Lieut. Mullan.
8. Captain Kirkham, assistant quartermaster, will furnish transportation for the detachment and its
supplies, adopting, on consultation with Lieut. Mullan, the most economical measures compatible with
9. If boots are on hand at Fort Vancouver or Walla Walla, two pairs per man will be supplied in
place of shoes.
10. The ordnance officer at Vancouver Arsenal will furnish the ammunition called for by this
order on the requisition of Lieut. Mullan.
11. Asst. Surgeon Lewis Taylor will accompany the detachment.
Assistant Adjutant General
– 13 –
General Orders No. 5, Hq. Department of the Pacific, dated 25 April 1861 announced the
assumption of command of the Department of the Pacific by Brigadier General Edwin V. Sumner vice
Brigadier General A. S. Johnston, resigned.
Letter, Department of the Pacific dated 25 April 1861 directed Colonel Wright to send one light
battery of Third artillery on next steamer to San Francisco. Another letter dated 26 April directed the
movement of two companies of 3rd Artillery to San Francisco (Companies G and M).
In May, 1861, Acting Governor Henry M. McGill received the following Proclamation from
Washington, D.C.
WHEREAS, the laws of the United States have been for some time past, and now are, opposed,
and the execution thereof obstructed, in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida,
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course
of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the marshals by law; now, therefore, I, Abraham
Lincoln, President of the United States, in virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution and the
laws, have thought fit to call forth the Militia of the several States of the Union to the aggregate number
of 75,000, in order to suppress said combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed.
The details for this object will be immediately communicated to the State authorities through the
War Department. I appeal to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate, and aid, this effort to maintain the honor,
the integrity, and existence of our National Union, and the perpetuity of popular government, and to
redress wrongs already long enough endured. I deem it proper to say that the first service assigned to the
forces hereby called forth will probably be to repossess the forts, places, and property which have been
seized from the Union; and in every event the utmost care will be observed, consistently with the objects
aforesaid, to avoid any devastation, any destruction of, or interference with, property, or any disturbance
of peaceful citizens of any part of the country; and I hereby command the persons composing the
combinations aforesaid, to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes, within twenty days
from this date.
Deeming that the present condition of public affairs presents an extraordinary occasion, I do
hereby, in virtue of the power vested by the Constitution, convene both houses of Congress. The Senators
and Representatives are, therefore, summoned to assemble at their respective chambers at 12 o’clock,
noon, on Thursday, the 4th of July next, then and there to consider and determine such measures as, in
their wisdom, the public safety and interest may seem to demand.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be
Done at the City of Washington, this 15th day of April, in the year of our lord one thousand eight
hundred and sixty-one, and the independence of the United States the eighty-fifth.
NOTE: On the 3rd of May, 1861, President Lincoln issued another call for 42,000 additional volunteers to
serve for three years.
Based upon these Proclamations, Acting Governor McGill issued the following proclamation:
– 14 –
WHEREAS, the President of the United States has issued his Proclamation, stating the laws of the
United States have been and now are opposed in several States by combinations too powerful to be
suppressed in the ordinary way, and therefore, called for the Militia of the several States.
Now therefore, deeming it expedient that the Militia of the Territory of Washington should be
placed in readiness, to meet any requisition from the President of the United States or the Governor of the
Territory, to aid in maintaining the laws and integrity of the National Union, I do hereby call upon all the
citizens of this Territory, capable of bearing arms, and liable to Militia duty, to report immediately, to the
Adjutant General of .the Territory, and proceed at once to organize themselves into companies and elect
their own officers in the manner proscribed by the Act of 6th of January, 1855 and the Amendatory Act of
the 4th of February 1858, to organize the militia. The organization of each Company will be immediately
reported to Adjutant General Frank Matthias at Seattle, W. T. and through him to the Governor, when the
commissions will issue to the officers so elected.
In testimony whereof I have, here unto set my hand and caused the seal of the Territory to be
affixed at Olympia, this tenth day of May, 1861.
Acting Governor of Wash. Terr.
Based upon the Governor’s Proclamation, Adjutant General Franklin Matthias issued the following
General Orders at Seattle:
Office of the Adjutant General
Seattle, W. T., May l4, 186l
To facilitate the enrollment and organization of the Militia in accordance with the Proclamation of
the Governor, the following named gentlemen are respectfully requested to open muster rolls in the
respective counties, for the enrollment of all persons liable to Militia duty, and forward said rolls semimonthly
to the Adjutant General. They will report the organization of each company with the names of
the officers elected.
All persons capable of bearing arms and liable to Militia duty will forward their names to one of
the gentlemen designated in their respective counties as indicated below:
Missoula County H. M. Chase
Spokane County Postmaster, Colville
Shoshone County John M. Cannaday
Klickitat County John B. Dickerson and William Wright
Walla Walla County A. J. Simmer and Mr. Ladgard
Skamania County J. L. Ferguson
Clarke County W. G. Langford and J. D. Biles
Cowlitz County H. L. Caples
Waukiakum County A. R. Burbank and W. H. Harris
Pacific County John Briscoe
Chehalis County T. J. Carter
Lewis County Henry Miles
Thurston County Gilmore Hays
Sawamish County F. C. Purdy
Pierce County John A. Settle and John M. Chapraan
– 15 –
King County T. J. Hinkley and Martin Givier
Kitsap County William Benton, H. C. Wilson & M. Blinn
Jefferson County Fred A. Wilson and Paul K. Hubbs
Island County S. D. Howe and J. T. Turner
Clallam County Marshal Boswell
Whatcom county J. G. Hyatt
Snohomish County J. D. Fowler and E. C. Ferguson
The foregoing Proclamations produced immediate results. First to report a company formed were
the citizens of Port Madison. William Fowler was elected Captain and Henry B. Manchester and E. D.
Kromer, lst and 2nd Lieutenants, respectively. 70 men were enrolled. Next to report was The Puget Sound
Rangers from Thurston County. I. I. Stevens was the Captain and W. H. Hubbs and Nathan Low the
Lieutenants. Seventy five men were enrolled. The Jefferson Union Guards were the next to report and
elected Job Townsend Captain, Henry L. Tibbals, lst Lieut. and Samuel Stork, 2nd Lieut. A total of 52
signed up. Next to report were the Lewis County Rangers with an enrollment of 54. Henry Miles was
Captain, L. L. Dubeau the lst Lieut. and S. B. Smith, 2nd Lieut. The Pierce County company was next to
report with an enrollment of about 50. Wm. H. Wood was elected Captain and John Madden and Robert
White, lst and 2nd Lieut. King County Rifles were next with about 60 men under the command of Captain
McAleer, R. Davis, lst Lieut. and 2nd Lieut. J. Webbins. In addition to the foregoing, some 38 American
citizens residing in Victoria indicated they were holding themselves in readiness in case their services
were required in the defense of the Union. All companies formed indicated an immediate requirement for
arms with which to arm their companies. A requisition was made on the Military authorities for a supply
and Governor McGill was advised by the General, commanding the Pacific that they would be issued
should an emergency arise. At this time the following was the disposition of the Territorial arms:
In the Blockhouse at Olympia:
2 – 12 lb Howitzers
82 – Rifle Muskets, with bayonets
195 – U. s. Muskets
5 – U. S. Rifles
1 – Colts Revolving Rifle
Issued to Counties:
Jefferson County 1- Howitzer and 20 muskets
Port Madison 58 – Muskets
Lewis County 20 – Pistols and 6 Cavalry sabres
Whatcom County 20 – Rifles
Pierce County 3 – Cavalry sabres
Members of the
Legislature 47 – Rifles
In May and June, 1861, several more companies of regular troops were withdrawn from
Washington Territory with every indication that all would be withdrawn and possibly be replaced by
Volunteers. The following is indicative of this action:
Fort Vancouver, Wash. Terr. June 11,1861
NO. 9
1. Fort Cascades will be abandoned forthwith, and the public property of every description turned
over to the proper departments at Fort Vancouver. Major Babbitt and Lieut. Mason will send their agents
– 16 –
to the Cascades by the steamer tomorrow to receive the quartermasters and commissary property from
Captain Wallen. Captain Wallen after turning over his public property will proceed with the greatest
dispatch and embark his company on the Steamer “Cortez”, now at Portland, and comply with previous
2. Company I, Ninth Infantry, under orders for Fort Walla Walla, will continue its march to Fort
Dalles, descending the Columbia River by water. Company E, Ninth Infantry, under orders for Fort Dalles
will” continue its march without delay to Fort Vancouver, where the commander will receive further
3. Captain Dent, Ninth Infantry, with his Company (B), under orders for Fort Cascades, will
continue his march to Fort Hoskins and relieve Captain Auger, Fourth Infantry, in command of that post.
Captain Auger will then proceed without delay with his company to Portland and embark on the first
steamer for San Francisco where he will report to the Department Commander.
4. Fort Yamhill will be abandoned. The Chiefs of the staff department at these headquarters will
take immediate measures to receive and secure the public property. Captain Russell with his company (K)
will move promptly to Portland and embark on the first steamer for San Francisco where he will report to
the Department Commander.
5. Camp Pickett, on San Juan Island and Fort Townsend will be abandoned. The public property
will he sent to Fort Steilacoom. Captain Pickett, with Company D, Ninth Infantry, and Captain Hunt, with
Company C, Fourth Infantry will embark on the first steamer to San Francisco. Major Ketchum, 4th
Infantry will proceed with his command and on his arrival at San Francisco report to the Department
6. Camp Chehalis will be abandoned. The public property that cannot be removed, together with
the buildings, will be placed in charge of a responsible agent. The Company at Camp Chehalis (A, 4th
Inf) will then move promptly to the mouth of the Columbia River and embark on the first steamer for San
Francisco, where the commander will report to the Department Commander.
7. The assistant quartermaster at Fort Steilacoom will employ the Massachusetts in removing the
public property from the posts abandoned on the Sound, and place the buildings in charge of responsible
8. The officers of the medical department at Forts Yamhill, Cascades, Townsend, Pickett and
Chehalis, will accompany their respective commands.
9. The officers of the quartermaster’s department will furnish the necessary transportation to insure
a prompt execution of the movements herein ordered.
1st Lt., 3rd Arty, Actg Asst. Adj. Gen.
By Special Orders No. 13, dated June 21, 1861, the orders abandoning Camp Pickett were
rescinded by Colonel Wright in view of the threatening attitude of the Indians on the waters of Puget
Sound. In the same order Captain Pickett was ordered to use the Steamer Massachusetts in case of
On June 24, Acting Governor McGill learning of the withdrawal of forces from the territory,
protested strongly to General Sumner and received the following answer:
San Francisco, July 5, 1861
The General Commanding the Department acknowledges the receipt of your communication of
June 24th in reference to the withdrawal of troops from Washington Territory and desires me to say in
reply that he does not contemplate the withdrawal of any portion of the force remaining within the limits
of Washington Territory, and believes that under the judicious management of the Commander of that
– 17 –
Military District, this force will be sufficient to give the necessary protection to your Citizens; should it,
however, be inadequate for this purpose, Colonel Wright has authority to accept the services of such
Volunteer force as may secure complete protection of life and property.
The General desires me to say that the order withdrawing the Company of Infantry from San Juan
Island has been rescinded, and that arrangement of the General- in-Chief for the occupancy of the Island
will continue.
Very respectfully, etc,
Richard C. Drum
Asst. Adj. General
Return of troops stationed in the Department of the Pacific at this time indicated a total of 3,361,
with 79 heavy pieces of artillery and 33 of field artillery. As of 30 June the following troops were
stationed in Oregon District: Co. D, 3rd Arty and Co. G, 9th Infantry at Fort Vancouver; Companies A, C
and K, 9th Infantry at Colville; Co. D, 9th Infantry at Camp Pickett; Companies F and H, 9th Infantry at
Fort Steilacoom; Companies C, E and I, 1st Dragoons at Fort Walla Walla; Co. H, 1st Dragoons at Fort
Dalles; Det. Co. K; 1st Dragoons at Fort Yamhill; Co. G, 4th Infantry and Co. B, 9th Infantry at Fort
Hoskins; and a Detachment of Co. L, 3rd Arty at Fort Umpqua.
Special Orders No. 18, District of Oregon, dated 11 July 1861 directed Capt. T. C. English with
Company H from Steilacoom to proceed without delay to San Juan Island and relieve the garrison at that
station. In the same order Captain Pickett was directed upon arrival of Captain English to move with his
Company to Fort Steilacoom and turn over his command to Captain Woodruff, following which he would
be permitted to avail himself of leave of absence pending action on his resignation. Special Orders No. 20
of 15 July 1861 directs Lieut. Philip H. Sheridan to relieve Captain Archer from command of Company I,
9th Infantry and to assume command of Fort Hoskins until the arrival of an officer from the 9th Infantry.
On 20 July 1861, Acting Governor McGill in a letter to Colonel Wright forwarded a report of
Indian Agent W. W. Miller pointing out the attitude of the Indians following the abandonment of Camp
Chehalis. He requested the return of a detachment of about 15 men to that post to allay the fears of the
white settlers in that area. In a letter to the Department Commander on the 9th of August, Colonel Wright
advised that he had returned Lieut. Emory with a detachment to Camp Chehalis. He also pointed out the
difficulties being experienced at Fort Colville since the withdrawal of troops and asked that a company of
the Ninth Infantry be returned for duty at that station. He also advised that “Captain” Sheridan would be
relieved from duty in the District as soon as his replacement arrived. In another letter to the Department
Commander on 22 August, Colonel Wright reported troubles with the Indians in the vicinity of the
Cascades and stated he had dispatched Captain Black with 34 men from Vancouver to end the trouble. He
also asked for authority to call out Volunteer Militia from Oregon and Washington in the event his regular
forces proved insufficient. The Department commander granted him this authority in a subsequent letter
Special Orders No. 155, Department of the Pacific, 31 August 1861 directed Colonel Benjamin L.
Beall, 1st Dragoons to relieve Colonel George Wright as Commander of the Oregon District and directing
Col. Wright to report to the General, Commanding the Pacific.
In a letter dated 12 September, Colonel Wright informed the Department Commander of Indian
troubles in the Dalles area and advised that he had called upon the Governor of Oregon for a Company of
Cavalry and might have to call upon the Governor of Washington Territory for a Company of Volunteers.
He also advised that he had called upon the Governor of Oregon to raise a regiment of Volunteer cavalry
to be inducted into Federal service. In the meantime, Colonel Wright had been assigned to command all
troops in the Southern California area.
In a letter dated l5 Sept. 1861, The War Department; advised General Sumner that all regular army
troops would be ordered immediately to New York, except 4 companies of artillery, one at Fort
Vancouver and three at San Francisco. He was also directed to order Colonel Wright to relieve him from
command of the Department, and to replace Colonel Wright with Brigadier General J. W. Denver.
General Sumner to report to Washington when relieved by Colonel Wright.
– 18 –
In a letter dated 24 Sept. 1861, the Adjutant General of the Army advised that Thomas R.
Cornelius, B. F. Harding and R. F. Maury had been appointed Colonel, Lieut. Col. and Major
respectively, of the Oregon Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Troops.
Special Orders No. 160, War Department, 30 Sep. 1861 assigned Brigadier General J. K. F.
Mansfield to command the Department of the Pacific. This order was revoked on 2 October and General
Mansfield was assigned to Fort Monroe, Virginia. In the meantime Colonel Wright continued to
command the Department and was later promoted to Brigadier General.
General Orders No. 25, Department of the Pacific, 9 October 1861 announced the movement of
troops of the 2nd and 4th California Infantry regiments to Fort Vancouver 5 companies from each
regiment. In a letter to Lieut. Col. Albemarle Cady, Commander of the Oregon District, dated 22 October
1861, General Wright advised that a steamer had departed from San Francisco with 5 Companies of the
4th Regiment of California Infantry and disposition thereof be made as follows: 1 Company to Fort
Vancouver; 1 to Fort Steilacoom, l to the Dalles, and 1 each to Forts Hoskins and Yamhill. In another
letter dated 23 October, Col. Cady was advised that 5 companies of the 2nd California Regiment had
departed San Francisco of which two were to be sent to Fort Colville.
Typical reaction of the patriotic citizens of Washington Territory of stationing of California troops
in the northwest appears to be summed up very well in the following letter to Governor McGill:
Whatcom, W. T., Oct. 20,1861
We learn with regret that the Federal Government have determined to garrison the military posts
of this Territory (made vacant by the withdrawal of the. regular troops) by a Volunteer force from
California. It strikes me very forcibly that a sufficient volunteer force, who are loyal to the government,
can be found on short notice in this Territory for that purpose, and a great saving to the Government in
transportation be thereby effected. It looks very much like a slight to the people of this Territory and that
their loyalty is questioned. I think that the matter may yet be corrected if the Government will call the
attention of the proper department to it. If petitions would be of any avail, I presume all the names in the
Territory can be obtained. If any benefit is to accrue let our own Citizens receive the benefit. We have no
objection to Californians particularly but we think the preference should be given to our own Citizens, for
they will be only too glad to embrace the opportunity to testify their loyalty and devotion to their
country’s cause. My views on this subject do not differ with any whom I have heard speak on the subject.
The good people of this Bay are loyal almost to the man and are anxious for a vigorous prosecution of the,
War which the South has forced upon us, until the property of the Government and the old flag is restored
to what they were before the rebellion manipulated – then, and not until then, can peace be talked of and
honorable compromise affected.
Please call the attention of the Government to the subject matter herein and maybe he will take
some action in the premise.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
– 19 –
October 12, 1861
Colonel Justus Steinberger
Washington, D. C.
Sir: At the request of Colonel William H. Wallace, late Governor of Washington Territory (then
WashingtonTerritorial Delegate to The Congress), you are hereby authorized to raise and organize a
regiment of infantry in that territory and the country adjacent thereto, for the service of the United States,
to serve for three years, or during the war. The Governor or Acting Governor of the Territory will please
aid in perfecting this organization in such a manner as may best promote the interests of the Government;
the list of officers, except the Colonel, to be certified and sent to this Department by the Colonel,
commanding, with the approval of the Governor or the Acting Governor. The organization of this
regiment is to be in accordance with the general orders from the Adjutant General’s Department. In case
the regular troops shall have left Fort Vancouver, or the District of Oregon, the colonel herein authorized
will be mustered in to service, by any Army officer in San Francisco, California. For this purpose,
Colonel Steinberger will immediately upon arrival in the city report to the senior officer in San Francisco
for information as to the presence or absence of troops in the District of Oregon. In case clothing, arms,
equipage, etc., cannot be obtained from Government stores in the District of Oregon, Colonel Steinberger
is authorized to make requisition for them on the commanding officer of the Department of the Pacific.
Acting Secretary of War.
NOTE: Records indicate that Justus Steinberger was mustered into the service in Washington, D.C. on
October 18, 1861, by order of the Secretary of War.
During October 1861 Special Orders of the Oregon District directed Major Curtis to proceed with
Companies C and D, 2nd California Infantry to Fort Colville and relieve Major Pinkney Lugenbeel, who
will return with his companies of 9th Infantry to Vancouver; Assigned Co. E, 2nd Calif. Regt. to Fort
Vancouver and then reassigned it to Fort Steilacoom to relieve Capt. Woodruff, who, upon relief was to
return to San Francisco with Companies D and F, 9th Infantry; Assigned Companies A and C, 4th
California Infantry to Fort Walla Walla, to relieve Captain McGruder, who upon relief, was to return to
Fort Vancouver with his cavalry troops; Directed the movement of Co. D, 3rd Artillery to Camp Pickett,
San Juan Island to relieve Captain English and Company H, 9th Infantry and return to San Francisco by
Steamer, with his company H.
San Francisco, Cal., December l0, 1861
Brig. Gen. Lorenzo Thomas,
Adjutant General, U. S. Army, Washington, D.C.
General: Colonel Justus Steinberger, who was mustered into the service at Washington City for the
purpose of raising a regiment of Infantry in the Territory of Washington and adjacent country, has
reported to me. I have ordered the colonel to take post at Vancouver, and take prompt measures to
commence the organization of his regiment. I anticipate considerable difficulty in raising a regiment of
Infantry in that country. The sparse population and the intense excitement caused by the recent discovery
of very rich gold mines may render it impossible to obtain such a large number of men. However, every
possible effort will be made by the colonel, and I have directed Col. Cady, the present commander of the
District of Oregon, to afford him every facility in his power to carry out the wishes of the Department.
– 20 –
Col. Cady, 7th Infantry, is retained to command the District of Oregon. His services are important there,
not only in preserving peace with the Indians, but in aiding Colonel Steinberger in organizing the
regiment. So soon as Colonel Steinberger shall have somewhat progressed in the organization of his
regiment and made himself acquainted with the wants and resources of the country, I design to place him
in command of the District. I am not advised as to what success Colonel Cornelius is meeting with in
raising a cavalry regiment in Oregon, and as he was instructed to report directly to the War Department,
should it be found impracticable to raise a full regiment of cavalry in that country to furnish their own
horses, I would suggest that the colonel’s orders be modified, that a battalion (two squadrons) be enrolled
and that the government furnish the horses and equipments. I have now at Fort Vancouver 220 horses and
equipments left by the First Cavalry. I have kept two companies of the 9th Infantry in the District of
Oregon. One of the companies is posted at Fort Vancouver and the other will relieve Co. D, 3rd Arty on
San Juan Island. I have also now in that district ten companies of infantry. With four good cavalry
companies the force will be ample for the present. We are much in want of officers. I beg of you to order
out those belonging to the 3rd Artillery and the Ninth Infantry on this Coast.
Very respectfully, etc,
Brigadier General, Commanding
In a letter in January of l862, the Commanding Officer at Fort Walla Walla advised General
Wright that due to a severe drought in the summer of 1861 and the present severe winter conditions in the
Territory, that commissary supplies were not available. He stated that what few are available are bringing
fantastic prices, ie, Flour $20 per barrel; Oats 7⊄ a pound and scarce; no hay or barley; Bacon 30 ⊄ a
pound and little to be had; lard high and scarce; Beef 15 ⊄ a pound and none in the country fit to eat; no
beans and few potatoes which were selling at $1 a bushel; Wood $30 a cord. Coffee in small quantity at
37⊄ a pound. Expects almost all cattle to die by spring. Some farmers who had 400-500 at beginning of
winter now have only 50-60 and those are not expected to survive.
Colonel Steinberger’s initial efforts to enroll a regiment of Infantry in Washington Territory during
the winter of 1861-62 met with little success. The following which appeared in the newspapers were
apparently written in an attempt to influence the recruitment of the Regiment:
Adjutant General’s Office
Olympia, W.T., Jan. 15,1862
While our arms are being crowned with great success in the rebellious States, the late dispatches
portend a War with England and France.
The Storm is gathering: Let us then look well to it that it does not burst upon our heads while we
are unprepared!! Let us not remain quietly at our firesides and permit the ruthless savage to be turned
upon us. Well do we know it has ever been the policy of those nations to arouse the merciless savage,
whose inhumanity is too well known to require comment.
Let us then thoroughly organize the Militia, receive arms and equipments and be ready, at a
moment’s warning, to defend our homes like men.
He who prates of love of country and will not place himself in readiness, in time of danger, is
unworthy of that proud name we all bear, AMERICAN CITIZENS.
The following named gentlemen will act as enrolling officers to receive the names of those who
are willing to aid in our defense, should occasion require.
– 21 –
They will please forward the roll of the companies, with the names of the officers chosen, to
General Frank Matthias at Seattle, W. T., or to myself at Olympia.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Thurston County – G. Hays Sawamish – F. C. Purdy & D.
Pierce County – W. H. Wood & Capt. Settle Shelton
King County – D. B. Ward & H.A. Atkins Lewis – Captain Henry Miles
Island County – S. D. Howe & Rev. G. F. Whitworth Cowlitz – Dick Herrington &
Jefferson County – Victor Smith & H. P. O’Bryant Alex S. Abernathy
San Juan – E. D. Warbass Clarke – U. East Hicks & W. J.
Snohomish – Captain Fowler Langford
Skamania – J. L. Ferguson Walla Walla – Ray R. Reese &
A. B. Roberts
We publish today a Spirited call on the people of our Territory, to lose no time in perfecting the
Organization of our Militia, so that we may be prepared to meet any Emergency that may hereafter arise.
The necessity for this is too apparent to require argument from us. It is but too apparent now that we are at
the mercy of the few half starved savages that are in our vicinity should they take it into their heads to
make war upon us, a thing by no means impossible.
We all know that numbers are nothing without organization, and we would suggest to those who
may be disposed to stand back, and even made ridicule of all efforts that are made to render available
every able bodied man in the Territory that the time may be nearer at hand than they suppose, when they
will be called upon to fight, or tamely submit to the arrogant demands of our enemies.
It is a trite but true saying, that what is everybody’s business is nobody’s in particular; and hence
the great difficulty in getting the people to move in a matter of this sort. Almost every man waits for his
neighbors to move first, and consequently nothing is done, until the evils that might have been warded off
by a timely vigilance are upon us.
We hear men wondering what it is that the present Rebellion was not put down long ago,
considering the the natural power and resources of the North, are as ten to one of the South.
To our minds the reason why we have made so little head against it is that the one tenth was made
available by a thorough organization, effected before the Standard of the Rebellion was raised; while the
entire North indulged a false security, and adopted no measures for defense even; (just as we are doing in
Washington) until aroused from their criminal lethargy by the booming of cannons within the hearing of
their Capitol.
Wise and sagacious statesmen scouted the suggestions or more vigilant, if not more sagacious
men, that the South were preparing to make war upon the Union; just as the wise men, among us now,
scout the suggestion; that there is danger of our wives and children being scalped by the Indians, or of
Lympiats becoming a helpless dependency of Victoria, unless we bestir ourselves, and prepare for war.
No harm can possibly result from doing what is proposed by our Patriotic friend, Assistant Adjutant
General J. W. Johnson.
We are not disposed to enquire whose special duty it was to first move in the matter. It is enough
for us to know, that it is now a pressing necessity bearing upon us, to organize, and render available the
military strength of the Territory, and we are glad that General Johnson has seen proper to urge the
subject upon the people in the way and manner he has. He has done his duty as a Patriotic American
Citizen, proud of his birthright, and is willing to risk his life in defense of his country’s honor. Those who
sympathize with him in these sentiments and feeling will not hesitate to aid him in carrying into
successful operation the Organization proposed.
– 22 –
So far as we are concerned, we not only pledge our support and encouragement to every measure
looking to an efficient organization of the Militia of the Territory; but we will also most cheerfully enroll
our name in a Company of home guards, and be in readiness to match at a moment’s warning to any part
of this Coast to repel invasion or put down resistance to our laws.
San Francisco, Calif. Feb. 6, 1862
Major R. C. Drum, Asst. Adj. Gen, US Army
Hq. Dept of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif.
Since my last written communication, dated Port Townsend, January 1, I have the honor to report
that upon a full and careful canvas of Washington Territory west of the Cascades, with a view to raising
and organizing the First Regiment of Washington Territory Infantry, I gave authority for the enrollment of
three companies within the territory. From circumstances mentioned in my former reports as presenting
obstacles to recruiting in that district of the country, I am convinced that during the following four months
to fill these companies will exhaust the extreme capacity of the Territory. The peculiar severity of this
winter season has rendered impossible to visit other portions of the district of Oregon. Its necessity is
obviated, too, by my very free conference at Olympia with members of the Territorial Legislature, who
were well informed upon the conditions of all parts of the country, as well as information that I have
received from intelligent sources in the State of Oregon. I believe that the only proper and practicable
measures that can be taken for the present in the District of Oregon toward recruiting for my regiment are
in progress there, and I am impressed with the propriety of at once commencing the organization of
companies in this city and State.
Since my arrival here on the 28th ultimo I am assured of the favorable prospect of procuring four
companies in this city, with the reasonable expectation of at least two more from the interior of the State. I
have already selected some company officers and given authority to recruit for my regiment in this city,
and in view of the practical commencement of its organization I have the honor respectfully to prefer to
the commanding general the request that for the personal superintendence of this organization I may be
permitted temporarily to make my headquarters in this city instead of Fort Vancouver, to which latter
place I am now under orders from departmental headquarters; that as essential and positive requirement
for the performance of the duties incident to the raising of recruits, and the speedy and successful
organization of my regiment, authority may be given me to have at once mustered into service my
Lieutenant Colonel and Major. I have made these appointments of my field officers by virtue of the
authority given me by the honorable Secretary of War, heretofore submitted, and while I deem their
presence and assistance at regimental headquarters not only of much value but of imperative necessity in
the commencement of the organization, I am convinced that to have them placed on duty, with the full
credit of their official position, is in strict consonance with the intent of the authorization for this
regiment. I have also respectfully to submit for the consideration of the commanding general that the
establishment of a depot for recruits for my regiment, convenient to the city, will serve a valuable
purpose, giving much assistance, to separate officers recruiting, and security to the enrollment and
mustering of men.
Very respectfully, etc.
– 23 –
San Francisco, Feb. 7, 1862
Col. J. Steinberger,
First Regt. Wash. Terr. Vols. San Francisco, Calif.
Your letter of the 6th instant with reference to the organization of the First Regiment of
Washington Territory Volunteers having been submitted to the general commanding the department, I am
directed to say in reply that should you deem it necessary for the speedy organization of the regiment, you
will muster such officers of the field and staff as is essential for the purpose. One of the field officers must
be posted at Fort Vancouver, to superintend the enrollment, of such companies as may be raised in the
District of Oregon. As the companies reach the requisite number the first lieutenant thereof can be
mustered in and the men with this officer, will be sent to Alcatraz Island, which will be the depot for the
companies raised in this State. The general directs that the headquarters of your regiment shall be
temporarily established in this city.
Very respectfully, etc,
In a letter dated 15 February 1862, the Commanding Officer of the Military District of Oregon
advised the General, commanding the Pacific Department, that due to ice blockades, the dispatch of
Company C, 9th Infantry had been delayed. However, it had departed on the 14th instant, from Fort
San Francisco, Cal., March 1, 1862
Major R. C. Drum, Asst Adj. Gen.
Hq. Dept. of the Pacific, San Fran Calif.
I have the honor to report that in accordance with directions of the commanding general, under the
date of 8th February, the headquarters of my regiment were established .in this city, and on that date
company officer were selected for four companies and authority given to recruit in this city. Since that
time I have authorized a detachment of forty men to be recruited, also have an applicant for a first
lieutenancy, and have given authority for one company to be raised in the counties of Alameda, Santa
Clara and Santa Cruz in this State. From the companies authorized to be raised, one on Puget Sound,
Washington Territory, by R. V. Peabody, and two east of the Cascades by I. W. Cannady and F. Moore, I
have received no intelligence since my last communication with your headquarters. The depot for recruits
directed by the commanding general at. Fort Alcatras has been established, and subordinate to the
commanding officer at that post, is in charge of First Lt. W. F. Mason, mustered into service as permitted
by the general commanding. Also, mustered, was Major G. H. Rumrill for duty at these headquarters.
Lieut. Col. James Tilton (Adj-Gen during Indian War), appointed since my last communication I have
requested to repair to this city to be mustered into service and assist in the organization of the regiment.
(This appointment was subsequently declined by Tilton due to poor health) The regimental staff officers
have not been appointed, although I am in treaty with applicants for all positions. Their services are much
needed, even now, in the commencement of the formation of the regiment, and the appointments are only
deferred to insure the acquirement of proper persons for these important places. The plan adopted for the
organization of the companies authorized in this State is to receive the recruits as they are presented by
the different captains, have them examined by the medical officer, mustered into service and at once sent
to the depot. They are there formed into skeleton companies, each set of company officers credited with
their own enlisted men, and awaiting the completion of the company organization. It is an express
stipulation in all the authorizations given in this State, that the minimum standard of eighty men be
reached by the lst of April next.
– 24 –
The men of company organizations not completed by that time become forfeited to the Government, and
may be assigned as the interests of the regiment demand. Application is made by numerous persons in
different parts of the State for authority to raise men for this regiment, and unless the next mail steamer
from the north brings intelligence that would show prospects of procuring men in the District of Oregon
beyond the requirements of the three companies now forming there, it is my intention to provide here for
the remaining two and a half companies.
I am, sir, very respectfully, etc.
In a letter dated 26 March 1862, General Wright advised Adjutant General Thomas in Washington
D. C. that Colonel Cornelius had been directed to prepare his regiment of six companies of Oregon
Cavalry for movement to the Walla Walla country and thence to the mining districts. General Wright on
the same date advised Lt. Col. Cady, commanding the District of Oregon that Colonel Steinberger had
about 250 men at Alcatraz from which he would organize four companies, proceed to Fort Vancouver in a
few weeks, and upon arrival would be placed in command of the Oregon District.
San Francisco, Cal., March 31,1862
(via Fort Vancouver, Wash)
First Lieut. John Mullan, 2nd Arty,
Comdg Walla Walla – Fort Benton Expedition
Sir: In answer to your letter addressed to the general commanding the department, I am instructed to
inform you that, the general has written to the War Department relative to a continuance of the expedition
under your command. Until advised as to the designs of the Government, the general desires you to retain
the escort and await at Cantonment Wright further instructions from these headquarters. As the Ninth
Regiment of Infantry remains on this coast, the escort, will, should this work be discontinued, repair to
Fort Vancouver, where instructions will be received as to the distribution of the troops.
In a letter to Colonel Steinberger on 5 April 1862, General Wright directed the discontinuance of
recruiting for the regiment, the consolidation of all men already enlisted into companies preparatory to
embarking for Fort Vancouver. This was in consonance with instructions from the War Department.
However, on 12 April General Wright received authority from the War Department to complete the
Special Orders 65, Dept. of the Pacific, dated 18 April 1862, directed Col. Steinberger to move
with four companies to Fort Vancouver. Colonel Steinberger accordingly sailed from San Francisco on
the 30th of April. The movement arrived at Fort Vancouver on 5 May 1862 and Colonel Steinberger
assumed command of the District of Oregon. As per previous instructions from General Wright, upon his
arrival issued instructions for the return of four companies of the 2nd Calif. Regiment.
Military Road Expedition
Camp on Hell’s Gate River
Colonel Cady, 7th US Infantry Rocky Mountains, Wash. Terr, May l, 1862
Commanding District of Oregon
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the order directing the escort of my expedition to
proceed to the Pacific as soon as the snows of the mountains would permit and in reply would state that
our last account from the mountains was that the snow was nine and one half feet deep on the summit, and
twelve feet on a prairie to its east, with no forage for the animals.
– 25 –
The snow is fast disappearing, and will probably enable the command to cross sometime in June, when it
will proceed to carryout the order as therein directed.
I am sir, respectfully, etc.
On 10 May 1862, Colonel Steinberger directed Colonel Thomas R. Cornelius to complete the
organization of his Oregon Cavalry regiment preparatory to move to Fort Walla Walla. In a letter
subsequent thereto he advised the general commanding the Department that the regiment had been
mustered into service and that four of the companies were now marching from southern Oregon; that one
company would be left at Jacksonville as previously directed. He also advised General Wright that due to
shortage of clothing in the District the regiment could not be equipped and moved until sometime in July
and that due to the heavy snows in the Cascades caused by the severe winter movement over the passes
would not be possible until about that time. General Wright replied that the regiment should be equipped
as soon as possible and be moved by water to the Dalles and thence by foot to Fort Walla Walla. In
another letter Colonel Steinberger advised General Wright that the Oregon Cavalry regiment would move
via water to the Dalles on 20 May 1862 and that upon arrival at Fort Walla Walla, Colonel Cornelius
would assumed command of that post. Correspondence between Colonel Steinberger and Colonel
Cornelius indicated that the movement by water cost $9,920. Special orders No. 105, Fort Walla Walla,
dated 5 June 1862 announced the assumption of command thereat by Colonel Cornelius. In a letter dated
6 June 1862, Colonel Steinberger reported on the status of training being given the four companies of 1st
Wash Terr. Inf preparatory to relieving the Companies from California. He praised Major Lugenbeel,
commanding at Fort Vancouver for perfecting their training. He further stated that he proposed to send
two Washington companies, under the command of Major Rumrill to relieve Major Curtis, commanding
the California companies at Fort Colville; that Co. D, 1st Wash Regt would relieve Co. B, 2nd Calif Regt
at Fort Hoskins; and recommended that Fort Umpqua be abandoned and the California Company
stationed thereat moved to Fort Vancouver preparatory to returning to California.
Special Orders No. 17, Oregon Military District, dated 10 June 1862 directed Lieut. Col. R. F.
Maury in command of the balance of the 1st Oregon Cavalry to establish a temporary camp at the mouth
of the Clackamas River and prepare for movement to Fort Walla Walla.
In a letter dated 11 June 1862, Colonel Steinberger advised General Wright of the difficulties
encountered due to the fact that the records of the Department had been transferred to San Francisco when
the Departments were merged. He pointed out the need for information regarding expeditions, etc, to
assist in the proper evaluation of the problems which he was faced with. On 19 June, Col. Steinberger in a
letter to General Wright advised of the action taken by the lst Oregon Cavalry in quelling a disturbance on
the Umatilla Indian Reservation and of the difficulties being encountered in the movement of troops due
to the severe winter conditions and the high water which resulted therefrom. Special Orders No. 108,
Dept. of the Pacific assigned Brigadier General Benjamin Levered to Command the District of Oregon
effective 23 June 1862.
– 26 –
On 23 June 1862 Colonel, Steinberger advised the Dept of the Pacific that Major Rumrill would
leave with Companies B and C of the lst Wash Terr Inf to Fort Colville on 25 June and that he had
published orders directing the movement of Lieut. Col. Maury and a Battalion of the lst. Oregon Cavalry
to the Dalles by water thence to Fort Walla Walla. Movement to commence on 24 June and one company
moved each day thereafter. Also directed Col. Cornelius to move with his Cavalry from Fort Walla and
post one Company near the Nez Perce Reservation and two on the emigrant road towards Fort Hall. This
action was to protect the movement of settlers coming to Washington and Oregon. Special Orders 25;
dated 27 June directed the movement of Co. D, lst Wash Terr Inf to Fort Hoskins to relieve Captain J. C.
Schmidt’s Co. of California Infantry.
As of 30 June 1862 the following was the disposition of Troops in the Oregon District: Ft.
Vancouver – Co. A, 9th Inf, Cos A and D, lst Wash Terr Inf, Co. C, lst Oregon Cav and a Det. of
Ordnance; Camp Pickett – Co. C, 9th US Inf; Fort Colville – Co. C and D, 2nd Calif. Inf; Ft Steilacoom –
Co. E, 4th Calif Inf; Ft.Walla Walla – Cos A and C, 4th Calif Inf and Cos B and E, lst Ore Cav; Ft Dalles –
Co. D, 4th Calif Inf; and Ft Hoskins – Co. B, 2nd Calif Inf.
Special Orders No. 33, 7 July 1862 directs Col. Steinberger to proceed to Fort Walla Walla and
assume Command of that Post. Special orders 35, Dist. of Ore, 8 July 1862 directs Lieut. Col. Maury with
three companies of lst Ore Cav to move on the immigrant trail as far as Salmon Falls for the protection of
the expected emigration. Major Rinearson also direct to move with one company to the Lapwai near
Lewiston, Both commands to remain in the field until November.
Ft. Vancouver, W.T., July 10, 1862
Major R. C. Drum,
Asst Adj Gen, Hq. Dept. of the Pacific
Sir: Captain S. S. Marsh, 2nd Inf, commanding escort for the military road to Fort Benton reports that he
will reach Walla Walla on the 15th instant. Lieut. Hughes states that the day he left the post (1 July) he
saw the expressmen just in from Bitter Root Valley, who said that Lieut. Mullan left Hell Gate on the
23rd of May for Fort Benton, with the intention of returning from that point working this way in the
completion of the road. There appears to have been no Indian troubles in Bitter Root Valley.
Much delay must occur at Fort Walla Walla in paying off his employees, and in resting and
recruiting his command. If Captain Marsh, under your instructions of the 4th of June, attempts to return to
Lieut. Mullan, he cannot reach the Bitter Root Valley until the middle of September, when he must soon
return to escape the snows of November.
Under the circumstances, I respectfully recommend that your instructions of the 4th of June be
countermanded, and that said command be ordered to join their respective companies.
I shall probably assume the responsibility, very reluctantly of detaining the command to await
your reply, especially as the additional transportation he brings will be very valuable at the present
moment at Fort Walla Walla.
Your dispatches, from Lieut. Mullan no doubt give you all the facts. No letters from him for these
headquarters arrived by this express.
I am, very respectfully, etc.
In a letter to Col. Steinberger, Gen. Alvord advised that two companies of the lst Wash Inf and 4
companies of Oregon Cav would winter at Fort Walla Walla and that action should therefore be taken by
QM’s to arrange for fuel, forage and subsistence for that number.
– 27 –
San Francisco, Cal., July 19,1862
Brig. Gen. L. Thomas,
Adjutant General, US Army, Washington, D.C.
General: In October last, when the orders for the withdrawal of the regular troops from this Department
reached this headquarters, General Sumner sent orders for the detachment of the 9th Infantry, on escort
duty with Lieut. John Mullan, 2nd Arty, to break up and join their companies without delay. The rider
found Lieut. Mullan, with his wagon road expedition, in the Bitter Root Valley, and the mountains
covered with deep snow, and impassable. Under these circumstances the escort was compelled to remain
beyond the mountains during the winter. Not knowing precisely the wishes of the Government, I wrote to
Lieut. Mullan to retain the escort until he received further orders. It now appears that my letter to the
Lieut. failed to reach him, and being bound by the first orders of General Sumner, Lieut. Mullan directed
the escort to fall back to Walla Walla preparatory to joining their companies. On the 4th of June, I
received your telegraphic dispatch of the 2nd saying “The escort of Lieut. Mullan cannot be withdrawn
now”; orders were immediately sent accordingly, but owing to the great distance and difficulty of
communicating, only met the escort as it was approaching Fort Walla Walla. By the last steamer from
Oregon I received a communication from Brigadier General Alvord in the matter, and further directed
him, if he deems it necessary, to send a company of Cavalry along the Fort Benton Road to communicate
with Lieut. Mullan and afford him the necessary protection. Under these circumstances, I hope the
Department will approve of my action on this subject.
Very respectfully, etc,
Olympia, July 19,1862
General Alvord, Vancouver, W.T.
Dear Sir: Enclosed I forward for your careful examination a copy of the Olympia Standard quoting the
discussion had in the United States Senate on the subject of the Secret-Oath-Bound band of rebels styling
themselves “Knights” – “Knights of the Golden Circle”. (Those Barons, Lords, Earls, Dukes and Princes
of rank Treason)
And after you have deliberately examined this, and all other accounts you may have heard of the
“Golden Circle” band of “Traitors”, together with the universally believed report that every member of
that society is firmly bound by a solemn oath, administered to each and every one of them at the time of
their initiation and reception as a member of that fraternity, said oath (said to be) a binding obligation of
secrecy and fidelity to each and every member, and to the whole body of these men who are sworn to
oppose the Government of the United States, and also said to be sworn to support its pretended rights of
the Southern States for which the Rebellion was pretended to be inaugurated – Then Sir, I ask as a
personal favour, you will forward me your candid opinion, whether any man ought to receive a
Commission as an Officer of High Trust, honor and enrollment in the United States Army, who is
strongly suspected of being a fixed and an intelligent member of the Society and order of the “Knights of
the Golden Circle”. And whether, if it would be right or safe to Commission any man, who is believed to
be a “Knight of the Golden Circle”. An whether would it be right and safe to give Commissions to every
officer of the regiment? of a Brigade? of a Division? or the whole United States Army?, all of whom had
and enjoyed a public reputation of being “Knights of the Golden Circle”.
And if it would not be exactly right, safe and proper to appoint and commission every Major
General, every Brigadier General, every Regimental and every Company officer who were each and all of
them, generally supposed to be, and enjoyed the public reputation of being members of that Society? Then
would it be any more or any less right to appoint and to commission anyone man, as an officer in the
United States Army, who is publicly reputed to be, and is generally thought, supposed and believed to be,
a member of that order and Society of the “Knights of the Golden Circle”.
– 28 –
I shall be glad to hear from you, in a separate letter on this question, unconnected with any other
subject, for my own satisfaction and guidance and expressly to aid me in forming a correct view and
correct judgment for those questions herein set forth.
Respectfully, yours, etc,
Special Orders No. 46, Hq. Ore Mil Dist directed the movement of Companies B, C and D, 2nd
Calif Inf from Fort Vancouver to Fort Humboldt, California, with authority to proceed on to Alcatraz
Island in the event they were unable to land at Fort Humbold. This order was subsequently amended to
direct the movement straight to Alcatraz Island.
Olympia, Washington Territory.
My Dear Sir:
Your favor of the 19th instant was duly received.
I have no knowledge of the existence on this coast of the Knights of the Golden Circle. If there are
any then they keep very secretive. As they are and must necessarily a dead faction here, they will not be
likely to show their heads. The whole coast is so overwhelmingly loyal, the results of the election in
California and Oregon was so decided in that point, that those who ever entertained dreams of a Pacific
Republic or any other disconnection with our beloved Union, must utterly despair. Ever since November
1860, when this unfortunate scorpion commenced to show itself in the East, I have used but one language
in all my large intercourse with people on this coast and that was that I was for war to the knife and sword
to resist any attempt to convert us in this region by any such insane and ruinous plots.
Most assuredly, I concur with you in thinking that no person tinctured, with the faintest tinge of
disloyalty to our Government or our Union should receive any commission under the Government and
least of all any member of any association having such objects as are described as forming the basis of the
Knights of the Golden Circle.
Colonel Steinberger has just passed through here on his way with two companies to Fort Walla
Walla. I took the liberty to show him your letter. He says he is determined that, so far as he is concerned,
no person shall be commissioned in his regiment concerning whose loyalty there is a “slightest of a
doubt”. I need not say to you that such is my determination – All of Colonel Steinberger’s orders in
convening the Boards to examine either Oregon or Washington Territory Volunteers have been informed
hot to pass anyone concerning whom at that point there was a “shadow of a doubt”.
You mention no names in your letter. Therefore I am utterly ignorant of any imputation upon
anyone so far as you are concerned.
It is a matter of the utmost importance. I am gratified to see that our Government, by the oaths it
requires of all, contractors even, those obtaining, and patents, etc., is taking a course calculated to
establish for all future time the renunciation and uprooting of all such heresies as a divided allegiance or
States rights is the tenet to which the dogma was permitted by the apostles of South Carolina.
I am, very respectfully, etc,
– 29 –
August 15, 1862
Major R. C. Drum, Asst. Adj. Gen.,
Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif.
Major: I have the honor herewith to make the following report in regard to the recent disturbance at Port
Townsend for the information of the brigadier general commanding the Department of the Pacific. Mr.
Victor Smith, collector of customs, arrived at Port Townsend in the early part of the month, in the U. S.
revenue cutter “Shubrick”, for the purpose of taking possession of the custom house at that port. Lieut.
Merryman, of the cutter “Joe Lane”, the acting collector during the absence of Mr. Smith at Washington,
declined turning over the property, papers, etc, unless Mr. Smith showed him his authority for so
demanding, Lieut. Merryman believing that Mr. Smith had not been qualified according to law. Mr. Smith
did not furnish his authority: and soon afterward on returning to the Shubrick, and armed guard, came
from that vessel, demanding that the custom house should be given up or it would be entered by force.
Fifteen minutes were allowed by Lieut. Merryman to make his decision. It was stated at the time that the
guns of the cutter had been shotted, and of any resistance was made it was understood that the custom
house would be shelled by the guns of the Shubrick. Under these circumstances Lieut. Merryman, in order
to prevent bloodshed, turned over the papers, etc., under protest, to Lieut. Wilson, commander of the
cutter, who receipted for the same and, they were moved on board the Shubrick. To fire upon the custom
house, in the position in which the Shubrick lay, was equivalent to firing into the town, as the principal
street of the village was, directly in rear of the custom house. Much excitement was caused at Port
Townsend by the threatening attitude assumed by the cutter, the citizens declaring that they had taken no
part in the matter, and whatever was the difficulty occurring between the officers of the services, it was
difficult to see the propriety of punishing innocent persons therefor. An express was immediately sent to
the Governor of the Territory, reporting the circumstances and asking for redress, the citizens of Port
Townsend avowing their willingness if they had committed any wrong, to be punished for it, but an
unwillingness, if they, were not to blame, to submit to what they considered an outrage on their rights as
loyal American citizens.
Governor Pickering, soon after he was made aware of the serious condition of affairs at Port
Townsend, repaired to that place, accompanied by his private secretary (Mr. Evans), the U. S. Marshal
from Olympia and also Mr. McGill, U. S. Commissioner and late acting Governor of the Territory. On
arriving at Fort Steilacoom, on his way to Port Townsend, at the urgent solicitation of the Governor, the
commanding officer at Fort Steilacoom joined the Governor’s party and accompanied them to the port.
We left Steilacoom on the steamer Eliza Anderson on the morning of the 11th instant and arrived at Port
Townsend the same evening. Learning that Lieut. Merryman had left for Victoria, Governor Pickering,
together with his private secretary, in order to have a conference with Lieut. Merryman, proceeded on the
Eliza Anderson, leaving the remainder of the party at Port Townsend to await the arrival of the Shubrick,
which was expected hourly with the mails from Olympia. Meanwhile an investigation in regard to the
alleged outrage was had before the U. S. Commissioner, and on the affidavits of several citizens that the
guns of the Shubrick had been shotted and directed against the habitations of Port Townsend, with an
intent to kill, a warrant was issued by the commissioner for the arrest of the collector, Victor Smith
(known to be on board), and also the commander of the cutter, Lieut. Wilson. This warrant was placed in
the hand of the U. S. Marshall, who was on the arrival of the Shubrick, to board it, arrest the individuals
mentioned and bring them before the Commissioner, who was waiting their arrival on shore. Soon after
dark the signal lights of the Shubrink denoted the approach of the cutter. She, however, did not enter the
Port, but the U. S. Mail was sent ashore on one of her boats, the cutter awaiting its return at a distance of a
mile or more from the usual landing. Perceiving that it was not the intention to bring the cutter to the
wharf, the Marshal summoned a posse to accompany him in a boat for the purpose of boarding her.
Before the mails had been exchanged the Marshal returned to Port Townsend, reporting to the
Commissioner that he had boarded the cutter and served the writ on Lt. Wilson, its commander, who
peremptorily refused to obey the warrant, neither would he allow him to go below (in the ward room) to
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see Mr. Smith, who, it was well understood was there as was also the U. S. Consul for Victoria, Mr.
Francis. The Marshal was then directed by the Commissioner to board the Shubrick once more and
remain there until forcibly ejected.
For this purpose he again left Port Townsend in one of the boats belonging to the cutter Joe Lane,
which lay in the harbor, but soon returned reporting the impracticability of carrying his intention into
operation as the wheels of the Shubrick were kept in constant motion, thereby preventing the boat from
going along side. Soon afterward the Shubrick teamed down the Sound for Victoria, and two days later,
early in the morning, returned to the harbor of Port Townsend, taking in tow the cutter Joe Lane, which
was left at Cherburg, the new port of entry. After accomplishing this mission the Shubrick left
immediately, with the collector, Mr. Smith, on board, it is said, for San Francisco, thus leaving the Sound
at present without Naval protection, the Joe Lane, having on the return of the collector from Washington,
been put out of commission, all of her officers, with the exception Lt. Sheldon, placed on leave, and all or
most of her crew discharged. Little more can be added in the matter of narrative; except that Governor
Pickering returned to Port Townsend on Thursday evening the 14th instant, and, on learning that the
Shubrick had left the Sound, retraced his way with his party to Olympia oh the steamer Eliza Anderson, in
which boat I accompanied him as far as Steilacoom. During the absence of the Shubrick, the Eliza
Anderson has authority to carry the mails on the Sound. It would be proper to remark, that during the time
of the attempted arrest of Mr. Smith and Lieut. Wilson the number of individuals gathered at the wharf at
Port Townsend was not greater than would be expected on the arrival of a U S Mail steamer at a small and
quiet town. No demonstration whatever was made by the people, indeed, of the group gathered on the pier
there were but few individuals cognizant of the matter of the attempted arrest, and they scrupulously
avoided communicating the information to others whim it did not concern. It is regretted that the
gentlemen against whom the warrants were directed did not suffer themselves to acquiesce in a temporary
arrest, both for their own sakes and on account of the feeling subsequently produced by the belief that the
parties implicated had placed themselves in an attitude defiant to the officers entrusted with the execution
of laws. Had the accused party come ashore with the U. S. Marshal it was a sufficient ground of belief
that no indignity would have been offered them, if for no other reason, the knowledge of the presence and
character (undoubtedly) possessed by the gentlemen on board the Shubrick, of the several U. S. officers
who at that time were at the port, among them being the commissioner Mr. McGill, late acting Governor
of Washington, Major Patten, U. S. Army, commanding Fort Steilacoom; Captain Chaddock and Lieut.
White, late of the cutter Joe Lane and also Lieut. Seldon of the Joe Lane, which was anchored at the time
a short distance from the wharf. This is to be still more regretted as the parties implicated are considered
as fugitives from justice, and it is to be apprehended, should they return in the Shubrick, that an attempt
Will be made to arrest them by an armed posse, for which purpose, it is broadly intimated that a
requisition will be made on the officer commanding at Fort Steilacoom for troops to enforce the
requirements of the law. I earnestly request that you will call the prompt attention of the general
commanding the Department of the Pacific to his subject, as the matter has assumed a character so serious
as the threaten the peace and quietude of all the inhabitants of Puget Sound, and of some of them perhaps
even to affect their allegiance to the U. S. Govt.
Respectfully, etc.
In a letter dated 19 August 1862 to the General commanding the Pacific, Gen. Alvord advised that
Colonel Steinberger had dispatched troops to the Grand Ronde from Fort Walla Walla to arrest certain
Cayuse Indians accused by the Indian Agent of certain depredations. Lieut. Col. Maury had been
dispatched with a detachment to assist in locating and returning 4 Van Orman children taken by the
Indians following the slaying of their parents in 1860. Also advised that Companies A and G, 4th Calif Inf
were enroute to Benicia Arsenal from Fort Vancouver. In another letter dated 27 August to the Chief of
Ordnance, Washington, D. C., Gen. Alvord made an inquiry regarding a requisition submitted in
November of 1860 for 30 rifled cannon for defenses at the mouth of the Columbia River.
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Ft. Vancouver, W.T., Sept. 1, 1862
Honorable Gideon Wells
Secretary of the Navy, Wash., D.C.
Sir: I desire to commend to your attention, the importance of having built for the Columbia River, an
ironclad vessel of the character of the Monitor. If it is true that your Department is having one built in San
Francisco, I trust that you will certainly have another constructed for this quarter. It should not draw more
than twelve or fourteen feet of water. Not a dollar has ever been expended for fortifications, either
permanent or temporary on this river. They will be the work of time, and no doubt will not be neglected.
In the meantime one or two monitors here would be an urgent necessity on the breaking out of a foreign
war. One on Puget Sound as well as one on this river would be desirable. There is near us at Esquimault
Harbor on Vancouver Island, a naval depot of the British Government where several war vessels are
always located. On account of the excellence of the harbor, admitting vessels of the largest draft, the
climate very salubrious and inviting, being much assimilated to that of England, there is no doubt that the
day will come when Esquimault Harbor will be the favorite post of the Pacific Squadron of the British
Navy. These considerations cannot be overlooked in all the preparations we may make for a period of
foreign war. This region is the most remote, the most exposed, and therefore in some respects the most
vulnerable of our whole seaboard. I need not, call your attention to the increasing importance of Oregon
and Washington Territory, where the frequent discovery of new gold fields is leading to constant
accessions to the population and to the commerce of the Columbia River. These discoveries will make the
country more inviting to the enemy and doubtless impose additional motives for the Government to
provide adequate defenses. I do not know that you need any further action of the Congress to secure the
object mentioned in this communication. But it it is needed, I desire respectfully to urge upon your
Department the propriety of obtaining such action at the earliest opportunity.
I have the honor to be, etc,
Ft. Vancouver, W. T., Sep. 16, 1862
Assistant Adjutant General,
Hq. Dept. of the Pacific, San Fran Calif
Sir: The act of Congress of February 20, l862, the fortification appropriation bill, says, “For defenses in
Oregon and Washington Territory at or near the mouth of the Columbia River, $100,000, if in the
judgement of the President the same or any part should be advisable”. I had not seen the above until a few
days ago before I wrote you on the 27th ultimo. I do not know what action has been taken in reference to
the same. The dispatch of Brigadier General Wright of 20 September 1860, as well as mine of the 27th
ultimo, contemplates the erection of batteries at the mouth of the Columbia. I hope that the above
appropriations may be applied to commence them and further estimates be made to continue them.
Whither they should form a portion of the permanent fortification to be erected, the engineers could
decide. You no doubt noticed that in the requisitions for heavy ordnance, etc, forwarded on the 27th
ultimo, it was expressly stipulated that the vessel or vessels should be chartered to await at Astoria
instructions as to where the articles should be landed. I suppose that one half should be landed at Baker’s
Bay, near Cape Disappointment and the other half at the site for a fortification to be selected above Point
Adams. The object of this communication is respectfully to commend this matter to the attention of the
general commanding, and to recommend that the time intervening before the arrival of the ordnance
should be employed by the Engineers in preparing said batteries. They cannot reach here before next
summer under the supposition of the most favorable action of the Ordnance Department.
I am sir, etc,
– 32 –
In a letter dated 11 Sept.1862, Col. Steinberger advised Gen. Alvord of a contemplated attack by
the Indians on Snake River between the River and Fort Colville of government trains. He stated he had
dispatched Captain Taylor and a mounted Patrol of the lst Wash Terr Inf to look into the matter. In a letter
to Major Rinearson dated 30 Sept 1862, General Alvord advised of white men in the vicinity of Lapwai
who were associating with the Indians with a view to inciting them to revolt against the Union. He
directed that all persons caught in the act of inciting Indians will be immediately arrested and reported for
Ft. Vancouver, W.T., Sep. 30, 1862
Brig. Gen. J. W. Ripley, US Army
Chief of Ordnance, Washington City, D.C.
General: Since my communication to you the 27th of August inclosing a requisition for heavy ordnance
for the mouth of the Columbia River, I have received a letter from First Lieut. G. H. Elliott, of the
Engineers, who has recently been engaged in a survey of the mouth of this river with a view to the
erection of fortifications. He says that Point Ellen (two miles above Point Adams) is the most important
position to fortify, as it is above the point of junction of both channels. There he would place the largest
number of guns, and recommends that I should apply for 13 or 15 inch Rodman guns to be placed at that
point. For a battery at Cape Disappointment, commanding the north channel, now most used, which
approaches very near the cape, he recommends rifled cannon which can be fired at great angles of
depression. The cape is high and on the approach of a vessel the danger is that the firing would be too
high. If depression carriages can be sent with them he thinks such guns would be desirable. If, therefore,
you have not already acted upon my communication of the 27th of August, I desire now to modify it. I
will ask you to answer my requisition and that of General Wright of the 13th of October 1860, by
forwarding forty Rodman guns and 20 Parrott rifled guns, with depression carriages. With these should be
forwarded all the necessary appurtenances, platforms, etc, and 400 rounds of ammunition for each piece.
This I ask if it concurs with your judgement, for which I have the highest respect. In fact, remote as we
are from all sources of information as to the improvements in ordnance, we cannot employ very definite
language in our requisitions as to the caliber, etc. We must necessarily defer to your better knowledge,
aware that in asking the Ordnance Department for these articles now we are applying to a department
whose time and resources are severally taxed in this war. But I trust that you, general, having visited this
region in person, will know and remember our wants, and will concur with us in believing that the
commencement of defenses should not be deferred until foreign war is upon us. A vessel or vessels can no
doubt be chartered to sail from New York direct to Astoria or this post with the articles. Lieut. Elliott
thinks they should be landed at Astoria or at this post. A large share, at all events, of the articles shipped
should come to Vancouver Ordnance Depot. An officer who recently visited Vancouver Island informs
me that the British Naval authorities are landing, from their ships 68 pounders to establish a battery at the
mouth of Esquimault harbor. This communication is forwarded through Col R. E. DeRussy, of the
Engineers, at San Francisco, who is requested to forward it to your office.
I have the honor, etc,
In a letter dated Oct. 2, 1862, General Alvord advised General Wright that orders directing the
movement of Co. E, 4th Calif. Inf from Fort Steilacoom to Benicia Arsenal had been postponed pending
receipt of a replacement company of the lst Wash Terr Inf. He stated that he had only 16 companies in the
district; that only 4 Calif companies remain; that Co. F. 1st Wash Inf had been mustered into service at
Fort Vancouver on 17 Sept and that little progress was being made in the other companies in Walla Walla
and Olympia. On 1 October; by Special Orders No. 175, Co. H of the lst Wash Terr Inf was directed to
move to Fort Dalles and relieve Co. B, 4th Calif Inf following which the latter would move to Ft.
Vancouver for shipment to Behicia Arsenal, Calif. In a letter to General Wright dated Oct. 6th, General
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Alvord advised of activity over the emigrant road. Lt. Col. Maury reported several settlers who were
trying to short cut Salmon Falls were killed by the Snake Indians. He also reported that the total of 1300
wagons with about 8000 people had passed over the road so far this year. In another letter dated 14 Oct.
he recommended the establishment of another military post at Boise the following summer pointing out
that with the addition of the new Washington companies that sufficient troops would be provided for the
purpose. The letter follows:
Fort Vancouver, W.T. Oct. 14, 1862
I am satisfied that a post ought to be established at or in the vicinity of Fort Boise next summer
and it the object of this communication to recommend that authority be obtained from the War
Department to establish it. And I accordingly respectfully request that this letter may be forwarded to the
Headquarters of the Army, and I will confidently ask General Wright to concur in the recommendation, as
he two years ago, when in command of the Department, made a report in favor of the same step. His
dispatch on that subject was dated the 10th of October 1860.
Every consideration which then called for it now applies with ten fold force. The Whole route
from Walla Walla to Fort Boise, (two hundred and fifty miles) is being settled with either farmers or
miners. First comes the Grand Ronde Valley containing some inviting agricultural lands, where there is
considerable settlement. Next Powder River – on this river the gold mines have attracted many people and
a large share of the emigration of this fall. Auburn, on Powder River, 25 miles west of the emigrant road
contains now three hundred houses. Next, are the mines at Burnt River – and lastly the recently discovered
and very inviting mines on Boise River. I am satisfied from personal inquiry of reliable persons, whom I
met in Portland, that there have been discovered such attractive mines on that river, that there can be no
doubt there will be a rush of thousands in that direction next spring. I append to this letter one newspaper
statement on this subject which I have reason to believe is a fair sample of the well vouched reports from
Boise River.
Two years ago the main object in the establishment of a post in that vicinity was the protection of
the annual overland emigration from the Mississippi Valley. Now, it is also needed for the protection of
the settlements. For as the General commanding the Department well knows, the Snake Indians are and
have for years been very hostile.
They have made several attacks this season killing several persons, as for instance the emigrants
who unfortunately leaving the old road crossed the Snake River above Fort Hall and kept north of the
river. About the 9th of August they made an attack on Boise River on a train, the Captain of which was
named Zimmerman. The same party had been attacked on the 9th of July near Soda Springs. A party of
emigrants who attempted to take the southerly emigrant road, intending to enter Oregon at Rogue River
Valley, were attacked by the Snakes sometime in September about a day’s journey from the main
emigrant road. Two parties of miners on Boise River have also been attacked.
The report that 57 miners had been killed on Burnt River by the Snakes about the 19th of
September, was an utter fabrication. As a large share of the emigrants have stopped in that Country and
not come to this region, it is very difficult to procure the true statistics of these transactions. I have made it
my aim to procure such in every way.
Lieut. Col. Maury, commanding the expedition upon the emigrant road, in his letter of the 22nd
ultimo, already forwarded to you says, “that the emigrants have met with little trouble from the Indians,
and that, at or near Raft River. Fort Hall being the focus of their operations east and west”.
The emigrants with Captain Crawford have also been well protected. But I am satisfied that many
attacks have been made Which could not necessarily come to the knowledge of this office.
Colonel Maury’s expedition has been very successful in protecting the emigration. And it is now
fortunately in the very position to protect the whites, who in large numbers are “prospecting” for gold on
the Boise River.
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These miners are mostly armed. I hear of one party of 75 men, and another of 100 men starting for that
river two weeks ago. They will likely meet Col. Maury about Fort Boise.
Col. Maury was not able to get possession of the guilty authors of the massacre of September
1860. My instructions to him of the 12th of July contemplated his doing so if possible – but so far no
opportunity has occurred.
Those Indians deserve to be punished for all their offences, and an efficient campaign against them
next summer should be prosecuted. The establishment of military post in their country would check them
more effectually and permanently than any other step. But, until they should get a good whipping, that
post would be harassed by these thieves. Gorged with plunder and steeped in blood, the appetite for
robbing and marauding has been sharpened and cherished by their success and impunity. The dispatch of
General Wright of two years since, above referred to, contemplated an active campaign against them, and
no doubt but for the secession movement, the proposition would have been carried into effect.
A large share of the attacks on the emigrants and other travelers, occurred between the South Pass
and Fort Hall. The dispatch above mentioned, recommended that early notice should be given in the
newspapers when a column would leave Utah for the protection of the emigrants, so that they might avail
themselves of the escort. As this Department now embraces Utah, I recommend that orders be given that a
Command shall leave Fort Crittendon, Utah Territory, or from troops in Utah, about the 15th of June next,
proceed to some eligible point near the South Pass to intercept the emigrants, and having gathered
together sufficient to render it proper to move for their protection, to repair on the Emigrant Road to
Salmon Falls on Snake River, there to meet a command from this District, about the end of August.
I concur in the recommendation in the dispatch of the 10th October 1860, that the garrison at Fort
Boise should consist or three Companies of Infantry and two of Cavalry. The latter for the first winter
could return for shelter and subsistence to Fort Walla Walla. After the first winter plenty of forage would
be grown for the supply of the post, by the inhabitants in that neighborhood.
I respectfully request that you will please direct Lt. Col. Babbitt, Deputy Quartermaster General,
in estimating for the funds needed for the Quartermaster Department for the fiscal year ending 30th June
1864, to include sufficient for the establishment of Fort Boise.
After all the Companies of Colonel Steinberger’s Washington Regiment of Volunteers shall have
been raised, I shall need to accomplish the purposes above set forth, three or four additional Companies
say one of Cavalry and the remainder of Infantry. I may ask in the spring that they shall be sent from
California especially as I am satisfied it will be necessary next season to establish a permanent post at
Camp Lapwai, on the Nez Perce Reservation.
I have the honor to be etc,
BENJ ALVORD, Brig. Gen. USV, Comdg District
The Asst Adj Gen for the Dept. of the
Pacific, San Francisco, California.
Copy to: Hon. Wm. Pickering, Gov. of W.T.
General Orders No. 15, District of Oregon, dated 20 Oct. 1862 announced that Colonel
Steinberger would assume command of all troops on the Nez Perce Reservation and at Fort Walla Walla,
Special Orders No, 77, dated 20 Oct. directed Colonel Steinberger to repair to Fort Lapwai to confer with
the Indian Agents re establishment of a Post thereat. Company F of Oregon Cavalry and Companies E and
A, lst Wash Terr. Inf to compose the garrison upon return of Lieut. Col. Maury’s command. In a letter
dated 21 October 1862, Governor William Pickering called General George Wright’s attention to the
many brutal murders committed by the Indians of emigrants coming to Washington Territory during the
past summer. He made a strong plea to punish the tribes responsible and give serious consideration to
leaving troops at Fort Lapwai and establish a new post at Boise before winter.
– 35 –
I left Fort Vancouver to visit you before I had heard of the murders in your country. The report of
them met me at the Des Chutes on my way up the Columbia. I have come to see you in order to assure
you that the Government desires to do all in its power to protect you. Hereafter, as heretofore, every
officer under me will be directed to spare no exertion to afford all possible protection to you. Often times
this duty must be performed imperfectly and you will, as heretofore, often find our intentions and wishes
more satisfactory than our performances. You are entitled to this protection by the treaty. You are also
doubly entitled to this care and friendship from your long and unwavering fidelity to our people and our
flag. You received with kindness Lewis and Clark sixty years ago, when they crossed the Rocky
Mountains and wintered on the Clearwater. You were kind to Col. Bonneville in 1835, and to Fremont in
1843. In 1847 you indignantly rejected the proposition of the Cayuse, after the murder of Dr. Whitman, to
join the war. In the spring of 1853 I was in command of the Dalles, and I learned that you again scornfully
rejected the messages of the Cayuse asking you to join in a grand combination for a war against the
Whites. That war did not finally break out until two years later, when you refused to join them and aided
Governor Stevens in safety reaching Walla Walla from the Blackfeet country. In l858, under General
Wright, in the Palouse and Coeur d’Alene country, some of you fought on our side, and we promised
accordingly to fight for you against your enemies. You will never have a worse enemy than the whiskey
sellers and the bad whites who intrude upon you and commit outrages upon you and your families.
Major Rinearson has been making war upon them as Captain Smith did a year or two ago. Like
Captain Smith, he is a warm friend of the Nez Perces. Major Rinearson shall continue to discharge this
duty. He will remain here permanently, and will build a military post, and will no doubt continue
hereafter, as heretofore, faithfully to discharge the task confided to him. It will be his duty to make all
good Indians his friends by doing all he can to protect you when requested by the Indian Agent to prevent
the whites from settling upon your farming and grazing lands, to aid in the arrest of whites who commit
crimes against the Indians, and to punish those who sell or give whiskey to your people. When I first met
Lawyer with Mr. Craig in 1853 at the Dalles you were then fortunately remote from the emigrant road,
and I had hoped that thus you would have an opportunity of developing and cultivating those elements of
Christianity and Civilization which had by the aid of missionaries been planted among you. As one
worshiping the same God and Saviour, I must admit that I took a deep interest in the experiment.
When encamped near the Dalles in May, 1853, your men were seen to kneel on the ground and say
their prayers and worship in truth and sincerity the great God of Heaven. You won in that way my respect
and regard. Could I have had my will, I would have raised a wall as high as the heaven around you to
keep intruders out. It is very sad to find that the discovery of gold and the consequent rush of miners to
this country should have brought such a mass of the very worst white men in contact with you, and thus
impeded your improvement. Better if all the gold found there were sunk in the ocean than that such
injustice should be done you in this unfortunate and unlooked for state of affairs the best the Government
can do for you is to provide, as it has, for the making of a new treaty, so as to compensate you as far as
possible for the unauthorized occupation of the gold mines by our people. It is true that no amount of
money can compensate you for your injured feelings. But the making of this treaty is not given to me. It is
in other hands.
It will be my duty after a new treaty is made to aid the Indian Agent in enforcing it. Some
vexatious delays have occurred in executing the old treaty. A portion of the annuities were at Wallulu as I
passed there. The new Superintendent, Mr. Hale, is an honorable gentleman, who I am sure wishes to do
you justice. He had to send his bonds to Washington before he could get money for you. But the delay
will soon end. When the pacific railroad is built, which the present Congress has provided for
commencing, we can communicate so quickly with Washington that such delays will be at an end. Some
of you and some of your sons will yet visit the Great Father in Washington on that railroad. Believe not
the deceitful words of the cunning and slanderous men who say that this great government has lost its
power. The very reverse is true. Never was the Government so mighty and terrible in its power, Never did
– 36 –
it have so many rifles or so many soldiers. It has a million of brave and gallant warriors in the field. In the
very midst of such a war it makes a beginning, as I have already said, of a Pacific railroad. Owing to the
delays interposed by the Southern States, that measure was never before started. The Northern people
have all the country from here to Texas, including California, Utah, New Mexico, Nebraska, and Kansas –
nearly all to the Mississippi River. You are under a great, a proud, a rich, and a generous government, and
never did we have more noble, patient and faithful allies than the Nez Perces. It takes fire to temper steel.
Temptation is the test and trial of virtue. If a Nez Perce’s lodge will stand rain and storm and hail and
hurricane, it is then well pitched; it is then firmly secured to the earth. The sun may shine, but fair weather
and sunshine are no test for it. It required all this severe and harassing treatment by the gold diggers to
show how true and honest and straightforward a Nez Perce can be. Such fidelity shall always have my
praise. We wish in return for it only to be fair, not only to be just, but to be also as kind and as generous
as possible toward you.
Special Orders No. 191, Dept of the Pacific, dated 25 Oct. 1862 directed the movement of
Company I, 1st Washington Territory Infantry from San Francisco, Calif. to Fort Vancouver. Special
Orders No. 192, 27 Oct. 1862 directed Lieut. Col. T. C. English, lst Wash Terr Inf to proceed to Fort
Steilacoom where upon arrival he will relieve Major G. W. Patten, who will return to San Francisco.
San Francisco, Cal., Dec. 8, 1862
His Excellency William Pickering
Governor of Wash. Terr. Olympia, W. T
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your excellencie’s communication of the 25th
ultimo. I have instructed Brig. Gen. Alvord, commanding the District of Oregon to issue on your
excellencie’s requisition 250 stand of small arms with a suitable amount of ammunition. I cannot issue
arms to citizens direct. In fact, it is only in cases of emergency that I assume the responsibility of issuing
to the Governors of States and Territorys. It will be necessary that your excellency receipt to the ordnance
officer at the Vancouver Arsenal for the arms and ammunition. Permit me to suggest to your excellency
that before issuing these arms to the Volunteer companies they should be fully organized, and the officers
appointed by yourself, and the greatest care taken that none but men of undoubted loyalty and devotion to
the Union be enrolled.
With great respect, etc.
Washington, December 22, 1862
Brig Gen Benj Alvord,
Fort Vancouver, Wash Terr.
Your letters in relation to heavy ordnance for armament at the mouth of the Columbia River have
received the attention of this, and the Engineer as also the War Department. After full consideration of the
subject, in connection with our present means of providing armament, and of the want of it in other
positions requiring more immediate attention, it has been suggested to, and approved by, the War
Department, to supply a portion of that you mention, viz, two 15-inch guns, twenty three 10 inch and five
– 37 –
eight inch columbiads and fifteen Parrott 200-pounders with proper ammunition, etc, as soon as possible,
consistently with other imperative requirements.
Respectfully, etc,
Brig Gen, Chief of Ordnance
Executive Office, Olympia, Wash Terr
December 31,1862
Honorable Lyman Trumbull
United States Senate.
Dear Judge: I have forwarded to your care 50 copies of a message to the Legislature of this Territory. Will
you take the trouble of sending one copy to each senator’s desk to enable them to see our wants and
One of the most important services that Congress can confer upon the whole population of this
Territory, and upon the State of Oregon, as well as to all future Emigrants, from the various States, east of
the Rocky Mountains, will be to provide suitable laws and appropriations to secure the purchase from the
Indians all lands from South Pass of the Rocky Mountains down Snake River Valley, to the Columbia
River, over which the present Emigrant travel road passes. And also to establish a line of military posts
along said road. One at Fort Boise on Snake River, one at Salmon Falls, one at Fort Hall and one at or
near South Pass. These four posts, every one of them being really needed, could afford safe protection to
our travelling community, while on their overland journey to our gold mines. And it is one of the most
shocking and heart rendering cruelties to be found in the history of our country, the stoical and
indifference and apathy exhibited towards the large number of Emigrants who have been murdered and
robbed of all they had on their trains in each and every year during the last 12 years past.
I have been regularly assured by every person I have met with who have come over the said
Emigrant road to this Territory that vastly more murders have been committed every year on that road,
than has ever been made known to the public. Various persons from various reasons have thought it best
to say as little as possible on the alarming murders and robberies.
Taking into consideration the fact that full ten millions of gold has been gathered from the
tributaries of the Columbia River during the past season; with upwards of twenty millions of dollars worth
being the result of the labors of miners during the next year; and the certain prospects of thirty millions
the 2nd year and forty millions the third year and fifty millions carried away every year from then on,
these gold fields will operate as a magnet of attraction to encourage and entice many thousands of new
emigrants every year, from all parts of the Northern, and Middle States, who will not only need, but will
surely merit this protection of their lives and property at the hands of the United States Congress.
Will you, Sir, be kind enough to take the trouble of explaining to the Chairmen of the
appropriations Committees of the Senate, Territories, Indian Affairs and Military affairs the great
necessity of laws and appropriations being passed during the present session to secure the immediate
purchase of said lands and the establishment of said line of Posts. Everything I have recommended in my
message, is much needed by the population of this Territory and I hope will be so considered and granted
by Congress.
I am Dear Sir, etc,
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As of December 3l, 1862, troops were stationed in the District of Oregon as follows: Fort
Vancouver – Co. I, lst Wash Terr Inf and Co. A, 9th Inf under the command of Major Pinkney Lugenbeel,
9th Inf; Vancouver Arsenal under the command of Captain Theodore J. Eckerson, Ord. corps; Companies
B and C, lst Washington Terr. Inf. at Fort Colville under the command of Major C. H. Rumrill, Wash.
Terr. Inf, Fort Steilacoom – Companies G and K, lst Wash Terr Inf under the command of Lt. Col. T. C.
English, lst Wash Terr Inf; Fort Walla Walla – Companies B, D, and E, lst Oregon Cavalry and
Companies A and H, lst Wash Terr Inf under the command of Colonel Justus Steinberger; Camp Lapwai –
Co. E, lst Wash Inf and Co. F, lst ore Cav under Major Jacob S. Rinearson, lst Ore. Cav; Camp Pickett,
San Juan – Co. C, 9th Inf under the command of Capt. Lyman Bissell, 9th Inf; Fort Dalles – Co. H, lst Ore
Cav and Co.F, lst Wash Terr Inf under command of Capt. William V. Spencer, lst Wash Terr Inf; Fort
Yamhill – Co.D, 4th Calif Inf under Capt. Lyman S. Scott, 4th Calif Inf; Fort Hoskins – Co. D, lst, Wash
Terr Inf under Captain Frederick Seidenstriker, lst Wash Terr Inf.
By letter date 5 Jan. 1863, General Alvord requested Governor Gibbs of Oregon to raise the six
additional companies to complete the Oregon Cavalry regiment. Another letter dated Jan. 8th gave the
composition of each company as follows: 1 Capt., 1 First Lt., 1 Second Lieut, 1 First Sgt, 1 QM Sgt, 1
Comm Sgt, 5 Sgts, 8 corps, 2 Teamsters, 2 farriers or blacksmiths, 1 saddler, 1 wagoner and 78 privates.
The two buglers to be taken from the privates as law did not provide additional pay for musicians. 100
men must be recruited before company could be mustered in.
On 6 January 1863, the Legislative Assembly of Washington Territory enacted the following:
SEC 1- Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory – That the Secretary of the Territory be
and is hereby empowered to purchase a set of colors for the First Washington Territorial infantry and
cause them to be presented in and on behalf of the territory to Colonel Justus Steinberger, the commander
of the regiment. The set shall consist of one national and one regimental color, which shall conform in
size, and every respect to the provisions of the revised regulations of the U. S. Army of 1861. The
regimental flag to be inscribed with the arms of the United States upon one side and the arms of the
Territory upon the other.
SEC2 -The Territorial Auditor is hereby authorized to draw a warrant upon the Territorial treasurer, in
favor of the said secretary of the territory, for the necessary funds to purchase the said colors, which
amount, however, shall not exceed the sum of five hundred dollars, and shall be paid out of the first
money in the hands of the said treasurer.
Ft. Vancouver, W. T., Jan. 13, 1863
Captain John Mullan, 2nd Arty, late in charge
of Ft Benton Road Expedition, Wash. D.C.
Sir: It is represented to me that there is great danger of Indian difficulties in Bitter Root Valley. A large
number of whites are settled in that country and on each side of the mountains at Deer Lodge, Big Hole;
Beaverhead, etc. The gold mines found there are the attraction, and large tracts of arable land. Four
hundred emigrant wagons came to Walla Walla last fall, which after traveling through South Pass, turned
north above Fort Hall, recrossed the Rocky Mountains to Big Hole Prairie, thence crossed them again to
Deer Lodge Prairie, and getting on your road proceeded by that route to Walla Walla. They commended
the route highly. Chief Justice Hewitt, of Washington Territory, whom I saw was of the number. Some of
the emigrants stopped in that region. It is evident the whites are determined to mine and settle there. I met
Mr. Q. C. A. Brooks, from the Bitter Root Valley, who strongly urges the necessity of troops in that
country. I inclose herewith an extract from a Walla Walla Statesman, which gives his statement in full. By
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the eleventh article of the Flathead treaty ratified 18th April 1859, it is provided that there shall be no
settlements in the Bitter Root Valley above Le La Fork until the President decides whether he will set
apart of that region as a reservation for the Flatheads. Some emigrants are settling there, causing much
discontent among the Flatheads. You are, no doubt, well informed as to the merits of the question. I
suppose that the reservation should be assigned by proclamation .of the President to those Indians who
have been so friendly and so faithful. If it is so set apart the duty of removing the intruders will still be
more urgent and may possibly require the aid of the military. Finally, a recent letter from the Indian Agent
at Jocko, the Flathead Agency, uses similar language. He says the rush of the whites to the gold mines
must inevitably lead to collisions. He states (which is new to me) that he is afraid that the mountains of
the Jocko Indian Reservation will be overrun with gold seekers, causing a repetition of scenes in the Nez
Perce country. From your long service in that country you are best able to judge of its necessities, and if
you were here I should request your report on the subject; but as you are not accessible the best thing I
can do is to write you this letter and request you to make known to the War Department your views. You
have my permission to exhibit this letter as inviting you thus to submit your views. But troops for this
purpose should be sent next spring from Missouri or Iowa, and should be supplied from Fort Benton. I
shall have as much as I can do to get troops for the establishment of a military post at or near Fort Boise,
the importance of which I urged in the strongest terms upon the War Department through General George
Wright, commanding the department, who indorsed in a favorable manner my recommendations.
Settlements have been made all the way to Boise and rich mines discovered on that river. The
Snake Indians should be soundly punished and the emigration of the route protected. I have established a
military post at Lapwai, near the Nez Perce Agency. Great disaffection exists in a portion of that tribe,
requiring serious attention in the spring. In May the commissioners meet here to form a treaty with the
Nez Perce asking them to yield the gold region of their reservation to the whites. A body of troops should
attend that treaty. Thus you will perceive that it seems quite out of my power to get troops on this coast to
do these things and also occupy the Bitter Root country. The Post should probably be composed of four or
five companies, part of infantry and part of cavalry. I suppose it should be located in the Deer Lodge
Prairie, that point being central, but you are the best judge as to its location. It should, I suppose, march
from Fort Leavenworth by way of Fort Laramie to Deer Lodge Prairie, the route examined by Lieut.
Reynolds of Topographical Engineers. It should be supplied from Fort Benton. To that post abundant and
liberal supplies for one year should be shipped from Saint Louis by the steamers which go to Fort Benton
every spring. The troops should not be in my district. Two or more companies of infantry should probably
be stationed at Fort Benton, the base of this line. They should go by steamer. It would be improper to
separate the troops in that country from their base, and therefore they should be in the same department,
St. Louis being the ultimate base. An assistant quartermaster should leave St. Louis with the supplies for
Fort Benton. The most careful and elaborate estimates of all kind of supplies, quartermaster’s stores, tools
and clothing – should be made, securing enough to last for one year. Such is my programme. I do not
know whether it would suit you to be a candidate to command such an expedition. If you wish it I am
certain from the energy you have heretofore shown that you would do the work well. If you should obtain
it you will have my best wishes and, so far as practicable, my hearty cooperation. I am aware that these
expeditions will be expensive, and knowing what a heavy load the war imposes upon our finances I have
hesitated. I have waited long before sending this letter, but the time has come for the Government to take
this step which will aid in placing a chain of posts and settlements across the continent and must
essentially assist in protecting this coast in case of foreign war. The homestead act, the gold mines, and
the completion of your road all serve the way and lead to a fulfillment of the sagacious views of Thomas
Jefferson in 1804. The Government must do this or it will be far behind the people. If any act of Congress
is necessary I have no doubt Colonel Wallace, Delegate from Washington Territory, will aid you in
procuring it. This step will conform to the policy of the President as announced in his annual message in
which he says:
“The immense mineral resources of these Territories ought to be developed as rapidly as possible.
Every step in that direction would have a tendency to improve the resources of the government and to
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diminish the burdens of the people. It is worthy of your serious consideration whether some extraordinary
measure to promote that end cannot be adopted.”
I am, sincerely, etc,
On 14 Jan. 1863, the War Department advised General Wright that the establishment of military
posts at Fort Boise and Klamath Lake were authorized. General Wright informed General Alvord in a
letter dated 16 January and Governor Pickering in one dated 19 January. In the latter, he stated he hoped
that with the addition of the 6 companies from Oregon that the citizens of Washington would have
adequate protection.
Apparently, as a result of the difficulty experienced in trying to organize the Washington
Territorial Militia, a new Militia Act was approved by the Legislative Assembly which follows:
Sec 1- The Territory districted, brigadier to be elected, his term of office.
Sec 2 – Colonel, lieutenant colonel and major to be elected in each council district such officers to
organize regiments and companies within the their districts.
Sec 3 – Captains to appoint sergeants and corporals.
Sec 4 – Officers to be commissioned by the Governor; term of office.
Sec 5 – Regimental return, when made. Brig. Gen. to report to Governor.
Sec 6 – Rules and regulations to be prescribed by Governor & Brig. Gen.
Sec 7 – Volunteer companies, how to be formed.
Sec 8 – Public arms, how sent to each county.
Sec 9 – County commissioners to take care of public arms.
Sec 10 – An adjutant, quartermaster and commissary general to be elected.
See 11 – County assessor to make return to the adjutant general of all persons liable to militia duty.
Sec 12 – Who liable for militia duty.
Sec 13 – Formation and arming of companies and detachments; number constituting a company or
detachment; officer’s of same, commissions and oaths of.
Sec 14 – When citizens of different counties may unite in the formation of a Company.
Sec 15 – Colonel, lieutenant colonel and major; when to be elected; Command of each
Sec 16 – Companies to adopt what regulations; oath of members in actual service.
Sec 17 – Quartermaster general to forward arms to the county commissioners; how to be issued.
Sec 18 – Commanding officer to make return to quartermaster general; upon resignation or removal to
account to the county commissioners; members of the companies to give receipts for arms, etc;
liability for.
Sec 19 – Governor, when to forward arms to county commissioners; county Commissioners to report to
the quartermaster general.
Sec 20 – Adjutant and Commissary generals, duties of; quartermaster general, duties of; to have custody
of all military property; to report to the Legislature the state or same; to report to the Governor
the condition of the militia; compensation of.
Sec 21 – Quota of each county.
Sec 22 – Staff of Governor; rank and how appointed.
Sec 23 – Governor to fill certain vacancies; persons failing to qualify; office declared vacant.
Sec 24 – Authority of the Governor to call out the Militia.
Sec 25- Volunteers in active service to be governed by the rules and regulations of the US Army as far as
Sec 26 – Repealing clause; proviso.
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WASHINGTON; That the territory of Washington shall constitute one military district for brigade
purposes, in which the legislature, on joint ballot, shall elect a resident citizen thereof, brigadier general,
who shall hold his office for three years, unless sooner removed by the legislature; and each council
district in said territory shall constitute one regimental district.
Sec 2. At the next annual election legal voters in each council district shall elect in the usual mode of
electing officers, one colonel, one lieutenant colonel and one major, who shall assemble at such place
within their district as a majority of them shall select within three months after their election, and proceed
to lay off their regimental district into convenient company districts, containing as near 100 white males
as maybe, between the age of eighteen and fifty years, capable of bearing arms, and shall appoint, one
captain and two lieutenants in each district as officers therein.
Sec 3. Such captain shall appoint four sergeants and four corporals in each company, who shall continue
in office one year.
Sec 4. All such officers, except sergeants and corporals, shall be commissioned by the Governor, and shall
continue in office for the term of one year, unless bodily infirmity or unsoundness of mind prevent them
from discharging active duty, or they be removed by a court martial for other good cause.
Sec 5. In each year, every captain shall make out a list of all persons in his district subject to bear arms,
and forward a copy thereof to the colonel of the regiment; who shall thereupon make out and forward to
the brigadier general a regimental return, showing the number of each rank and grade composing his
regiment. It shall be the duty of the brigadier general to report annually to the governor, the state of the
militia, the number of regiments and the number of different rank and grade in each, together with such
other information as shall be in his possession relating thereto.
Sec 6. The Governor and Brigadier General shall, from time to time, prescribe all the rules and regulations
not herein provided, necessary for the calling and conducting courts martial.
Sec 7. Volunteer companies may be formed in the bounds of any regiment under such rules and
regulations prescribed by the colonel thereof and approved by the brigadier general.
Sec 8. On application of the board of commissioners of any county by the certified copy of their order
therefor, the governor shall cause to be sent to such county at its expense, its quota of public arms.
Sec 9. Such county commissioners shall have the care of all public arms within their respective counties,
and may transfer them under such regulations as they may prescribe to such volunteer companies,
battalions or regiments, on having the safe keeping and the return thereof, when demanded by the
authorized agent of the board, secured by bond and approved sureties.
Sec 10. The Legislature shall elect an adjutant quartermaster and commissary general, who shall hold
their offices for three years, unless sooner removed by the legislature.
Sec 11. It shall be the duty of the county assessor of each county in this territory, in taking the census of
their respective counties, to make return in writing to the adjutant general of the territory, of all persons in
their respective counties who may be liable to militia duty as hereinafter provided; and for such services
they shall receive such compensation as the county commissioners of their respective counties may deem
just and proper, to be paid out of the county treasury.
Sec 12. Every white male citizen between the ages of eighteen and fifty, not disqualified by bodily
infirmity, shall be liable to militia duty, and subject to be called upon for such purpose by the governor, in
case of emergency.
Sec l3. Whenever any number of persons liable to militia duty as aforesaid, not exceeding one hundred
nor less than twenty five, shall form themselves into a company or detachment, for the purpose of
permanent or temporary defense as volunteers, elect their own officers as hereinafter provided, and report
that fact to the Adjutant General, he shall thereupon make requisition upon the quartermaster general, to
be approved by the governor, for suitable arms for said company, which shall be issued as hereinafter
provided. For the purpose of such organization, fifty two persons and upwards to one hundred, shall
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constitute a company, and shall choose one captain, one first and one second lieutenant, four sergeants
and four corporals; every less number shall be considered a detachment, and shall choose one lieutenant,
two sergeants and two corporals. Said officers shall hold their respective offices for the term of one year,
unless sooner removed by a sentence of a court martial; and said captains and lieutenants shall be
commissioned by the governor, and on receiving said commission, each shall take an oath, to be endorsed
on the back thereof, before an officers authorized to administer oaths, that he will support the constitution
of the United States, and faithfully discharge the duties of his office.
Sec 14. Whenever, by reason of neighborhoods, it shall be more convenient for citizens of a portion of
one county to join a company or detachment in an adjoining county, it shall be lawful for them to do so;
PROVIDE, HOWEVER, That the company shall be deemed to belong to the county where the majority
Sec 15. Whenever several companies organized as aforesaid, shall be united together for active service, or
otherwise, if two only, they shall proceed to elect a major to command same; if four, to elect one major
and one lieutenant colonel, and if more than four and less than ten, to elect in addition to the aforesaid
officers, one colonel, who shall have command of all said companies so assembled together.
Sec 16. It shall be lawful for every organized company or detachment of volunteers to adopt such
regulations for its government and discipline as they may see fit, subject to the approval of the Governor
and the brigadier general, and they may impose fines for non-attendance at drill or review, the proceeds of
which shall form a company fund, to be expended for ammunition or other necessities; and they may
adopt such uniforms as are suitable for their particular service; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That whenever
companies may be called for actual service, each member thereof shall take an oath to support the
constitution of the United States and the laws of the territory, faithfully to, discharge his duties, and to
obey the lawful commands of the superior officers placed over him.
Sec 17. The quartermaster general shall, with the approval of the governor, upon receiving from the
adjutant general the returns of any volunteer company or detachment, organized as hereinbefore provided,
forward to the county commissioners of the county wherein the company is formed, a suitable quantity of
arms and equipments or the kind required by said company or detachment, provided the same are in his
custody, and such county commissioners shall there upon issue the same to the officer commanding such
company or detachment; and it shall be the duty or such commanding officer to make a return of such
arms and equipments, showing their condition to the quartermaster general, at least one month before the
meeting of the legislature of each year; and each commanding officer shall, upon election of his
successor, or his resignation or removal from office or disability to act, or upon the disbanding or his
company or detachment, turn over such arms and equipments to the county commissioners, who may then
cancel his bond; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That he shall be liable for all loss and damage not arising
from the fortune or war or unavoidable accident, PROVIDED, FURTHER, Each member of a detachment
or company receiving arms or equipments, shall give his receipt to the commanding officer for the same,
which on their return, shall be cancelled; he shall, on failure to return them when called upon, pay double
of the government valuation; said receipt to be received by the commissioners in lieu of the arms and
equipments from the commanding officer.
Sec 18. The adjutant and commissary generals shall perform the same duties as the corresponding officers
in the service of the United States, except so far as is herein modified. The quartermaster general shall
have the custody or all military property belonging to the territory, embracing arms and equipments,
ammunition, ordnance and ordnance stores, and such as are not distributed among the several counties he
shall preserve in good order in some suitable place at the seat or the government, until they are legally
disposed of. He shall annually report to the legislature the number and condition of said arms and other
property, embracing not only those in his custody, but also those issued to the several counties, and giving
an abstract or the reports or the commanding officers or companies and the county commissioners, with
officers responsible for arms and property, and their securities, and the amount or their respective bonds;
and shall annually report to the governor the number of organized companies, the names of the officers,
and the number or rank and file in each, together with such other information relative thereto, as shall be
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in his possession. He shall receive for his services a reasonable compensation, to be allowed him by the
Sec 19. On application of the board of county commissioners for any county, the governor may, in his
discretion, forward to them at the expense of the territory, the whole or any portion of its quota of arms as
hereinafter defined, to be kept by them or issued to companies or detachments, under the same regulations
as above provided; and it shall be the duty of such board to report annually to the quartermaster general
the amount of arms and equipments received, on hand and issued, showing to whom issues have been
made, and the amount of the bonds taken, with names of the sureties.
Sec 20. The quota of arms to each county shall be in proportion to the number of persons liable to do
militia duty, as hereinafter provided.
Sec 21. The Governor may appoint his staff, consisting of two aids, with the rank of lieutenant colonel.
The Brigadier General may appoint his aids, with rank of captain. The Quartermaster, Adjutant and
Commissary generals may appoint their assistants and acting assistants, to rank the same as in the Army
of the United States. The regimental and battalion commanders may appoint their commissioned and noncommissioned
Sec 22. The governor shall fill all vacancies caused by death, resignation or otherwise, on the part of the
officers elected by the legislative assembly, and provided for by this act, and in case any person to be
elected shall fail to qualify within ten days after he receives his commission, the office shall be deemed
vacant, and it shall be competent for the governor to fill the same by appointment; and it shall be the duty
of such officers so elected or appointed to notify the governor of his having qualified.
Sec 23. Whenever, in case of emergency, the governor shall deem it necessary to call upon the people of
the territory for active service, he shall have authority to do so, and the troops so called for shall be
organized in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this act.
Sec 24. Whenever the volunteers of this territory are called into service by proclamation of the governor
they shall be governed by the rules and regulations that govern the army of the United States, as far as
Sec 25. All acts and parts of acts not in conformity to the provisions of this act, are hereby declared void;
PROVIDED, That nothing in this act shall be construed as to vacate any office heretofore filled by the
legislative assembly, under and by virtue of the said act entitled “an act to organize the militia”. PASSED
JANUARY 28TH, 1863.
On 6 Feb. 1863, General Alvord in a letter to General Wright recommended that either Fort
Hoskins or Fort Yamhill be abandoned in order to release Company D, lst Wash Terr Inf for duty in the
In a letter dated 10 Feb. 1863, Adjutant General Barnum of Oregon described the difficulties being
encountered by the Volunteers of Oregon by being paid in currency instead of gold which had the effect
of reducing their pay 50%.
By letter dated 10 Feb. 1863, General Alvord recommended to General Wright that a post be
established at Boise and that initially 3 companies of Infantry and two companies of cavalry garrison the
post. He proposed to obtain these troops as follows: Leave one company at Fort Vancouver, one each at
Fort Steilacoom, Fort Dalles and Fort Walla Walla; withdraw Co. D from Fort Hoskins, Co. G from Fort
Steilacoom, Company I from Ft Vancouver and Co. H from Walla Walla, all of the lst Wash Terr Inf.
Also one company of the 1st Ore Cav from Fort Dalles and two companies of the same regiment from
Fort Walla Walla. This would permit one company of cavalry for Fort Lapwai. This proposed distribution
of troops would leave no reserve. Special Orders No. 30, Fort Lapwai announced the assumption of
command of that post by Lieut. Col. R. F. Maury, lst Ore Cav.
In a letter dated. 18 Feb. 1863, General Alvord advised the Adjutant General of Oregon that all
soldiers were now being paid in gold.
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Under date line of 24 Feb. 1863, Portland received news from Victoria of a plot, which was
thwarted to seize the U S revenue cutter Shubrick by confederate sympathizers. In a letter to General
Wright dated 28 Feb. 1863, the Secretary of War advised that he did not deem it advisable to issue arms to
militia companies except when they were in the service of the United States. Special Orders No. 14,
Military District of Oregon directed Major Bowman 9th Infantry to proceed from Fort Vancouver to Fort
Lapwai and assume command of that post.
In a letter dated 10 Mar. 1863, General Alvord advised citizens of Benton County, Oregon re the
closure of Fort Hoskins that troops might be provided there for from Oregon Volunteers. He pointed out
that Oregon had not filled its quota and further pointed out that California had raised nine regiments
whereas Oregon had raised but seven companies. In a letter dated 17 March General Alvord
recommended the retention of Lieut. Col. T. C. English; Wash Terr. Vols at Fort Stei1acoom and that
Major Pinckney Lugenbeel be sent from Ft Vancouver to command Fort Boise.
Letter from General Wright to General Alvord indicates the unfavorable reaction of’ residents of
San Juan over the conduct of Captain Bissell of the 9th Infantry, commander of the U S Troops thereat.
General Wright directed General Alvord to go there and ascertain the facts. In a letter dated 15 April
1863, General Alvord directed Captain Bissell to render a complete report on the dissatisfaction of
American Citizens on San Juan with his command. Letter from Captain Bissell to General Wright dated
16 April l863 reports that a small group of agitators have been trying to stir up trouble between the
American and. British troops. Also cited American citizens supplying liquor to the Indians which resulted
in Indian being killed. Blames Washington Territory officials whom he sees has no right under the treaty
to assume jurisdiction over San Juan. In a letter dated 16 May 1863, General Alvord to General Wright
indicated that Gen. Alvord had discussed the matter with both Mr. E. D. Warbass, who resided on the
Island and Mr. B. F. Shaw, a member of the legislature from Whatcom County. Both testified as to the
character of the individuals who made the original complaint, and were both praiseworthy of the manner
in which Captain Bissell had handled the situation. The following letter from E. D. Warbass, with
inclosures, were forwarded with Gen. Alvord’s letter and it appear to tell the complete story:
San Juan Island, April 14, 1863
Brigadier General Alvord,
Commanding District or Oregon
General: I have the honor herewith to inclose for the favorable consideration the commanding general,
Department of the Pacific, General Wright, a protest signed by twenty six American citizens, farmers,
residing on San Juan Island, written on the back of the resolutions adopted by the meeting held on the lst
day of February 1863, and purporting to represent the opinions and sentiment of the American settlers
residing on the island. I beg respectfully to state to the commanding general that with the exception of two
names, O. Cushman and B. F. Shaw, signatures to this protest, the resolutions and indorsement were not
read by them before signing, and were at the time busily engaged cultivating their farms. Honorable B. F.
Shaw, member of the Legislative Council of this Territory from Whatcom County, is now in Vancouver,
and I take pleasure in referring Brigadier General Alvord respectfully to him for explanation of this
meeting and resolutions. I also, general, inclose copy of communication sent by me to the commanding
officer, Captain Bissell, of date of March 7, last. (not found) I learn from Captain Bissell, by authority of
the general commanding the Department of the Pacific dated March 9th, received:
“The Civil authorities, if duly appointed or elected under the laws governing the Territory of
Washington, will be permitted to exercise their legitimate functions on the portion of the Island
under the jurisdiction of the United States”.
I desire most respectfully to represent to the commanding general of the department that by the
publication and forwarding of these resolutions it seems to us to have conveyed the impression that they
are the real sentiments and opinions of the majority of the American settlers on the island, which by far is
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not the case, and therefore, without being protested against, calculated to place us in a false position. With
the kind indulgence of the general I will attempt to describe, though imperfectly, somewhat the origin of
our difficulties, situation, and seeming misunderstanding at the present time. During the command of
Camp Pickett by Capt. G. E. Pickett, he seized a whisky boat, the owner of which was detected selling
liquor to Indians on the reservation, but on Hudson Bay Company lands. The kegs of liquor were
destroyed by order of the captain and the man confined in the guard house. This man claimed protection
as a British subject, and on Captain Pickett’s communicating the facts of the case to the captain
commanding British forces on the island, he was requested by that officer to deliver the prisoner over to
him at his camp.
This was done, and this man was sent to Victoria for trial. He remained in jail for several months,
until Captain Pickett visited Victoria, when he was requested to appear and testify against him. This he
did, and the man was sentenced to the chain-gang and his boat and property confiscated. After this an
official complaint is made by Captain Bazalgette, commanding British forces, to Captain Pickett that a
man by the name of Andrews, an American living near his reservation, is engaged in selling liquor to
Indians and to his men. Captain Pickett desires them to appear before a justice of the peace living near his
camp and make complaint against him. Andrews appears on the day set for the trial, and the justice
refuses to convict him on Indian testimony, corroborated by Lieut. Cooper. Andrews returns to his place
of abode, and last August, I learn, was banished from the island on official complaint to Captain Bissell
from Captain Bazalgette that he was again interfering with the discipline of his command by selling
whiskey. I was at this man’s house shortly after the first occupancy of the island by U. S. troops, and have
visited the place this summer, and would state for information of the general that there is no evidence of
cultivating more than three years before, viz, a log house and about an acre of ground very imperfectly
fenced and cultivated. I was present at the meeting referred to in which the resolutions I inclose were
adopted. There were present, consequent of the notice, as posted by Mr. Hamblett, some thirty settlers, but
not above fifteen took part in the proceedings. Among those I recognized Andrews, the person spoken of
above. Offutt, the secretary, was not a resident of the island, had been banished several months before,
and was living at that time on another island. He was sent away for selling liquor to Indians and soldiers.
Carney, who had much to say, had just been let out of the guard house, is an old offender and noted seller
of whiskey to Indians. Some fifteen persons stood outside of the house and refused to participate in it.
After the meeting, I called upon Captain Bissell and informed him of the manner in which the meeting
had made use of his name. He said it was without authority from him. Hamblett calls to learn what is said,
and is informed by Captain Bissell, as told me by himself, that he must not send those resolutions off
making use of his name in that manner. He, Hamblett, calls on the secretary, who is busily with Higgins,
postmaster, copying these resolutions, but they refuse to alter them. They are, general, about 100 English
subjects and American Citizens residing on the island. Under British laws the natives of the Sandwich
Islands receive the protection of the subjects. There are about twenty of them on the island, living in loghouses
and cultivating from one to 20 acres of ground. There are perhaps the same number of English
subjects. They are informed by the captain commanding the British camp that they will be protected in the
possession of their property. Camp Pickett reservation, as surveyed by Lieut. Casey, commences about
one-quarter of a mile north of the camp, running from one side to the other of the island (three quarters of
a mile), and embraces, excepting about twenty acres left out for business purposes, the whole of the
southern end.
The twenty acres is claimed by the Hudson Bay Company officially by notification to the
commanding officer of Camp Pickett while Captain Pickett was in command. They had at that time a log
corral there and the present wharf, and a road leading to it. The logs of the corral, have been used by the
Americans. This twenty acres is claimed, respectively, by Higgins and Boyce as a preemption claim.
There are some twenty buildings in the town built on lots by permission, some from Higgins, others by
Boyce some from both and others not recognizing any title in either, have squatted on ground and erected
houses. The house in question referred to in his (Higgins) complaint I bought in good faith and paid for
– 46 –
the same two years ago of Mr. George Mercer, an Englishman, and have had quiet and peaceful
possession of the same until the present time, and I never knew or heard of Higgin’s claim until a few days
of the serving of this notice. The land is claimed by the Agent of the Hudson Bay Company, is claimed by
Boyce as a farm and by Higgins as a town site. Higgins has plowed up recently the road used by the
company to their wharf and by the citizens and garrisons since the first occupancy of the island, and he is
now carrying rails to fence it. Mr. Firth, the agent, has applied to Captain Bazalgette: to prevent this and
has been informed on applying officially he will not allow it to be done. Mr. Hamblett entertains
complaints where title to land is, in question on this island, and has already decided a case in point, and
that, too, between an American and British subject. I would remark in no portion of Washington Territory
has a justice of the peace jurisdiction in any case where title to land is in question, Further, Mr. Hamblett
holds his court in the house of Bowker, who is retailing liquor and does not recognize the authorities of
Whatcom County to make him pay a license. To do this, according to our laws, it would require a petition
of a dozen citizens residing in the precinct before it would be granted, and, he would have, to pay $100
per year for this privilege. The Postmaster, Mr. Higgins, has the postoffice in a public bar-room in his
own house, and refuses to recognize the right, of Whatcom County to make him take out a license.
Under former justice of the peace, Bowker has been tried for selling liquor without a license, the
court sitting in the bar-room, jury men and witnesses drinking at the bar during trial the case proven and
jury rendering a verdict that he was violating the laws of Washington Territory. For the last two years no
taxes have been collected and none assessed by Whatcom County. For three years no duties have been
collected on foreign goods and during two years past no inspector of customs has resided upon the island.
American citizens have equal rights with British subjects. Vessels go to and from Victoria without
entering or clearing from Port Angeles. In November last, an order was posted by the commanding officer
of Camp Pickett, Captain Bissell, to the effect that where differences occur between American Citizens on
the islands they be left to arbitration. This order corresponds almost entirely to the laws relating to
arbitration in Washington Territory. Under it a difficulty has already been settled between an English and
American subject about the lines of their respective claims. There was no necessity for the English subject
to submit to it, but he chose to do so. On the occupancy by the forces of the respective governments under
the treaty as made by General Scott and Governor Douglass, there came on the part of the British eighty
non-commissioned officers and privates and four officers, a captain, first and second lieutenants and an
assistant surgeon. There have been up to the present time no changes in either officers or men, except in
cases of sickness, desertion, and then they have been quickly replenished from Esquimault. During this
time, consequent on the rebellion of our country, we have had as many changes of officers with their
respective commands as we have had years of occupancy, and I would respectfully represent to the
commanding general that during these several changes, officers have differed as to the true interpretation
of the statute of General Scott. This has given rise to discussion and quarrels among the settlers as to their
true position here. The American settlers, I believe, would be contented to have the laws of Washington
Territory in full force, and with rigid vigor, executed, but are prepared to believe that the general will
agree to them that under the law as executed by Mr. Hamblett, we have something other than the laws of
our country. I am inexperienced in writing communications and have written this hastily to avoid delay.
The general will be kind enough to excuse any apparent rudeness in my remarks. Hoping Brig. Gen.
Alvord will respectfully forward this communication and papers to Brig. Gen. Wright, U. S. Army,
commanding Department of the Pacific, for his favorable consideration, I have the honor to be your
obedient servant,
According to the wish of Captain Bissell, as expressed to me, I hereby request the citizens of this
island to meet at Frazer’s house, in the woods, on the road to the garrison, on Sunday, February lst, for the
– 47 –
purpose of making such laws as we shall deem necessary and just for the settlement of differences
between settlers concerning land claims and for the enforcement of good order upon the island.
San Juan Island, January 22, 1863. E. T. HAMBLETT
San Juan Island, Feb. 1, 1863
At a meeting of the citizens of the San Juan Island on the 1st day of February 1863, for the
purpose of establishing a criterion by which the American citizens of this island should be governed,
Esquire Hamblett was called to the chair and M. W. Offutt appointed secretary. On motion a committee
was appointed to make resolutions. W. Smith, I. E. Higgins, C. McCoy, M. Hibbard, and James Blake
were appointed said committee. Said committee reported the preamble and resolutions, which were
unanimously adopted. On motion the thanks of the meeting were tendered to the President and Secretary.
On motion the meeting was adjourned.
E. T. Hamblett, President
M. W. Offutt, Secretary
Whereas, under the organic act of the Congress of the United States for the establishment of the
Territorial government of Washington, the first Legislative Assembly in 1854 passed an act including the
island of San Juan as a part of Whatcom County; and
Whereas, that act was duly submitted to Congress and has not been disapproved of, we therefore
cannot but regard it is the law of the land, and
Whereas, we wish to be known as loyal citizens of the United States, avoiding even the semblance
of secession; Therefore,
BE IT RESOLVED: First, That we will be governed by the laws provided us by the Legislative Assembly
of Washington Territory and the United States, and that we will at all times cheerfully recognize the
lawfully constituted authorities of the Territory, and when necessary aid them in the discharge of their
Second. That we cannot concur with Captain Bissell in thinking he is our Governor, or that he has power
to authorize us to make laws by which we will all be governed, it being evident to us that, according to the
arrangements made by General Scott and His Excellency Governor Douglass, the military were placed
here to exercise a police supervision over the citizens and subjects of their respective governments, and to
aid the civil authorities of these governments in enforcing the laws upon their respective subjects and
citizens, or in protecting them in their lives, property, and all the rights to which they are entitled.
Third. That any citizen of the United States who has or may preempt a land claim on this island, and
perform acts upon it that show occupancy in good faith, should, be protected by us in his rights if
interfered with during his absence.
Fourth. That a copy of the proceedings of this meeting be sent to the Governor of our Territory, to
General Wright, Captain Bissell, and to the editor of the Washington Standard.
– 48 –
San Juan, March 10, 1863
Whereas, a few settlers of this island, feeling themselves aggrieved by the action taken by Captain
Bissell for the maintenance of law and order (such as banishing disorderly persons, suspending a court,
when that court was ignorantly engaged deciding questions beyond its jurisdiction, and by their nature
tending to an interruption of the friendly relations existing between the British and American posts and
the settlers of the respective nations, to wit, deciding questions in which the title to land on this island is
in question, and that the statute as made an existing between General Scott and Governor Douglas) had a
meeting and drafted the within (above) resolutions calculated to only meet their own ends and views.
Therefore, we a large majority of the American settlers on this island, hereby protest against the
action of said meeting, in which we were not represented, and against the resolutions as not expressing
our sentiments, and that we fully approve the actions of the commanding officer of this post, Captain
Bissell, as calculated to maintain order, to keep disorderly characters away, and to maintain the present
good understanding between the British and American commands and their respective governments.
A. Townsend
B. F. Shaw
Orington Cushman
(and 23 others)
Fort Vancouver, Wash. Terr. May 11, 1863
Lieut. Col. R. C. Drum
Asst Adj Gen, Dept of Pacific,
Colonel: I have the honor to acknowledge the reception of your communication of the of the 29th ultimo
saying that “the general gives you full power to call on the Governors of Oregon and Washington for such
troops as you may deem necessary to preserve the peace and quiet of the district”. I esteem the authority
thus given important to the public service. I trust the emergency will not arise, but it may become
desirable to make a call for troops to serve for limited periods. If imperitively demanded by
circumstances, I shall not hesitate to take such course. The ramifications of the revolutionary plot
developed by the fortunate seizure of the 15th of March in San Francisco of the piratical schooner J. M.
Chapman, did not fail to extend to Oregon. I am sure of it from all that I can learn, but the exposure
disconcerted their machinations. Vigilance is still necessary. The great majority of the people are opposed
to them, and are unalterably for the Union. In Idaho Territory, there are some secessionists, and the
emigration or next fall will bring still more. But secluded as they are, they can do little mischief. Three
companies, D, G and I, lst Washington Territory Infantry are here ready to march to Fort Boise under
Major Lugenbeel pursuant to your instructions of the 26th of March. To garrison this post and guard
Vancouver Arsenal there will remain Co. A, 9th Infantry under command of lst Lieut. Frederick Mears,
9th Inf., and Nobles Company of Oregon Cavalry, not yet quite full. Late in the summer another company
may be raised. Though I would prefer a larger force here, I shall, however, start the command for Fort
Boise. The wagon train leaves Fort Dalles tomorrow under escort as far as Fort Walla Walla of twenty
five cavalry. In about ten days the infantry will go by water to Wallulu. One company of First
Washington Infantry joins Major Lugenbeel’s command from Fort Walla Walla making four companies in
all. Six companies are at Fort Lapwai pending the gathering of Indians at the Nez Perce Treaty ground.
Accounts are favorable from that quarter. Colonel Steinberger and one company of cavalry will sometime
next month return to Walla Walla. Col. Maury with three companies of lst Ore Cavalry, will, about the
10th, proximo, keep on from there to Fort Boise. There he will be joined by two companies of Infantry,
and with the five companies will proceed on an expedition to Fort Hall against the Snake Indians. This
was the programme indicated in my letter of the 10th of February, which I now think I shall be able to
carry out. Fort Steilacoom is left with only one company. By permission of the Governor of Washington
– 49 –
Territory, an attempt is being made to raise a company of dismounted Oregon Cavalry on the Sound. It
may take all summer and fall to raise it. I shall probably leave it at Fort Steilacoom, if it is raised. Major
Lugenbeel will take with him a 6-pounder and two mountain howitzers.
Very respectfully, etc.
To His Excellency, the Governor of Washington (Received at Executive Office
on l6 May, 1863)
Whereas, the discovery of gold in this section of the Territory of Washington, renders it certain
that a large emigration will immediately take place towards this section, and that the early settlers and
miners may enjoy peace and protection, I deem it my duty to respectfully represent to your excellency, the
defenseless condition of the present settlement and the importance of immediate measures And the
threatened opening of a sanguinary and desolating Indian war.
And that your excellency may the better perceive the conditions of things, on my arrival at this
quarter. I found the people in a great state of excitement, consequent upon the intelligence of two men
being killed and one badly wounded by a portion of the Snake and Bannock tribe of Indians, who roam
unmolested in this region, committing every kind of depredation even to the slaughtering of defenseless
and unoffending travellers, the running off stock and the destruction of ranches, ferries and bridges.
The whole tribe of Snakes and Bannocks appear to act in concert, and so bold have they become
of late, that bands of horses are taken away by them in open day from the most public places, and in the
most annoying and insulting manner, that there is no longer any safety for persons or property and that a
state of insecurity exists at the present time bordering upon anarchy.
That finding matters in this state and fearing an attack from hostile tribes, with no hopes of
immediate succor or assistance from any quarter, I determined upon calling out for the public defense a
company of volunteers which are now in the field under the command of I. I. Standefer, the muster roll of
which I herewith forward a copy.
Hoping your excellency will approve of this action I would respectfully submit the immediate
necessity of further action by your excellency, as there is but little doubt, that unless some immediate
measures be adopted, we will be compelled to bear the brunt of one of the most bloody Indian wars on
Praying for an immediate answer, I have the honor to be, etc,
NOTE: Brig Gen J. M. Moore (J. Marion) was Elected by the Legislative Assembly as Brigadier General
of the Washington Territory Militia on 20 January 1862. He was a member of the Council from Walla
Walla County. He was a resident of Pierce City (now Montana) He was killed in that area in 1868. One
unconfirmed story is that he was killed in a gun battle. Also elected as Commissary General at the same
time was E. A. Wilson. George Gallagher was reelected Adjutant General and John M. Murphy
Quartermaster General. All appointments for three years effective from Jan. 20, 1862.
– 50 –
Brig. Gen. John M. Moore May 18, 1863
Boise, Idaho Territory
Dear Sir: The last mail brought your statement of the hostile depredations of the Indians in your part of
the country. Also the muster roll of Captain Standifer’s Company of Militia, “The Boise Rangers”.
The whole of the Boise country being within the limits of Idaho Territory, (as of March 3, 1863)
any official action by the Executive of Washington Territory to the administering the government of a
sister Territory would not be warranted. I have therefore referred the whole matter to his excellency
W. H. Wallace, Governor of Idaho Territory, who had already arrived from the East previous to the
reception of your letter.
I have also laid before Gen. Alvord a copy of your letter and muster roll for the purpose of
apprizing him of the Military protection now needed along our exposed frontier.
I cannot close without tendering you my thanks for your timely action in calling out a company of
volunteer Militia to march against and check the murders, robberies and thefts so recently commenced by
the Bannock and Snake tribes of Indians.
I remain, etc,
I. I. Standerer, Capt. T. W. Packard M. Aaron A. Beals F. Cook
I. Greenwood, lst Lt. T. B. Devenish Frank Pasters D. Conklin D. Talbott
G.Thatchert, 2nd Lt. F. Campbell E. Hyer Thos. Jones W. Longfellow
I. Walker 3rd Lt. J. T. Lewis S. Hibbard John White F. Crabtree
Thos. Keogh, Ord Sgt. W. J. Weston G. Yandle B. Jonegon Thos. Parton
I. McKay, 2nd Sgt. Samuel Gray Tom Handy T. Cleveland W. C. Lawrence
I. McLeod, 3rd Sgt. Albert Hatch J. M. Mavity B. Woolsey I. W. Longford
G. Leatherman, 4th Sgt. G. Wakeham W. Blevins F. Drake Levi Reed
John Peters, lst Cpl. A. B. Reed, Surg M.Bledsoe B.Emory F. Scott
G. McLean, 2nd Cpl. W. Bridgham J. McCoy T. Wakefield I. Crimmins
P. Bennefield, 3rd Cpl. W. Gupton E. Riddle I. Warwick I. Taney
John Woods, 4th Cpl. S. Woolrey F. Archy T. Hutton
M. Thorpe Green Martin D. C. Thorn T. Anderson
J. Conner W. Burrell G. W. Legling J. McVey
G. Boren I. Carty W. Strickland W. Jenkins
D. Grant E. Peterson D. C. Smith A. Mallett
W. Hobbs E. Depuro P. B. Owen J. N. Stiles
A. Wyatt Allen Frame N. Crabtree I. Shead
A. Olsen L. Reed F. Smith I. Peters
S. D. Miles J. N. Ralston Hosea Predo D. Farrell
N. H. Craven S. Benton F. W. Brown W. Tuttle
A. E. Calloway M. McConville J. Holland H. Brown, Comm.
C. W. Reed H. Remage J. Pubiso D. Richardson
H .A. King M. Ritchie G. W. Craig B. Wooley
G. Anderson T. Shockley G. W. Riley N. White
– 51 –
Letter from Hq. District of Oregon dated 8 June 1863 forwards to Captain Bissell at Camp Pickett
a copy of Special Orders No. 129 dated 29 May 1863, wherein authority was provided that when the
peace and good order of the Island imperatively require it, the commanding officer of Camp Pickett was
empowered to expel American residents from the Island of San Juan. The letter clearly cited that “A
Justice of the Peace of Washington Territory shall have no jurisdiction of any case in which the title to
land shall in any way come in question” as provided for in the organic act creating Washington Territory.
Letter from General Alvord to General Wright advises of the signing of a new treaty with the Nez
Perces. He also stated that the Palouses had attempted to stir up trouble during the council but had been
driven off by Colonel Steinberger with a company of 1st Oregon Cavalry.
Letter from General Alvord to Major Lugenbeel commanding Fort Boise calls his attention to the
independent company of Boise Rangers under, Captain Standefer, and suggested that they cease
operations and be disbanded upon the arrival of the troops scheduled to garrison Fort Boise.
As of 30 June 1863, troops were stationed as follows in the Oregon Military District: Co. A, 9th
U. S. Infantry at Fort Vancouver under the command of Major Andrew W. Bowman, 9th Inf; Vancouver
Arsenal under the command of Captain Theodore J. Eckerson, Ord. Corps, U. S. Army; Companies B
and C, 1st Wash Terr Inf at Fort Colville under the command of Major Calvin H. Rumrill, Wash Terr Inf;
Co. K, lst Wash Terr Inf at Ft Steilacoom under the command of Lt Col T. C. English, Wash Terr Inf;
Co. A, lst Wash Terr Inf at Fort Walla Walla under the command Col. Justus Steinberger; Co. F, lst Ore
Cav and Co. E lst Wash Terr Inf at Camp Lapwai under the command of Major Sewell Truax, lst Ore
Cav; Co. C 9th US, Inf at Camp Pickett, San Juan Island under the command of Capt. Lyman Bissell, 9th
Inf; Co. B lst Ore Cav and Co. F, 1st Wash Terr Inf at Ft Dalles under command of Capt. William V.
Spencer, 1st Wash Terr Inf; Det. of Co. D 4th Calif Inf at Ft Hoskins under the command of Lieut. James
Garden, 4th Calif Inf; Det. of Co. D, 4th Calif Inf at Fort Yamhill under the command of Capt. Lyman S.
Scott, 4th Calif Inf; Enroute Co. B, lst Ore Cav under Capt. Richard S. Caldwell, lst Ore Cav; On
Expedition under the command of Lieut. Col. Reuben F. Maury, lst. Ore Cav – 3 companies of 1st Ore
Cav and four companies of 1st wash Terr Inf.
In a letter dated July 1, 1863; General Alvord advised Gen Wright that Co. B, lst Ore Cav which
had been ordered from Camp Lapwai to Fort Dalles had been directed to proceed to Canyon City on John
Day River, to protect miners, several of whom had been recently killed by Indians.
In a letter of 13 August, General Alvord informed Colonel Drum, Hq. Dept. of the Pacific that
plans had been changed for Lieut. Col. Maury’s command to be stationed at Ft Dalles. Also advised that
the Provost Marshals of Oregon and Washington Territory were at Fort Vancouver to discuss the
possibilities of a draft of men into service. He explained that it would only be resorted to in the event of a
foreign war but felt it essential to set up the machine for possible conscription if necessary.
Headquarters, 1st W. T. Infantry
Ft Walla Walla, W. T., 27 August 1863
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the 20th instant presenting on the part of the
Governor of Washington Territory a set of Colors to the lst Wash.Terr. Infantry, procured pursuant to an
Act of the Legislature of Washington Territory at its last session. Convey to his excellency if you please
the gratitude and pride with which the Officers and Soldiers of the Regiment accept this handsome gift.
Assure him that the sanctity of this honorable trust is well impressed and properly appreciated by
us, and that as the insignia of our Nationality the banner of our service, it is our duty as it will be our
proudest ambition to preserve its integrity and protect its honor.
I thank you for the commendatory expressions towards the Regiment contained in your
communication, and am, General,
Very respectfully, etc.
– 52 –
Brig Gen. B. Alvord, US Army, Comdg Dist of Ore.
Special Orders No. 105, District of Oregon, dated Sept 21, 1863, directed Maj. Rinearson to
relieve Major Lugenbeel from command of Fort Boise to enable the latter to comply with orders of the
War Department. In a letter of a later date, General Wright recommended to General Alvord that Lieut.
Col. T. G. English, lst Wash Terr Inf be sent to command Fort Boise. By Special Orders 117 dated 16
Oct. 1863, Lt. Col. English was ordered from Fort Steilacoom to Fort Boise. Major Rinearson ordered to
Fort Walla Walla. In another Special Order, the orders were again changed and Lt. Col. T. C. English was
detailed as Asst. Provost Marshal of Oregon District to permit Major Lugenbeel to remain at Fort Boise.
Special Orders 155, 30 December 1863, directed Colonel Steinberger to proceed to Fort Vancouver for
muster out of service. Same Special Orders directed Major Rumrill to proceed from Fort Colville to Fort
Walla Wall a where he would assume command of the lst Wash. Terr. Infantry and that post upon the
departure of Colonel Steinberger.
As of 31 Dec. 1863 troops were stationed in the Oregon Military District as follows: Fort
Vancouver – Cos B and G, lst ore Cav, Co. A, 9th Inf and Det of Ord; Fort Walla Walla – Cos A and E, lst
Ore Cav and Cos A and H, lst Wash Terr Inf; Ft. Lapwai – Co. F, lst Ore Cav and Co. E, lst Wash Terr
Inf; Fort Dalles – Co. D, lst Ore Cav and Co. F, lst Wash Terr Inf; Fort Colville – Cos B and C, lst Wash
Terr Inf; Fort Steilacoom – Co. K, lst Wash Terr Inf; Camp Pickett – Co. C, 9th Inf; Ft. Boise – Cos D and
G, 1st Wash Inf.
In a letter from General Wright to the Adjutant General, War Department, dated Jan. 8, 1864 he
stated that the lst Wash Terr Inf was reduced to one half its strength as authorized by law and proposed
the consolidation into five companies.
In a letter dated 20 Jan. 1864, General Wright advised Gen Alvord that Co. D, 9th Inf had been
ordered to Fort Vancouver to arrive about 27 Jan. 1864. In a later letter, General Wright informed Gen
Alvord that this company was for the purpose of manning the batteries at the mouth of the Columbia
In a letter dated 30 Jan. 1864, General Wright advised General Alvord that the consolidation of the
1st Wash Terr Inf was of necessity following action by the War Department in the case of Colonel
Steinberger. On 24 Feb. 1864, Lieut. Col. T. C. English was directed to assume command of the lst Wash
Terr Inf Regt. On 4 March, General Wright recommended to the War Department that the consolidation
of the lst Wash Terr Inf be postponed, which recommendation was approved.
Ft. Vancouver, W.T., Mar. 18,1864
Hon George E. Cole
Delegate from Wash. Terr, Wash D C
Sir: I write this to recommend in the strongest terms that an appropriation should be made for a
fortification at Point Defiance, on Puget Sound, in this territory. I think if you will call at the office of
Brig. Gen. J. G. Totten, Chief of Engineers, you will find that he will favor it. Please ask him to refer on
the subject to the report and map made at that point (and Gig Harbor) opposite in 1860 by lst Lieut.
T. L. Casey, of the Engineer Corps. It was declared a military reservation that year by General Wright;
with a view to its being fortified. It is the only point where the straits narrow, so as to be easily
commanded. Some defenses at the mouth of the Columbia are fairly under way, and it is time attention
was now made to Point Defiance. Two ironclad steamrams are also essential to our defense on Puget
Sound and on the Columbia.
I have the honor, etc.
Benj Alvord, Brig Gen Comdg
– 53 –
Fort Vancouver, W.T., March 23rd, 1864
Your letter of the 15th instant indicates that you may be called upon to aid with the troops the civil
authority in your vicinity. The general commanding the District directs that you will not use the military
to aid the civil authority, except upon the request of the Governor of the Territory. Please refer any of the
civil authorities who may ask it, to the Governor, whose requisition in this respect, you will fulfill to the
best of your ability.
I am, very respectfully, etc.
J. W. HOPKINS, 1st Lt Ore Cav, Acting
Assistant adjutant
Captain E. H. Tucker
1st Wash Terr Inf or Commanding
Officer, Fort Steilacoom
Copy, respectfully furnished for the information of Governor Pickering – Capt. Tucker under date
of the 15th instant, writes that two persons, suspected of cattle stealing have been expelled from the
country. He writes of apprehending that he may be called upon to use the military to prevent mob
violence. I hope that no necessity for such aid may occur, and prefer that you shall be consulted in case of
any necessity arising. I have ordered thirteen additional men to the garrison from Fort Dalles. But I cannot
believe that any collision with the people is likely to occur. Captain Tucker talks of arresting secessionists
in his vicinity. I have requested him not to arrest for mere idle words, but to arrest any guilty of positively
disloyal practices or overt acts. I think he exaggerates the difficulties referred to.
Very respectfully, etc
Benj, Alvord, Brig Gen US Vols, Comdg.
Special Orders No. 60, Hq. Dist of Ore dated 19 April 1864 directs the movement of Co. E, lst
Wash Terr Inf from Ft. Dalles to Ft. Vancouver. S. O. No. 166, 28 April announced the transfer of Hq.
Oregon Cavalry to Ft. Boise. Col R. F. Maury with his staff to repair thereto as soon as practicable and
relieve Major Rinearson in command. The latter to repair to Ft Dalles and assume command of that post.
By letter dated 29 April 1864, General Wright advised General Alvord that the post at the mouth
of the Columbia win be designated Cape Disappointment.
General Orders No. 201, War Department, announced that by order of the President, Major
General Irvin McDowell, U. S.Volunteers, will assume command of the Department of the Pacific.
Special Orders 75, Hq. District, of Oregon, dated 25 May 1864 directs the movement of Co. H, lst
Wash Terr Inf from Ft WallaWalla to Ft. Vancouver. Also Co. B, lst Wash Terr Inf to move without delay
from Fort Colville to Fort Walla Walla. In a letter to General Wright, General Alvord advised that the
move was designed to move the smallest company of the regiment on the possibility of consolidating the
As of 30 June 1864 the following was the disposition of the troops in the Oregon Military District:
Cos E and H, lst Wash Terr Inf and Co. D, 9th Inf at Ft Vancouver under the command of Captain Philip
A. Owen, 9th Inf; Vancouver Arsenal under command of Captain T. J. Eckerson; Co. C, 9th Inf on San
Juan under the comd of Captain Bissell; Cos A and B, lst Wash Inf at Ft Walla Walla under the command
of Lt. Col. T. C. English; Co. F, lst Ore Cav at Camp Lapwai under Maj Truax; Cos D and G, lst Ore Cav
on expedition under the command of Captain John M. Drake; Co. C, lst Wash Terr Inf at Ft Colville
under Maj Rumrill; Co. F, lst Wash Terr Inf at Ft Dalles under Major Rinearson; Co. K, lst Wash Terr Inf
at Ft Steilacoom under Captain Egbert H. Tucker; 3 cos Wash Terr Inf at Fort Boise under Col. Reuben F.
Maury; Cos A and E, lst Ore Cav on expedition under the command of Captain George B. Currey; Co. B,
– 54 –
lst Ore Cav on Canyon City expedition under Capt. R. S. Caldwell; enroute Co. H, lst Wash Terr Inf
under Capt. W. F. Mason Ft Walla Walla to Ft Vancouver.
General Orders No. 31, Hq. Dept. of the Pacific, dated 1 July 1864 announced the assumption of
that command by Major General Irwin McDowell. General George Wright assumed command of the
District of California.
Ft Vancouver, W. T. July 11, 1864
Lt Col R C Drum
Asst Adj Gen, Hq. Dept of the Pacific
San Francisco, California
Colonel: I have the honor to submit a report for the information of the major general commanding the
department as to the expiration of term of service of the volunteer troops serving in the district, and of the
necessity of timely steps being taken to replace them. They consist of six companies of the First Oregon
Cavalry Volunteers, ten companies of the First Washington Territory Volunteers, and one company of
Fourth Infantry California Volunteers. The three years service of six companies of the First Oregon
Cavalry, viz, A, B, G, D, E and F expire from November to March next. Co. C, not in my district, being at
Ft Klamath, is eighty five strong at last accounts. The other five companies in my district, Companies A,
B, D, E and F have now 316 men. The time of four companies, A, B, D and E expires in November and
December next. The time of service of five companies of the First Washington Territory Infantry, A, B, C,
D and E expires the 1st of February to the 15th of May, 1865. The time of the majority of Co. F expires
by the 1st of July next. The five companies contain now 327 men. After the lst of July, 1865, there would
remain one company, G of the First Oregon Cavalry, whose time expires in November 1866, and five
companies, F, G, H, I and K of the First Washington Territory Infantry whose time expires from July to
December 1865. Of the First Oregon Cavalry, thirty one men have reenlisted, in the district, claiming the
bounty given to veteran volunteers enlisted before the lst of April 1864. Six men of Company A, First
Washington Territory Infantry have also reenlisted. It was the only company which came within the two
years service required. Captain L. S. Scott’s Company D, Fourth California Volunteers is distributed
between, Fort Hoskins, Yamhill and the Siletz Blockhouse on the Indian, Reservation West of the
Willamette Valley. The three years for which this company was raised expire on the 18th of September
next, but only twenty-two men of the company remain to be discharged on that day and thirteen in
October, 1864. Thirty five have reenlisted in the company and fourteen enlisted since lst of November
last. The company is 95 strong. Captain Scott gets good recruits and I recommend that special, authority
be given to Captain Scott and his officers to be remustered under their existing commissions into the
service for three years as provided in paragraph 1 of War Department Circular No. 36, of 2nd May 1864.
It is true that the provisions of that Circular have not been fully complied with, but I think that the general
commanding will find it adviseable to get permission in certain cases to perpetuate companies under their
old organization. I see nothing in the laws to prevent such discretion being given. Thus the time of 689
men expires in my district before the lst of July next. 250 of them before lst of January next. Now; it has
been well tested that very few troops can be raised here by volunteer enlistment. On the 6th of January
1863, the Governor of Oregon pursuant to request of the War Department, through General Wright, issued
a proclamation calling for six additional companies of First Oregon Cavalry. Not until the 10th of August
1863, was one company mustered into service. It is the only company raised under the call. The remaining
companies have never been raised. The Governor finally abandoned the undertaking, revoking the
appointment of the second lieutenants and recruiting officers conditionally appointed under the provisions
of War Department General Orders No. 75, of 1862. The causes of this failure are to be found in the
mining excitement and temptations of this coast, in the depreciation of legal-tender notes, and the absence
of the war stimulus.
– 55 –
The first six companies of the First Oregon Cavalry were raised under the war stimulus of 1861.
Many of the privates in the ranks were highly respectable citizens, some owning considerable property
and volunteered from the most patriotic impulses. The regiment was raised also at a time when the status
of affairs in Oregon was not quite stable and satisfactory. Governor Whitaker was Governor, who had
talked loosely about a neutral position of Oregon. The Field Officers were appointed by the President.
Thus the regiment was raised during the fervor of the Union sentiment. The whole twelve companies of
the regiment could have easily been raised, but orders arriving from the department headquarters limiting
it to six companies. When the effort to raise the other six companies was made last year, all the
excitement had died out. I desire here to record my conviction, in justice to the present Governor of
Oregon, the Hon. A. C. Gibbs, that I believe he has left nothing undone in his power to do, to raise said
companies. He has always showed the utmost desire efficiently and promptly to cooperate with me in
carrying out the views of the government. The question then occurs how are we to obtain troops to replace
those whose times expires? They must come from the East or be obtained by conscription. I doubt not that
troops willing to come to this coast could be easily enlisted east of the Rocky Mountains, but it would
take another season to get them here overland, unless, perchance, some of the regiments now with
General Sully in the Upper Missouri should be marched here. If an order should soon be sent to General
Sully such troops could reach Fort Walla Walla before winter. But I see not well how troops can be
obtained except by conscription. I have not had troops enough for the wants of this frontier. Important
demands of the Indian Department cannot be carried out for want of troops, and the fortifications at the
mouth of the river will require more troops. The incursions of the Snake Indians have rendered it
necessary for me to seriously diminish the garrisons of Forts Colville, Lapwai and this place. Therefore,
in asking for more troops, I shall recommend the raising of more than I heretofore had in my district. I
would say that we should have eight companies of cavalry and a regiment of Infantry. This would make
1,600 men to be raised by conscription. It is highly desireable to retain the organizations and the officers
of a large proportion of the companies now in the service. I respectfully recommend that the major
general commanding the Department of the Pacific obtain special authority to dispense with the
conditions imposed in War Department Circular No. 36 of the 2nd of May last. I recommend that
authority be given to fill up the companies of the old organizations with drafted men, retaining in the
service under their old rank and commissions such officers as it may be deemed adviseable to retain. The
thirty-fourth section of the conscription act of 3rd March 1863, authorizes the President to assign drafted
recruits to “such corps, regiments, or other branches of the service as the exigencies of the service may
require”. I can find no legal objections to the propositions I have made for retaining the officers and
organizations in the service. Herewith I enclose to you a paper stating the dates of the expiration of the
volunteer companies of my district. The time of the company at Fort Colville, Co. C, lst Wash Terr Inf
expires 1st April 1865. Under Circular No. 36, it could be detained two months before being mustered
out. Troops could reach Fort Colville, 500 miles from this place, next spring by the 7th of June, otherwise
troops should leave here this fall for that, post by the lst of October. I should add that eight companies of
the First Washington Territory Infantry were raised in California. It is quite impossible to have raised that
regiment in Washington Territory. In recommending the raising of 1,600 men by draft for this district I do
not say that they should all come from Oregon and Washington Territory. California has always furnished
its share for our defense. Considering that her population has peen seven times as large, and that the
frontiers of my district are as large and remote as those in California, it will appear reasonable that she
should contribute her proportion to the defense of this region. As the telegraph informs us that the new
law requires fifty days notice of the intended draft, you will perceive that there is but little time left for the
necessary orders and arrangements.
I am, very respectfully, etc.
– 56 –
NO. 38 San Francisco, Calif., July 25, 1864
I. The arrest of a prominent citizen on the charge of endeavoring, among other disloyal practices,
to excite certain citizens to armed organization against the government of the United States, on the pretext
that they were to be prevented by the United States military forces from exercising their right to vote at
the coming Presidential Election, is deemed a suitable occasion to inform all concerned that it is made no
part of the duty of the U. S. military authorities, and that their is neither an intention nor the slightest wish
on their part, to interfere in any way whatever to influence even, much less control or restrain anyone in
the full and free exercise of his right to vote for whomsoever he pleases.
II. No armed organization will be suffered in the department save those sanctioned by competent
constituted authority.
By command of Major General McDowell:
Ft Vancouver, W.T., August 4, 1864
Major General Irvin McDowell, US Army
San Francisco, California
General. I received and answered yesterday the telegram of 2nd instant from Capt. Haven, saying that you
would sail the 17th, etc. I wrote immediately to the Collector at Port Angeles, copying said telegram, and
asking him to be good enough to reply promptly, so that I might, if possible, be able to telegraph to the
same before the 17th. It is doubtful if I can get any reply by that date. If you should fail to get the
Shubrick, you would probably have no trouble in getting the Eliza Anderson (steamer which runs on the
Sound) to stop for you at San Juan Island. I recommend to you to read, general, the article on the San Juan
question in the Edinburgh, Review for April, 1864. It gives the British side of the question. You will
notice (p. 233) that he says that the Canal de Haro passage was not used until recently. This has been
studiously asserted. Governor Douglas once at Victoria said so to me. I instantly reminded him that
Wilke’s voyage and exploration was in 1843. His chart of Puget Sound was out some years before the
treaty of 1846 giving with minuteness the soundings (or rather, such is the depth, the no sounding, the no
bottom) of the Haro Passage. Since I have been in command several tangled questions, between the
residents on San Juan have arisen. Our civil authorities in the county were disposed to raise questions. I
appealed to their patriotism to await the conclusion of the war before urging their claims imperatively
upon our government. My course concerning San Juan, with the concurrence of General Wright, has been
to administer opiates and stave off puzzling questions growing out of the joint occupation. I recommend
to you to get the Shubrick to take you to Port Discovery (some of the Naval gentlemen have spoken of
Port Discovery as a naval depot, but, I think the anchorage is too deep, so it is said), a fine harbor on our
side also to show you Point Defiance, twelve miles north of Steilacoom. They should probably someday
both be fortified, especially the latter. Point Defiance and Gig Harbor, opposite, were declared a military
reservation in 1860, and surveyed by Lieut. Thomas L. Casey, of the Engineers, by order of General
Wright. It is a point which should at once be fortified if we wish to defend the Sound. I have met with
such poor encouragement in reference to the mouth of the Columbia, the temporary fortifications being
begun, and the few ordnance being sent only after long and incessant importunities, that I have not been
encouraged to say much about Point Defiance. The Coast Survey Map of 1854, entitled “Reconnaissance
of Canal de Haro and strait of Rosario and Approaches”, you will find admirable on the whole. General
Totten recommended for the Columbia River a heavily armored battery and ram, and I have made several
unavailable efforts to get one. I shall invite your aid in the matter. I shall be happy to see you here, and
have thus cursorily hinted some of the topics I may call to your notice. I shall be pleased to welcome you
to my quarters on your arrival.
I remain, general, very truly, etc. BENJ ALVORD, BRIG GEN US VOLS, COMDG
– 57 –
Letter from General U. S. Grant to the Secretary of War dated August 4th, 1864 from City Point,
Virginia, points out the necessity of having good commanders on the Pacific Coast. He questioned the
abilities of both McDowell and Alvord and recommended Halleck for the Department and Wright for the
Oregon District. Secretary Stanton in a reply dated 18 August 1864 indicates he is in agreement with Gen.
Grant of the relief of Gen. Alvord, but feels General McDowell has been there such a short time that he
should be given a chance to prove himself. General Grant in another letter dated 20 August indicated that
Gen. McDowell was not liked according to intelligence he had received.
Fort Vancouver, W.T., Oct. 25,1864
The arduous services of the troops during the past season deserve the notice and commendation of
the Commanding General. In the field since early spring, they have won his thanks, officers and men, for
their persevering exertions in long and dreary marches, often through desert wastes, with a view to the
protection of travellers, miners and emigrants. The troops under Colonel Maury, Captains Curry,
Caldwell, Drake and Berry, and Lieutenants Hobart, Waymire and West, have all done good service
sometimes in conflict with the Snake Indians.
Southeastern Oregon is no longer an unknown region. From the Columbia River to the Nevada
and California line, the whole country has been thoroughly traversed. From each temporary depot,
scouting parties were sent to every point of the compass. Some of the troops have travelled this season,
more than two thousand miles.
During the summer of 1862 and 1863, these troops made honorable and important campaigns into
the Indian country, and upon the emigrant road. If on occasion they had no Indian wars, they had the
satisfaction, by their presence of preventing them.
It is fitting that the closing services of the greater portion of the lst Oregon Cavalry, have been
devoted to the exploration and development of a part of Oregon, heretofore marked on our maps as
“unexplored” It but which can no longer receive that designation.
The regiment was raised three years ago, in the fervor of the Union sentiment of the State, and
many rushed to the standard to show their readiness to put down any possible scheme of secession on this
coast. They have, happily, thus far had no such duty to perform; a duty which would have been so
inspiring to the volunteers. They have had little stimulus amid their privations. But they can at least reflect
that they have materially aided in developing the hidden treasures of the land.
The country deplores the death of 2d Lieutenant Stephen Watson, lst Oregon Cavalry, killed in the
fight of the 18th of May, and of the other gallant men who fell with him. If a choice had been given them,
they would have lost their lives in support of the glorious cause for which our troops are contending at the
east. We who mourn their demise, must be consoled with the reflection that they died in the defense of a
suffering frontier, which will cherish the memory of their generous and patriotic services.
By order of Brigadier General B. Alvord
1st Lieut, lst Ore Cav., Actg Asst Adj Gen
– 58 –
August 31, 1864
Major General H. W. Halleck
Chief of Staff
I beg to ask for the same authority for continuing, consolidating, mustering in and mustering out
volunteer regiments or companies in the State of Oregon and the Territories in the Department of the
Pacific, as has been in your telegram of August 18th for California. The troops, old and new, for Oregon
and Nevada not to exceed in all for each a regiment of cavalry and a regiment of infantry. The troops for
Washington Territory not to exceed a regiment of infantry. Those for Idaho and Utah, not to exceed four
companies of cavalry or infantry in each as the state of the service from time to time may require.
By telegram dated 10 Sept. Gen. Halleck granted the authority.
On September 7th, 1864, Governor Pickering dispatched the first telegram from Washington
Territory to President Lincoln.
Special Orders No. 113 Hq. Dist. of Oregon dated 7 Sep. 1864 announced that Col. Steinberger,
having reported back for duty agreeable to the War Department would repair to Fort Walla Walla and
assume command of the lst Wash Terr Inf and that post. Major Rumrill to repair to Fort Steilacoom and
assume command of that post. Colonel Steinberger reported back that he had assumed command on l5
Sep. l864,
On 20 Oct. 1864, Governor Gibbs of Oregon received authority from General McDowell to
organize a regiment of Infantry in Oregon. On the same date he presented to the Oregon Legislature for
authority, and obtaining the authority issued a proclamation on 24 October for organization of the Militia
companies to fill the requisition. Regiment was to be known as he First Infantry Oregon Volunteers. The
law enacted provided for a bounty of $1.50 in state interest bearing bonds in addition to any bounties paid
by the United States. In addition the soldiers were to be paid $16 per month besides clothing, equipments,
rations and allowances, all furnished by the United States.
Special Orders No. 148, Hq. District of Oregon, 3 Nov, 1864, directed the movement of Colonel
R. F. Maury, with his regimental adjutant to Fort Vancouver and establish his headquarters at that station.
Considerable correspondence all dated 7 November 1864 indicated uprisings were anticipated if
Abraham Lincoln was reelected President. Precautionary measures were issued by all commanders of the
West Coast to safeguard arms and ammunition. Gen. Alvord reported the existence of secret clubs
throughout Oregon and Washington who were armed and ready to take treasonable actions. In a letter of
9th November, Gen. Alvord asked General McDowell for authority to call out the Militia in the event of
insurrection. General McDowell in a message on 10 Nov stated he could not foresee any requirement for
such action. Only action to develop in Oregon and Washington was an attempt by secessionists to seize
arms being sent by Governor Gibbs from Salem to Eugene and which was prevented. General Alvord
again on the 19th of Nov. asked for authority, stating that he had previously received such authority from
General Wright. Again General McDowell refused to grant such authority. Newspapers also published
numerous articles during this period on the possibility of a civil war between secessionists and loyal union
men on the West Coast.
On 26 November 1864, Governor Pickering advised General Alvord of an expected outbreak
among the Snohomish Indians brought about by the sale of liquor to members of that tribe by
unscrupulous white men. He had called for assistance from the Commander of Fort Steilacoom. Major
Rumrill with a detachment proceeded there and apprehended a white man named Riley for the murder of
one of the Indians. He asked General Alvord to increase the garrison at Fort Steilacoom by at least 30 men
in the event of retaliation by the Snohomish Indians.
In a message to the Secretary of War, General McDowell on December 8th advised that no drafts
would be ordered in Washington or in any part of his command.
– 59 –
In a letter dated 21 December 1864, Captain Siedenstriker, 1st Wash Terr Inf, commanding Fort
Boise requested authority from General Alvord to issue necessities of life to individuals in destitute
condition from his supply depot.
Special Orders 185, Hq. District of Oregon directed Co. A, 1st Ore Cav, upon arrival at Fort
Vancouver, to proceed to Fort Steilacoom where they would join with Captain Tucker’s Co. K, 1st Wash
Terr Inf and proceed to the mouth of the Snohomish on the Tulalip Indian Reservation. To remain there
until further orders.
Disposition of troops in the Oregon District as of 31 December 1864 was as follows: At Fort
Vancouver under Col. Reuben F. Maury – 3 cos of 1st Ore Cav, Cos E and F, 1st Wash Terr Inf and Co.
D, 9th U S Infantry; At San Juan, Co. C, 9th U. S. Infantry under Capt. Bissell; at Cape Disappointment,
Co. A, 9th Inf under Capt. Wm. F. Jordan; At Fort Walla Walla, Cos A and B, 1st Wash Terr Inf under
Col. Steinberger; At Fort Colville, Co. C, lst Wash Terr Inf under Captain George A. Glazure; At Ft
Steilacoom, Co. K, 1st Wash Terr Inf under Major Rumrill; At Ft Boise, 3 cos of 1st Wash Terr Inf under
Capt. Frederick Seidenstriker; At Fort Dalles, Co. E, lst Oreg Cav and Co. F. lst Wash Terr Inf under
Lieut. John T. Apperson; At Camp Lapwai, Co. F, 1st Ore Cav under Capt. Wm. J. Mathews; at Camp
Watson, Co. G, lst Ore Cav under Capt. Henry C. Small.
Ft Vancouver, W. T., Jan. 20, 1865
Major General Richard Delafield
Comdg Corps of Engineers, Washington City, D. C.
(Through Hq. Dept of the Pacific)
General: I write this letter to recommend that an appropriation be obtained for the erection of defenses at
Point Defiance and Gig Harbor, opposite, on Puget Sound, Washington Territory. It was surveyed and a
military reservation made there on the 9th of October 1860, by Lieut. T. L. Casey, of the Corps of
Engineers. I think that Major General I. McDowell, commanding the Department, who inspected the site
last August, will report in favor of its being fortified. Having often traversed the waters of the sound, I
have always considered it the most eligible point for a fortification. I shall send this through Headquarters
Department of the Pacific.
I am, with high respect, etc,
Ft Vancouver, W.T., Feb. 2,1865
Lieut. Col. R. C. Drum
Asst Adj Gen, Hq. Dept of Pacific
Colonel: If the general shall consider it if sufficient important, I write to recommend that a telegram be
sent to the Chief of Engineers, urging that an appropriation be obtained at this session of Congress for
defenses at and near Point Defiance, on Puget Sound. He would find in his office the report etc * * *. I
sent a letter to General Delafield on this subject two weeks ago since, through your office. I wrote in
March, 1863, to the Delegate from this Territory urging the matter, but nothing has been done.
I have the honor to be, etc.
Brigadier General, USV, Comdg.
INDORSEMENT Feb. 12, 1865
Telegraph is and has been for a long time past intercepted by Indian hostilities on the plains east of
Fort Laramie, and communication with the East is not practicable. See my letter of Feb. 11th to General
Delafield. I. McD
– 60 –
San Francisco, February 11, 1865
Brig. Gen. R. Delafield
Corps of Engineers, Washington City, D.C.
General: I inclose herewith Major Williamson’s report to me of October 7,1864, with its inclosures –
Brigadier General Alvord’s letter of Sep. 12, l864 to Capt. Tucker, and the letter’s report of Oct.. 17, 1864.
These papers relate to sites for fortifications on the waters of Washington Territory opening into the
Straits of Juan de Fuca. At present the only reservations for sites for fortifications are such as would
protect the entrance to Puget Sound (See: Coast Surveyor British Admiralty survey map) at Point
Defiance and the opposite shore at Gig Harbor. Point Defiance is a promontory of clay, jutting out into
salt water, without any fresh water on it, and from its formation, probably none to be had. The object of
my instructions was to see how near the first fresh water was to be found. I suggest the reservation be
extended to include it. Works at Point Defiance, which I think should be commenced as soon as possible;
will only protect Puget Sound, and will leave the large district waters – Admiralty Inlet, Hood’s Canal,
Possession Sound and other inland waters joining them entirely defenseless. I have therefore caused
Major Williamson to make a hasty reconnaissance of the heads at Admiralty Inlet and of the passage
called Deception Pass, in order that military reservations may be made at these places while the land still
belongs to the United States. If you concur the subject may be further acted upon and these points be
surveyed and reservations formally made by the President. In the way of work I would only recommend at
present those at Point Defiance, which are needed that we may have a safe place for our vessels in those
waters to retreat to, and I think immediate measures should be taken with respect to this place.
I have the honor, etc,
ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, Washington. Feb. 20, 1865
Major General I. McDowell
Comdg. Dept of the Pacific
General: I. have the honor to inform you that the Engineer Department has recently made application to
the Ordnance Department that the following guns and carriages be sent to .the Pacific Coast: To Fort at
Fort Point, Cal. ten l0-inch Rodman guns and casement carriages; to San Francisco for distribution by
Col. DeRussy on Pacific Coast, three l5-inch Rodman Guns and front pintle carriages; Since the 5th of
January l864, the Ordnance Department has been requested to forward to the Pacific Coast (including the
above) ten l5-inch guns, eleven l00-pounder and three 100 pounder rifle guns and ten l0-inch columbiads
or solid shot guns.
Respectfully, etc.
General and Chief of Engineers
General Orders No. 6, Hq. District of Oregon, dated 24 Feb. 1865 directs that a national salute be fired at
Meridian the day after reception of this order at each military post furnished with artillery in this district,
in honor of the restoration of the National Flag to Fort Sumter.
– 61 –
Ft. Vancouver, W.T., Feb. 24,1865
Brig. Gen. A. B. Dyer
Chief of Ordnance, Washington, D.C.
(Thru Hq. Dept. of the Pacific)
General: Herewith I inclose to you copies of letters to me of the 22nd of Dec. 1862 and May 4, 1864,
from your predecessors, Generals Ripley and Ramsay. You will please notice that in answer to several
communications from me made through the Engineer Department, on the 22nd of Dec. 1862, General
Ripley promised, as the settled decision of the War Department, that forty five guns would be sent for the
defenses at the mouth of the Columbia River. On the 4th of May 1864, General Ramsay writes that only
seventeen guns can be sent. I desire by this letter most earnestly to protest against this last decision, and
urge that the first amount promised shall be sent at the earliest possible date. We have not here the
arsenals of the Union at our back. Here more than at any point of our seacoast, the most remote and
exposed point, the rule should be followed “In time of peace to prepare for war”. It takes six to eight
months for guns to reach here around Cape Horn, and after any declaration of war we would be subjected
to the most cruel delays and the ordnance exposed to capture. Besides the supply for the posts at the
mouth, my letter of the 12th of Jan. 1864, recommended a deposit at Vancouver Arsenal of fifty guns and
platforms, and Brig Gen Totten, Chief or Engineers, under date of 14 March, 1864, concurred in my
recommendation, and a letter of 21 March 1864, from your office promised they should be sent as soon as
practicable. You will readily judge of my disappointment when even the supply now wanted for the forts
is refused. The forts are all ready to mount the forty-five originally promised. In this connection, I desire
again to call attention, as I did in my letters and requisitions of the autumn of 1862, to the importance, for
the sake of economy, that the ordnance should be sent in ships which can sail from ports on the Atlantic
coast direct to the mouth of the Columbia River. Vessels drawing fourteen feet of water can get in. The
guns already sent have first been shipped to San Francisco It has cost nearly if not quite as much to get
them to Alcatraz Island, in the harbor of San Francisco, to this river, as it did to get them from New York
to San Francisco.
I have the honor, etc.
Letter from the Inspector General of the Army, dated 25 Feb. 1865 directed the relief of General
Alvord from command of the District of Oregon and was to report to the Adjutant General upon arrival in
Washington, D.C.
Special Orders No. 47, District of Oregon dated 27 Feb. 1865 directed the movement of Cos E and
G, 1st Ore Cav from Ft Vancouver to Ft Colville via Fort Walla Walla. On arrival at Fort Colville, Co. C,
1st Wash Terr Inf was to repair to Fort Vancouver. Also directed Co. D, 1st Ore Cav to proceed from Fort
Dalles to Fort Walla Walla and upon arrival thereat, Cos A and B, 1st Wash Terr Inf would repair to Fort
Vancouver for muster out of service.
In a letter dated 28 Feb. 1865, General McDowell advised General Alvord of his relief from
command. Special Orders 51, Hq. Dist of Oregon, dated 3 March 1865, directed Colonel Steinberger to
repair to Ft Vancouver for mustering out of service. General Orders No. 8, same date, announced that
there would be no further recruiting for the lst Wash Terr Inf. Special Orders No. 59 dated 10 March 1865
directed Co. H, lst Wash Terr Inf to proceed to Fort Dalles and upon arrival thereat Co. F, lst Wash Terr
Inf would repair to Ft Vancouver.
In dispatches dated 14 March 1865 between General Alvord and General McDowell it was
indicated that Colonel Maury would relieve General Alvord in command of the District inasmuch at
Colonel Steinberger was to be mustered out of service. General Orders No. 14 announced relinquishment
of command of Brigadier General Benjamin Alvord and assumption of command by Colonel Reuben
Maury, 1st Ore Cav.
– 62 –
Fort Vancouver, W.T., April 7, 1865
Colonel R. C. Drum
Asst Adj Gen. San Francisco, Calif.
Sir: I have delayed writing as regards the necessity of additional cavalry and the proposed uses of the
troops of the district. Some days after doing so were necessary to inform myself as to the dispositions
made and proposed by the former commander, who, during his short stay after turning over the command,
was very kind in his efforts to impart all desired information. I will remark here that recruiting for the
cavalry is progressing rather better in the last weeks than the first. For present purposes the troops of the
district, supposing that the twelve companies of cavalry and the ten of the Oregon Infantry will be filled,
and leaving out of view San Juan Island and the forts at the mouth of the Columbia, would be disposed of,
if approved by the General commanding the department, as follows:
For Fort Colville, one company of cavalry and one of infantry. This is a cheap cavalry post, and
the necessity for this arm of service is increasing. There are no treaties or troubles now with the Indians in
its vicinity, but on account of the constant increase of mineral discovery around it, and consequent
increase of travel and settlement, it is important that our friendly relations should be maintained.
To do this, sufficient force and watchfulness and care on the part of the military toward both whites and
Indians are more necessary than heretofore. Indians, however well disposed, when not inconvenienced by
the proximity or intrusion upon their grounds of our people, may be forced by such depredations as lead
to extermination, and much greater cost pecuniarily than the maintenance, of such a force in their midst as
would deter them, as well as the lawless and evil-disposed of our own people, from aggression and
Wrong. These considerations are strengthened by the fact that this post is on one of the main traveled
routes from ours to the Kootenai (British) mines. For Fort Lapwai, Idaho Territory, one company of
cavalry is required as a police to prevent any infraction of our treaty stipulations with the Nez Perces, and
lawlessness generally on their reserve. With reasonable attention and justice their friendship, so
interrupted in the past, may be relied upon in the future. On account of fixed boundaries and privileges,
with an appreciative officer at Fort Lapwai, they are not liable to be forced even into conflict with our
citizens. Fort Boise, Idaho Territory, two companies of infantry and three of cavalry. Its isolated position –
500 miles from this place and about the same from Camp Douglas, in the midst of a population, a large
proportion of which is not of doubtful proclivities or antecedents of itself make this force necessary. But
this necessity, at least for some years, will be more urgent on account of the presence of thieving bands of
Indians infesting all routes leading into the extensive and rich mineral districts of which it is the center,
and the protection of which within a large circuit must depend upon it. A depot in Jordan Creek Valley,
twenty five miles west of the Owyhee mines, supplied by wagons from Fort Boise for a small detachment
of infantry and a company of cavalry, can protect the vicinity of these mines where there has been much
trouble, as well as the route leading from Northern California and Southern Oregon via Harney Lake and
Steen’s Valley, as far as those points. There should also be sufficient cavalry to patrol the mail or stage
route, as well as the emigrant route leading through Carnas Prairie from Salt Lake City. There is no
necessity of Fort Boise being an expensive cavalry post. There is ample grass during summer in all
directions, and so far as the wintering of the horses, the government hay reserve is very productive, the
grass from which can be harvested cheaply if properly managed, and undoubtedly such amounts of grain
as might be absolutely necessary could, even this season, be purchased in its vicinity at reasonable rates.
For Fort Klamath, one company of infantry and one of cavalry. The movements or operations of these
would connect eastward and north with those of Jordan Creek or Fort Boise, thus giving. I think, thorough
protection from Goose Lake to the Owyhee mines. For Camp Watson, one company of cavalry and a
detachment of infantry from Fort Dalles during the summer to operate south as far as Harney Lake, as
well as protect the Dalles and Canyon City road. From these three points, Fort Boise, Fort Klamath, and
Camp Watson, the overland travel to the Boise and Canyon City mines from California, southern and
middle Oregon, will be well protected. In the entire country to be traversed by these parties it has never
been my opinion that there is any large number of Indians, even if they were all collected; but they are in
– 63 –
small parties and active and determined rogues, killing whenever necessary to accomplish their purpose.
The nature of the country, its game and products, compel them to scatter in order to subsist, and in the
meantime lay up something for winter when they collect in larger camps. For this purpose (laying up
something for winter) our occupation of and travel through much of their country renders it valueless to
them and makes greater necessity for activity in their thieving raids. For Forts Dalles and Walla Walla,
one company of infantry and cavalry at each until the forts could be properly disposed of and sold. The
troops at these posts are only useful in furnishing detachments to the Umatilla and Warm Springs
reservations and escort of paymasters, etc. The necessity is constantly growing less. In a little while they
could be abandoned and sold with benefit to the government. For Fort Yamhill, the present garrison,
Captain Scott’s company, California volunteers. For Fort Steilacoom, two companies of infantry. The
large number of Indians in this vicinity makes this force necessary to hold in check lawlessness generally,
or to punish any aggression on the part of the Indians. The three remaining companies of the First
Washington Territory Infantry would be collected here during the summer, preparatory to being
discharged, and are not included in these dispositions but would be left at their present posts, except as
favorable opportunities were presented for bringing them in. The tenth company of Oregon Infantry and
the three companies of cavalry (dismounted) would remain at this post.
These arrangements in full are of course contingent upon both regiments filling and those for the
forts at the mouth of the Columbia remaining as contemplated. Taking into consideration the requirements
of the service in the district, I earnestly recommend that both regiments be promptly filled. The tenth
company of infantry will fill some time this summer. The cavalry number about 500 enlisted men in nine
fragments. Company C at Fort Klamath, Company G at Camp Watson, Company F at Fort Lapwai,
Applegate’s Company (new) are all near the minimum. These, except the new company, are at their
proper stations (except a few recruits of F, now here), but I much fear that none of the remaining
companies will be organized in time to be of much service this summer. I shall, however, use those of the
old companies here to the best advantage possible. From this place the country bordering the Columbia
and Willamette Rivers, as far as navigation extends, is readily accessible. The cheapness of their support
here, the fact that discipline and soldierly bearing are more easily established and better preserved in
commands of several companies than one or two, point to this, in my judgment, as the proper place for
concentrating all the troops not absolutely required for active operations. The movement of the troops
now on hand will not be delayed for those in process of organization. They will be put in motion as soon
as practicable and divided as indicated. I have been thus particular, colonel, at the risk of being tedious,
with the hope that I might present to the general the necessities and requirements of the district in such a
manner as would enable him to understand the movements that may be directed for the summer. I will add
that so far as possible, without sacrificing more import – and duties, the escorts for surveying parties will
be furnished as indicated by General Alvord.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel, First Oregon Cavalry, Commanding District
– 64 –
During the period from 31 January 1865 to April 1, 1865, seven of the companies the First
Washington Territory Infantry were mustered out. Individuals who had joined these companies following
their arrival in the Territory and who had time remaining on their three year enlistment were transferred to
the three remaining companies, E, H and K. The latter were mustered out of service during the period 31
July – 31 October 1865.
On 10 June 1865, the Secretary of War advised General Halleck at Richmond, Virginia that he had
been assigned to command the new “Division” of the Pacific which embraced the “Departments” of
Columbia and California. General E. O. C. Ord was assigned to command the newly created “Department
of the Columbia” which embraced the State of Oregon and the Territories of Washington and Idaho.
Notification was made the same date to Major General McDowell who was to assume the command of
the “Department of California”, which embraced the States of California and Nevada and the Territories
of Utah, New Mexico and Colorado. Subsequently, orders of General Ord were revoked and General
George Wright was reassigned to the Department of the Columbia. However, enroute to assume
command, the ship on which he was a passenger went down off the Coast of Oregon and General Wright
was officially listed as drowned on 31 July 1865.
Disposition of troops in the District of Oregon as of 30 June 1865 was as follows: At Fort
Vancouver, Co. A, 1st Ore Inf, Co. E, 1st Wash Terr Inf and Co. D, 9th US Inf under the command of
Captain Philip A. Owen; On San Juan Island, Co. C, 9th Inf under Major Lyman Bissell; At Fort Walla
Walla, Cos D and F, 1st Ore Inf under Capt. Wm. S. Powell; At Fort Colville, Co. E, 1st Ore Inf under the
command of Capt. Ferdinand O. McCown; At Fort Klamath, Co. C, 1st Ore Cav and Co. I, 1st Ore Inf
under Capt. William Kelly; At Camp Watson, Co. H, lst Ore Inf and Co. G, 1st Ore Cav under Capt.
Henry C. Small; At Fort Dalles, Cos H and K, 1st Wash Terr Inf under Capt. George A. Glasure; Fort
Boise, 4 companies of 1st Ore Cav (enroute) Cos B and G, 1st Ore Inf (enroute) and Co. I, lst Wash Terr
Inf under the command of Capt. Wm. W. Thompson; At Fort Yamhill, Co. D, 4th Calif Inf under
command of Capt. Lyman S. Scott; At Fort Stevens, Co. B, 8th Calif Inf under Captain Gaston d’Artois;
At Cape Disappointment, Co. A, 8th Calif Inf and Co. A, 9th Inf under the command of Major Wm. H.
Jordan. At Fort Lapwai, Co. F, 1st Ore Cav under Captain William J. Matthews.
Following the muster out of the remaining battalion of the 1st Washington Territory Infantry, the
colors presented to that regiment were returned to Olympia and resulted in the following resolution by the
Legislative Assembly:
RESOLVED by the Council, the House concurring, THAT the colors presented by the Territory to
the first regiment of Washington Territory Infantry, late commanded by Justin Steinberger, and returned
to the Secretary of the Territory after said regiment was disbanded be deposited in the Capitol of the
Territory in a proper case or cases to be made under the supervision of said Secretary.
RESOLVED, That the funds appropriated to purchase said colors remaining unexpended, the said
Secretary be authorized to carry into effect said first resolution, provided no additional charge upon the
Territorial Secretary shall be incurred in securing said cases.
RESOLVED * * * (Hereafter followed thanks to Staff officers by name of the First Washington
Territory Infantry.
NOTE: Ashmun N. Brown, Secretary to one of Washington’s Governors in a letter to the
Washington State Historical Society on 22 April 1907 stated that when these colors were being removed
from the old Capitol building to the new, the regimental standard disintegrated and the remnants thereof
presented to the widow of Rossell G. O’Brien, former Adjutant General of Washington. The National
Standard is still preserved and hangs in the stairs of the Capitol Museum in Olympia.
– 65 –
That this regiment performed outstanding service is evidenced by another resolution passed by the
legislative assembly.
TO: The Honorable The Secretary of War of the United States of America.
Your memorialists, the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Washington, would
respectfully represent:
THAT the people of the Territory of Washington feel a just pride in the material and the
efficiency in drill and discipline of the First Regiment of Washington Territory Infantry,
commanded by Colonel Justin Steinberger.
THAT the presence of such a corps as enabled the general government to withdraw the
regular troops heretofore stationed within our territory, and by substituting this regiment, our
people have every reason to feel safe from any outbreak from Indians.
THAT the character and standing of officers and men, well and favorably known to us, are
guarantees of their future usefulness, and entitles them to the confidence of the government and
the Territory.
Your memoralists would, therefore, in the event of an increase or reorganization of the
Army, urge upon your favorable attention said regiment of Infantry, confidence in the event of
their retention in the service, that the well being and efficiency of the army would hereby be
By the end of 1865, all volunteer troops had been disbanded and once again the United States
Army regulars had the chore of protecting the western frontiers. The following summary of conditions at
the time is well presented in the following letter:
San Francisco, Cal., December 8,1865
Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant
Commanding Armies of the United States, Wash. D.C.
General: In compliance with your directions, I inclose herewith maps of the Departments of California
and the Columbia, on which are marked the several posts at present occupied by troops of this military
division. The following remarks are submitted by way of explanation:
I presume that it is the wish of the Government to have the fortifications on the seacoast occupied
with some kind of garrisons, however, small they may be. I shall therefore keep garrisons in the several
forts in the Bay of San Francisco and at the mouth of the Columbia River. There is at the present time a
company of artillery at San Diego for the purpose of enforcing our neutrality laws. When the Mexican
difficulty shall be solved there will be no necessity for a garrison at that place; at least not until the harbor
is fortified. At Wilmington, Los Angeles County, a very large and expensive depot and barracks has been
established. I can perceive no good reason for the enormous expenses which have been incurred at that
place; but as the establishment exists, it will probably be best to keep it until some other base for
supplying the troops in Arizona is determined on. This will be discussed in another place.
Until the boundary question in regard to San Juan is definitely settled it will be necessary to keep a
garrison at that place. A company of artillery is now stationed there. There is also a small garrison at Fort
Steilacoom, Forts Townsend and Bellingham are without garrisons. The territory bordering Puget Sound
is now so thickly settled by the whites that no danger is apprehended from Indian depredations, except in
canoes from the British possessions on the North. These parties usually land at places distant from any
– 66 –
military post, commit their robberies and murders, and are off in their canoes before their presence is
known to the garrisons, which would have no way of pursuing them by water. To prevent these
depredations there should be a small naval steamer kept cruising in the straits and sound.
I respectfully request that the attention of the Navy Department be called to the necessity of this
precaution. I see no use of military posts on these waters except at points where permanent fortifications
are to be established. Probably the points to be so defended are Port Discovery, Point Defiance, Deception
Pass and perhaps Admiralty Head. Should a navy-yard be established in these waters, perhaps it might be
necessary to fortify some other points for its defense. It is important that the proper localities for these
purposes be selected and reserved or purchased without delay. The value of these lands and the difficulty
of purchasing the sites are rapidly increasing, and in a few years they can be secured only at enormous
cost. Moreover, all expenses incurred for military posts in that vicinity should be made on sites which are
to be permanently occupied. Those at Steilacoom, Fort Bellingham and probably Port Townsend, should
be abandoned as a useless expense. I, however, shall order no changes there till General Steele arrives and
has time to investigate the matter. I think a board of engineers should be ordered without delay to select
the necessary sites for permanent fortifications.
In regard to the protection of the Indian frontier on the east, the policy should be to keep the troops
in advance, retain them in the rear of the white settlements, and to make the posts as temporary and cheap
as possible. These should be maintained as depots of supplies for expeditions against the Indians and the
temporary camps which may be established in their country. As these camps will be continually changing,
they should be of the most temporary character. Tents and huts constructed by the troops will usually be
The most northerly post on this frontier line is Fort Colville; next is Fort Lapwai, near Lewiston.
Probably it will be necessary to establish an intermediate temporary post in the vicinity of Coeur d’Alene
Lake or Mission, and perhaps another pretty well up the Salmon River and between the Lapwai mountains
and Fort Boise. The latter post will serve as a center of operations to Fort Hall on the east and to the near
southern boundary of Idaho Territory. Camp Lyon serves as a temporary protection to the mining
operations on the Owyhee River, but it will probably be necessary to establish a post near the
headquarters of that river, say somewhere near the northern boundary of Nevada or near Pete’s Butte, so
as to connect with Fort Ruby and the settlements of the Humboldt River. All Indians west of this line
should be removed or placed in reservations, so as to prevent their marauding expeditions upon the white
settlements. Much of this can be accomplished in the course of the coming year.
There is a belt of rather poor country extending from Fort Klamath to the Owyhee River, over
which the Indians pass on their robbing expeditions into Southern Oregon and Northern California, and to
receive and purchase horses stolen by the local tribes. In order to check these depredations, Camps Polk,
Watson, Currey, Wright and Alvord were established in Oregon, and Fort Bidwell and Camps
McDermott, Salt Lake, Snake Creek and Dun Glen in California and Nevada. These are of a very
temporary character and when the more advanced line is completed most of them will be dispensed with.
Fort Klamath must for the present, on account of Indians in that vicinity, be retained. The expenses of its
construction were entirely disproportionate to its importance. Fort Yamhill and Walla Walla can probably
be dispensed with very soon and Fort Dalles immediately. It is not possible to conceive any military
necessity for the enormous expenditures at Fort Dalles. Fort Vancouver serves as a depot for the supply of
the Department of the Columbia, and the military establishment at Fort Dalles seems more like private
speculation than a public necessity.
– 67 –
* * *
* * *
* * *
* * *
I must again urge upon you the necessity of sending a cavalry force to this Division. We have no
mounted troops in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada and in California and Arizona only the
California volunteers, who regard their term of enlistment as having expired and wish to be mustered out.
These troops are made up of most excellent material, but men who regard themselves as unjustly retained
in service will not be very efficient in the field. You will bear in mind that when your orders for mustering
out got to the volunteers are completely carried out, the only forces in this entire division will be the
Second Artillery and Ninth and Fourteenth Infantry. The Ninth is only a small regiment. The artillery will
be required to garrison the forts on the coast, and the Ninth Infantry in the interior of California and
This leaves only one battalion of the Fourteenth lnfantry for the Department of the Columbia and
two Battalions for Arizona. The hostile character of the, Indians in the latter Territory, requires more posts
and larger garrisons than in Oregon, Washington and Idaho but circumstances may render it necessary to
reinforce the troops in the latter Department. With the present forces in the Division it would be difficult
to do this without seriously exposing other districts to Indian depredations. A regiment of cavalry would
do much to relieve this embarrassment.
* * *
Very respectfully, etc.
Major General, Commanding
The following statistics of the First Washington Territory Infantry Regiment were compiled from
records in possession of the Washington Historical Society:
Total number of officers who served in regiment 38
Total number of enlisted men who served in regiment. 1,021
(some duplication on transfers, etc)
Number completing enlistment 645
Number deserting 209
Number discharged for disability 11
Number dishonorably discharged 9
Number killed in action or died 15
Other Casualties 13
Number commissioned or enlisted from Oregon 125
Number commissioned or enlisted in Washington 264
– 68 –
Colonel Justus Steinberger Mustered into service in Washington, D.C.
18 Oct. 1861. Mustered out 18 Mar. 1865
Lieut. Col. Thomas C. English Mustered into service at San Fran Calif
on 16 Apr. 1862. Mustered out 17 Apr. 1865
Major Galvin H. Rumrill Mustered into serv. at San Fran Calif on
15 Feb. 1862. Mustered out 31 Oct. 1865
First Lieut. William Kapus Mustered into serv. at Ft. Vancouver on
20 Sep. 1862. Mustered out 26 Jun. 1865
Second Lieut. L. G. Cabanis Mustered into serv. at San Fran Calif on
20 Jun. 1862. Mustered out 26 Jun. 1865
Captain Samuel Whitemore Mustered into serve at San Fran Calif on
10 Mar. 1862. Mustered out on 26 Jun. 1865
Captain Charles Steinberger Mustered into serv. at San Fran Calif on
27 Oct. 1862. Mustered out as Major and
Surgeon on 26 Jun. 1865
– 69 –
Captain William W. Thompson Mustered into serv. at San Fran Calif on
9 Oct. 1862. Mustered out on 31 Jan. 1865
First Lieut. J. W. Clawson Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
7 Apr. 1862. Mustered out on 31 Jan. 1865
2nd Lieut. James Monroe Mustered into serv. at Ft Walla Walla on
6 Jan. 1863. Mustered out on 31 Jan. 1865
Brown. Philip Carthy, John Herring, John Miller, Charles P.
Brown, John Carroll, Michael Hines, John H. Mahoney, John
Brown. William Coleman, John Hammond, Andrew E. Noble, Athan D.
Bennett, Daniel Corn, George A. Haley, Thomas W. Norton, Frederick
Barnum, William D. Carr, Edward Hartley, John Naron, Charles E.
Brogan, Patrick Cozart, William T. Jones, Francis O’Neilly, Michael
Briggs, James P. Callaghan, John Jay, John J. Penn, James H.
Benton, Hilan Davis, David Kelly, Thomas Ranahan, Thomas
Benton, James F. Daly, Robert Kilhall, James Ryan, Edward
Bryan, William E. Dodge, Frederick Leonard, James Riley, William
Barnett, James W. DeForrest, George McKilts, Peter Richardson, George
Bell, John Derringer, Alvis McDowell, Robert B. Robertson, George
Bello, Esperidon Dunlap, Robert H. McGahn, Henry Robinson, John
Bell, Frank Glynn, John McCarthy, John Rost, John A.
Bolet, Lewis Glynn, Dennis McClune, David Stepheson, Howard P.
Church, Harrison Gellows, Charles Manning, Edward C. Strum, William P.
Cleany, Thomas Getty, Henry Moore, Thomas Sullivan, Jeremiah
Crow, George R. Gallovan, James Mill, William W. Smith, David
Saunders, Charles M. Washington, George McIrwin, Samuel McNeff, Hugh
Throup, Frederick. Wash, Richard McIrwin, William S. Rourk, James
Williams, Peter S. Hennessy, Thomas Monson, James Quint, George W.
Walker, Davis Kerr, Charles W. O’Malley, Patrick Gramblett, W. W.
Wade, James Cohen, Jeremiah Shanley, Andrew
– 70 –
Captain S. W. Shulock Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
1 April 1862. Mustered out on 31 Jan. 1865
First Lieut. William F. Mason. Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
17 Feb. 1862. Mustered out on 31 Jan. 1865
Second Lieut. Christian Gatz Mustered into serv. at Ft Walla Wal1a on
20 Dec. 1862. Mustered out on 31 Jan. 1865
Abramson, Peter Ehmer, Lewis Luther, Chauncey Tedford, John
Adams, John P. Fitzclarence, George McCann, Thomas Waterman, Thomas
Anderson, John Forsythe, Joseph McCarthy, Thomas Walker, Jeremiah
Austsmith, Jacob Friel, John McCoy, John Wilson, James
Alexander, August Garnett, William Miller, John Wise, Andrew
Beckett, John Gates, Charles Miller, Allen Woodruff, Charles S.
Brown, George Gesenius, Charles Miller, Charles Wolf, Maurice
Briggs, Henry Gillette, James C. Moore, James W. Young, Frederick
Buckley, Jeremiah Gray, John Moore, John P. Zimmer, John
Butler, Banjamin L. Griggs, Daniel B. Monroe, James Strum, William P.
Canfield, Abram Grudin, Francis Morrisey, Richard Malone, John
Chamberlin, Alpha Haggerty, George Mould, Charles H. Brown, Charles
Colby, John W. Herring, Thomas Murphy, Mathew P. Powers, Samuel
Cole, Henry Houston, Albert A. Palmer, Fred I. Connell, John
Coulson, William B. Hunt, Adolph Patow, Gustave Donnelly, James
Cox, Harrison Igo, Albert Peel, Elisha D. Tillson, David
Coyne, John Isley, Daniel Peterson, Charles Dugear, John
Darlinton, Daniel Johnson, Thomas Potter, Horatio T. Gillett, Jacob
Davis, John O. Jones, Wtlliam Richit, Henry V. Noonan, Patrick
Dean, John Kenyon, Charles H. Rojas, Malicia McMeilman, James
Dean, William King, James Scranton, Wm. H. B. Snieder, Charles
Deitrich, Francis Knapp, James Shea, Cornelius Grout, Charles B.
Devendorf, George Lehman, Jacob Smith, Peter Johnston, William A.
Durnin, Charles Lessor, Joseph Somers, Edward Simmons, George
Edgar, Hugh Light, Martin Swayze, Jehiel Dow, Ezra
– 71 –
Captain George A. Glazure Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
17 Apr. 1862. Mustered out on 30 Apr. 1865
First Lieut. Max Weisendorf Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
26 Mar. 1862. Mustered out on 20 Apr. 1865
Second Lieut. Silas Hoardley Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
21 Mar. 1862. Mustered out on 30 Apr. 1865
Baldwin, John H. Foster, Edward Munroe, Frederick Wilke, Charles
Bowery, John Griffen, Patrick Mitchell, Edwin B. Williams, David
Bodger, Edward R. Gilligan, Matthew Morgan, David H. Wells, William F.
Briggs, Castor Gillingham, Charles Middleton, James Williams, Samuel
Bagan, Patrick Hoppe, Monroe C. McAfee, Elijah Young, John Q.
Brokk, Edward G. Holman, John McAfee, David Hubenthal, Hartman
Boesch, Ferdinand Hogan, Thomas Morrison, John Burke, Patrick
Crowley, John Halstead, David McCarthy, William Corn, George A.
Campbell, David Jones, George Nye, Silas F. Freitel, Simon
Cavanaugh, James Jones, William O’Shaughnessey, G. Flanigan, John
Croray, Thomas Johnson, Isaac C. O’Reilly, Patrick Holden, Joseph
Cory, Thomas Jacobs, George W. Otis, George H. Hueston, Edward
Dawson, Thomas Kinsley, John R. Peters, William Jones, Joseph
Dolan, Richard Z. King, William Reinhardt, Herman Little, John
Doud, Thomas Kopper, John Starr, Edward Whaley, Albert G.
Davis, Charles Linden, George Stewart, James Hilbert, Lorenzo
Donnelly, John A. Lotter, Christian Suman, Charles E. Schaeber, August A.
Donovan, James Luke, William L. Shields, John Thomas, Wesley
Derby, Henry Leary, Dennis Tucker, Andrew J. Neale, William J. C.
Doud, John Linehan, Jeremiah Twite, John Hays, Charles
Fergason, Levi D. Leary, Andrew J. Walker, Richard J. Hart, Elias
Flemming, James Lahue, Henry Williams, David A. Halstead, Thomas
– 72 –
Captain Frederick Seidenshiker Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
11 April 1862. Mustered out on 31 Mar. 1865
First Lieut. N. E. Funk Mustered into servo at Alcatraz Island on
21 Mar. 1862. Mustered out on 3l Mar. 1865
Second Lieut. Louis Herzer Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
11 April 1862. Mustered out on 31 Mar. 1865
Aldiss, George Fitzgerald, David Kroesler, Theodore Sante, Henry
Bretz, Henry Flory, Theodore Knode, John Schwartz, Henry
Behrman, Peter Fischer, George Krebs, Gottfried Schmitt, Julius
Bunte, John G. Fread, William H. Larson, John Shortwell, Richard
Blankenhorn, Christ. Gartig, Oscar Lauerhaus, George Schmidt, Alexander
Beauregard, John Gehrke, William Laity, Thomas Schneider, Augustus
Brown, Charles Grafmore, Henry Marck, Gustave Schroeder, Frederick
Brady, James Gwyer, James Millemann, Frederick Shaw, Henry
Camisa, Louis Haubert, Charles Millemann, John Tanner, Conrad
Conroy, Edward Hausmann, Hermann Majowski, Charles Taylor, John
Cragwell, James Hausting, Emil Meehan, John Wagner, John C. H.
Daily, Patrick Harm, John McKay, Robert Ward, Jackson B.
Dohn, Philip Hermann, Christian McMahon, Sam T. Waltemath, John H.
Dubanowsky,Vincent Henrici, Frederick OBrian, James Waters, James A.
Drummer, Chas A. J. Hesselbein, Hermann Orr, Walter Winfried, William
Dimer, George Huff, John Parker George Winter, George
Engler, Michael Hoppel, Michael Poertsch, John Yeidell, Herman
Endler, Louis Horn, Louis Peterson, William Yockum, Henry
Erb, Charles Herzer, Louis Quinn, James Young, Burkhard
Fagan, John Keller, Jacob Riehl, John Zimmerly, Frank
Hermann, Louis Colmache, Edward Kennedy, Hugh Shea, Michael
Burgess, Charles H. Deeve, William G. Lawrence, Joseph Smith, William H.
Struve, Frederick W. Curtis, James. W. McArdle, William Stafford, Cassius H.
Stringer, Frank Fairelough, Archibald Newman, Orbon Brickle, Adam
Toland, James Fisher, John B. Piggott, Manlove H. Perrott, Charles
– 73 –
Captain William M. Knox Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
10 May 1862. Mustered out on 31 Oct. 1865
First Lieut. C. P. Eagan Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
21 Jun. 1862. Mustered out on 1 Apr. 1865
Second Lieut. S. Purdy, Jr. Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
13 Jan. 1863. Mustered out on 31 Oct. 1865
Anderson, Davis Heidorn, Herman Williams, Charles Hughes, Francis W.
Anderson, William Jann, Henry Woodson, Albert E. Kennedy, Thomas
Anderson, Berijamin F. Kennedy, Joseph Gilligan, Matthew Loughran, Peter
Bolton, Robert Kenniwick, Michael Brown, Charles Livingston, Richard
Bohn, John Keith, Nathaniel Brown, Anthony Mitchell, Francis
Bellows, Albert McNutt, Jacob Ballentine, James McAuley, Robert
Burcham, Henry I. Morris, John Callaghan, William O’Conner, Timothy
Bash, John C. Mahoney, Ephraim Green, Isaac Rey, William
Barnes, Edward Manifold, Salem Stewart, P.B. Simpson, John
Buckingham, Nat. E. McQueen, John M. Calanan, John Spaulding, Jeremiah
Bates, Lewis M. McDermott, Patrick Fisher, George Thomas, James M.
Blirikinsop, Thomas McMahon, Owen Morgan, Henry Wardlaw, Levi J.
Burgess, Benj. A. Murphy, John Burton, Wilhelm E. Jackson, Thomas W.
Barry, Michael I. McGlensey, Wm. I. Collins, Simeon Plummer, Franklin N.
Clark, James M. McGarvey,Thomas May, Edwin Conroy, Edward
Cunniff, Wm. A. Linderman,Abraham Ward, Jackson B. Mallernee, Aquilla
Cramblett, Wm. H. Nichols, Junius W. Weedon, George Hughes, Lavens M.
Chapman, Joseph Nichols, William A. Ward, James, Little, John
Connelly, Wilhelm Pratt, Joseph E. Person, Hugo Jones, Joseph
Daly, Charles Pearson, Josiah B. Clay, John Whaley, A. G.
DeMonroe, Louis Rankin, John Moffatt, Wm. Hilbert, L.
Duffy, Thomas C. Reed, William H. Roland, Augus. D. Hepelbein, A.
Doane, William Reed, William N. Collier, James W. Stoddard, Thomas
Dougherty, Daniel Smith, Isaac N. Delaney, Richard Weed, Samuel
Evans, Charles G. Scott, John Johnson, William Willis, Joseph T.
Eaton, John Street, William Low,Thomas E. Hughes, George
Fox, David F. Sprague, Allen Easterbrook, Geo. W. Collins, Thomas
Fraser, John F. Story, Henry A. Ashley, Henry Frazer, John
Gordon, George W. Thompson, Joseph G. Callahan, Patrick Greig, William
Gunther, George VanTassell, Levi Campbell, Elijah Harding, William W.
Hynds, William Williams, Charles Condon, Thomas Looney, Edward
Hall, William Willis, Joseph W. Collins, James Lovell, Joseph G.
Hosh, George F. Wood, Nathaniel B. Cummings, James Mead, Charles
Harrington, And. M. Witt, Charles H. Denver, John Miller, Otto
Riggins, Patrick I. Wirths, Albert Driscoll, John McDonald, John
Hildebrand, Levi Wilbosky, William Fitzer, Joseph Stewart, Thomas
Hentzler, John Wood, William Goodrich, Ira J. Presby, Henry
Weider, Charles Carroll, Michael Williams, Robert Brady, James
Myles, William Williams, Peter Boyle, Enoch Noonan, Patrick
Murray, Michael Bradshaw, Thomas Connell, John Dugan, John
Grant, Charles B. Robinson, John Gillett, Jacob Schneider, Charles
Johnson, William A. Tanner, Conrad Morgan, Henry Webster, William D.
Morton, Frederick McNiff, Hugh Robertson, George
– 74 –
Captain William V. Spencer Mustered into serv. at Fort Vancouver on
17 Sep. 1862. Mustered out on 31 May l865
First Lieut. Peter Fox Mustered into serv. at Fort Vancouver on
1 Aug. 1862. Mustered out on 31 May 1865
Second Lieut. Isaah Halloran Mustered into serv. at Fort Vancouver on
17 Sep. 1862. Mustered out on 31 May 1865
Mason, James C. Moffatt, William Fitzen, Joseph Potter, James
Carpenter, George Morton, John L. Ford, Thomas Orr, Matthew
Hood, Josephus C. Manwile, Edgar A. Gilbert, Moses Weed, Samuel
Hughes, Francis W. Mitchell, Francis Gilmartin, Michael Grealey, Thomas
Foss, Henry Nolan, William Grady, John Athy, John
Collins, John Nightengale, James Gardiner, Charles Hutchins, Isaac
Clary, John O’Brien, Michael Gleim, William O’Callahan, Patrick
Sullivan, Bryan O’Brien, James Goodrich, Ira J. Denver, John
White, Mark C. O’Neil, Andrew Hurley, William Drew, Edward
Squire, Hazen O’Donnell, Edward Haas, Edward Cummings, James
Thomas, James M. Owens, John Hughes, Willis Roland, Augustus D.
Pulvermiller, Jos. Purcell, Thomas Hanly, William Collins, James
Ashby, Henry Robbins, John Howes, Robert Lee, Moses
Arthurs, James Rierdon, John Hunter, John Johnson, William
Bradley, Joseph Reid, William Houlter, John G. Libby, Frank
Boon, John Simpson, John Johns, George W. Delaney, Richard
Bell Juin, Abraham Seymour, Henry Johnson, John Scott, John T.
Callahan, Michael Spaulding, Jeremiah Keith, Wm. B. Wardlaw, Levi J.
Campbell, Elijah L. Stevens, John L. Keown, Jacob Rohr, August
Czaikowski, Bonislaus Sheldon, Owen Kelly, James Nowell, Robert L.
Collier, James W. Tripp, William L. Kinney, William Lord, Thomas
Cowden, Thomas Wirtz, Mathias Lowell, Henry Tyce, James
Carroll, John Williams, Thomas H. Loughran, Peter Callison, Benjamin
Driscoll, John Walling, David Mallernee, Aquilla Ray, William
McCauley, Robert Young, George McCarthy, Florence D. Kennedy, Thomas
McGovern, James Easterbrook, Geo. W. Lewis, John Livingston, Richard
McGuire, Patrick English, Jonathan Rath, Joseph O’Conner, Timothy
– 75 –
Captain Edward Barry Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
31 Aug. 1862. Mustered out on 31 May 1865
First Lieut. George E. Hall Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
21 Aug. 1862. Mustered out on 31 May 1865
Second Lieut. I. R. Hardenbergh Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
31 Aug. 1862. Mustered out on 31 May 1865
Agossy, Albert Gunn, Philip Pawle, Thomas Ward, Edward
Andrews, Thomas Haas, Joseph Piggott, Manlove H. Warren, Francis
Allen, William H. Hanlon, John Prange, Frederick Webster, John T.
Baird, David Hirtz, Henry Price, John Walsh, Edmond
Barbour, Henry Harrison, Edward H. Rabstock, Henry Williams, Henry
Bryant, Hiram Harrigan, James Rawson, William Palmer, John
Burke, Dennis Horsewell, Fred J. Riley, William Garvey, Bernard
Claughley, James A. Hover, Philip Robertson, John Shea, Michael
Colden, William Howe, Samuel Russell, Joseph Neuman, Orban
Connor, Patrick Huebschman, Charles Schollenberger, Frd. Armstrong, William
Courcie, Edward Johnson, Joseph Schmidt, George Cane, Patrick
Craig, William Kennedy, Hugh Smith, William H. Connelly, Thomas
Critchfield, John Lawless, John Stafford, Cassius H. Knight, Peter
Curtis, James W. LeRay, Edward Striker, Francis Donnelly, Uriah
Cutter, Charles Mallery, James Sweeney, Francis Evans, William
Dorman, John Mathewson, Thomas Thompson, John Kelly, James
Emmett, Peter McArdle, William Timmons, John Webber, George
Everest, William McArthur, John Tuttle, Edgar Williams, Benjamin, F.
Fairclough, Arch. McCully, James Volger, Jacob W. Craig, Daniel W.
Fisher, George McDonald, Alex Wallace, James Renter, John,
Fisher, John B. Morgan, James Walker, James Hill, William
Gaugbran, Thomas Milton, Martin
– 76 –
Captain William M. Dowling Mustered into serv. at A1catraz Island on
2 Aug. 1864. Mustered out on 31 Oct. 1865
First Lieut. J. H. Smith Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
2 Oct. 1862. Mustered out on 31 Oct. l865
Second Lieut. W. J. Sanborne Mustered into serv. at A1catraz Island on
2 Oct. 1862. Mustered out on 31 Oct. 1865
Bovet, George Cope, Henry Hollar, John S. Peacock, Thomas
Dassonville, Adolph Carmody, John J. Jones, Charles Repp, Jacob
Paul, James W. Casey, Cornelius Kain, John Robertson, Thomas
Wilkins, William H. Collins, Luke Kelly, Francis Reeves, John
Myers, William B. Coulter, James Keating; Owen Smith, Robert
Malloy, Michael Carter, George W. McAllister, John Smith, John
May, Alfred E. Donnovan, John L. Mathews, Robert Schaeben, August
Goodwin, Frederick Flinn, Richard M. Dermott, John Sternberg, Job
Clary, Dewitt C. Fairchild, Louis McNeal, Henry VanBushkirk, Abraham
Burk, James A. Garrison, William McNeill, John Welsh, James
Edwards, William Green, Thomas C. Marlin, Thomas Witthew. John
Brannon, Wm. O. Hueston, Joseph Mence, Aaron Weilbrect, George
Breen, Charles Harvene, George Muller, Frederick Willis, William S.
Burk, James Higgins, William McKay, David S. Watkinson, John B.
Bell, Christ. W. Hughs, Lavens M. McNeal, William Whiting, John H.
Brady, Patrick Henry, Charles Maundes, James Williams, Jacob W.
Bennett, Wm. J. Hittich, William Ogden, Henry Webber, George W.
Brown, Frances Hudson, David M. O’Brien, James Walker, Philander H.
Ballow, Edward Haskin, William A. O’Mera, Malick Lawrence, Peter
Bell, John Howard, Henry Parcell, Ruben B. Cave. William E.
Flinn, Dennis Bradshaw, Thomas J. Hinds, Daniel Ogden, Henry W.
Kelly, Thomas Carroll, Michael Kennedy, John O’Brien, James
Manning, Edward C. Cohen, Jeremiah Leach, William Norton, Frederick
Williams, Peter Calanan, John McGlensy, Wm. J. Robertson, George
Penn, James H. Connell, John Murray, Michael J. Robinson, John
McIrwin, Samuel Dorr, Ezra Malone, John Johnson, William A.
Sabin, Henry Dugan, John Morgan, Henry Sneider, Charles
Noonan, Patrick Gillett, Jacob McIrwin, Wm. F. Todd, Thomas
Albright, Dewitt C. Grout, Charles B. McMilliman, James Webster, William D.
– 77 –
Captain Daniel O’Regan Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
21 Oct. 1862. Mustered out on 31 Oct. 1865
First Lieut. Paul B. Ryan Mustered into service at Alcatraz Island on
21 Oct. 1862. Mustered out 31 Oct. 1865
Second Lieut. C. F. West Mustered into serv. at Alcatraz Island on
21 Oct. 1862. Mustered out 31 Oct. 1865
Brown, George H. Cook, James Machette, Charles Ward, Richard
Pence, William Cuinan, Joseph Maguire, Horatio M. Weedon, George
Clarke, John Daly, John McBride, John M. Whitbeck, Joshua
Shields, Bryan J. Deidrich, Julius McCullough, John Smith, James
Storan, John Deeds, Bernhard McGuire, Wm. P. Malmsburg, John S.
Harnett, Caleb Decker, Charles McLeod, William VanNosdal, Bazal B.
Everett, Henry Deny, Conrad McManus, Bernard James, John
Degan, Edward Donohue, James McShea, John Tracy, George W.
Toland, James Dunn, George E. Murphy, Michael Fitzgerald, Charles J.
Dupuis, Louis Fannon, John Moore, Thomas Hartley, John
Riley, John Gallagher, John Nicholson, Dennis Yeager, William D.
Haynes, Ira B. Goodell, Charles C. O’Brien, James Myles, William
Albritton, Welgtn Green, Isaac O’Brian, John Thurston, James
Anderson, Richard Groff, William O’Hara, Francis Dunn, Bluford W.
Andrews, Henry Hall, William O’Neal, Michael Lawrence, William F.
Bortal, David E. Hansen, John O’Reilly, Terence Allender, Charles W.
Arnet, Nathan Hegan, Frederick Perry, John Curtis, John G.
Bean, Jacob Hoffmeister, Thomas Pope, Lawrence Warren, Samuel
Beidermann, Louis Jargen, George Roach, Patrick Shields, John W.
Baker, Henry Jones, John Rose, David Brooks, Andrew
Burns, Gregory Kain, James Smith, Thomas Hughes, Charles
Callahan, John Kenney, Henry Sullivan, Wm. Bancroft, Wm.
Carter, John Leavenworth, J. J. Swartz, Charles Howard, Andrew J.
Clark, John B. Lee, William Tool, William Rude, Lloyd
Connell, John Leopold, Louis Ward, James Murphy, John
– 78 –
Captain Egbert H. Tucker Mustered into serv. at Ft. Stei1acoom on
5 Dec. 1862. Mustered out on 31 July 1865
First Lieut. J. E. D. Jester Mustered into serv. at Ft. Steilacoom on
11 Oct. 1862. Mustered out on 31 July 1865
Second Lieut P. E. Toohill Mustered into serv. at Ft. Vancouver on
5 Dec. 1862. Mustered out on 31 July 1865.
Hart, Charles Mead, Charles Ward, James Leary, Daniel
Funston, Joseph W. McCowan, Francis Hughes, George Harding, William
Sheridan, Patrick O’Malley, Patrick McDonald, John Finch, James
Quint, George W. Peterson, Thomas Thompson, Fred. Mueller, Otto
Vincent, John T. Reid, Philip Lovell, James G. Andrews, Elisha
Brown, Richard Rourke, James Lilly, Thomas Williams, Robert
Bourke, George Rourke, Henry Baird, William Golden, John
Culanan, John Sheehan, Michael Fisher, Jacob Maley, Martin
Frazer, John Stewart, Thomas Morrison, Wm. Higgins, Michael
Griffin, Michael Wallace, William McCarthy.John Pint, Andrew
Jones, Thomas Weider, Charles Harrison, Wm. H. Collins, Thomas
Looney, Edward Williams. Arthur Walton, David
Madden, John Greig, William
A study of the foregoing rosters indicates that Company F was made up entirely of Washington
and Oregon men. Company K was recruited entirely in Washington Territory. Many of the men in
Company H were Washington and Oregon men. Several of the officers of the regiment were later
commissioned in the regular army. Colonel Steinberger was commissioned a major and paymaster on
8 November 1866 and served until 13 October 1870 when he died as the result of an injury received while
riding a horse. Charles Patrick Egan who served in Company E received his regular army commission as a
second lieutenant of the 9th Infantry on 30 August 1866. He was born in Ireland. He was promoted to 1st
Lieut. on 2 January 1869 and was reassigned to the 12th Infantry. He was appointed Captain and
commissary for subsistence on 3 June 1874. He served through the grades of Major to Colonel in that
Department from 12 March 1892 till March 1898 when he was appointed Brigadier General and
Commissary General of the Army. He retired from the Army on 6 December 1900.
William Kapus who served as regimental adjutant was also commissioned in the regular army as a
second lieutenant of the 13th infantry on 7 March 1867. He resigned on 1 May 1869 and settled in
Oregon. He was commissioned a Brigadier General by the Governor of Oregon in May of 1883 and was
responsible for reorganizing the Oregon Territorial Militia into the Oregon National Guard. Captain
William M. Knox of Company also was commissioned. He served with the 18th infantry from 23 Feb.
1866 until his death on 25 November 1866. William Valentine Spencer who served as Captain of
Company F was commissioned in the 13th infantry as a 1st Lieut. and resigned on 19 Jan. 1872.
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Cooper English who served as second in command of the regiment
was a West Pointer. He was born in Pennsylvania and entered the Academy from that State on 1 July
1845. He was appointed a brevet 2nd Lieut. on 1 July 1849 and to second Lieut. 5th Inf. on 31 July 1850.
Appointed to 1st Lieut. of the 9th Inf. when it was organized on 3 March 1855 he came to the Territory
with Col. Wright’s command. He was promoted to Captain on 29 December 1857. Following his muster
out of the Washington Regiment he was assigned to the 5th Infantry in which regiment he was promoted
– 79 –
to Major on 27 August 1863 (while serving with the 1st Wash Terr Inf.) Commissioned a Lieut. Col. of
the 2nd Inf. on 22 Feb. 1869, he served with that regiment until his death on 28 March 1890.
The two commanders at Fort Vancouver during the Civil War period both had very colorful
careers in the regular army. General Wright was born in Vermont and entered West Point from that State,
on 14 Sep. 1818. He was commissioned a second Lieut. of the 3rd infantry following his graduation on 1
July 1822, to lst Lieut. in the same regiment on 23 Sep. 1827. He served as regimental adjutant of this
regiment 1 Feb. 1831 to 30 Oct. 1836 and was transferred to the 8th infantry on 7 July 1838; to Major of
the 4th Infantry on 1 January 1848; Lieut. Col. 9th Inf. on 3 Feb. 1855 and colonel of the same regiment
on 3 March 1855; He was promoted to Brigadier General of the Volunteer service on 28 Sep. 1861. On 15
March 1842 he was breveted a Major, for meritorious conduct, zeal and energy and perseverance against
the Florida Indians; to brevet Lieut. Col. 20 August 1847 for gallantry and meritorious conduct in the
battles of Contreras and Churubusko Mexico; to brevet colonel on 8 Sep. 1847 for gallant and meritorious
conduct in the battle of Molino Del Ray Mex. and Brigadier General 19 Dec. 1864 for long, faithful and
meritorious service.
General Alvord was also born in Vermont and entered West Point from that State on 1 July 1829.
He was breveted 2nd Lieut. 4th Inf. upon graduation 1 July 1833 and received his appointment as second
lieut. on 21 July 1835; Regimental Adjutant of the 4th Infantry from 1 April to 31 July 1840; Captain 9
Sep. 1846; Major and pay master 22 Jun 1854; and Brig Gen of Vols on 15 April 1862. Following his
relief from the Volunteer service he continued his service in the paymaster general’s service in which he
was appointed a Colonel and Paymaster General on 1 Jan. 1872; He was promoted to Brigadier General
and Paymaster General on 22 July 1876 and retired on 8 June 1880. He too was breveted Captain and
Major for gallantry and meritorious conduct in the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, Texas and
in several affairs with guerrillas at Paso Oveges.
In closing out this volume of the Civil War period on which little has been recorded, it should be
borne in mind that although the majority of the men comprising the First Washington Territory Infantry
were enlisted in California, the regiment insofar as the War Department was concerned, was credited to
Washington Territory. Its officers were all appointed by the Governor under the Territorial Militia Laws.
Therefore it is considered, as all Volunteer regiments from other States are, that our present Washington
National Guard is a lineal descendent of not only this regiment but also both regiments organized during
the Indian Wars of 1855 – 56.
The experience gained as a result of the Civil War with Volunteers prompted the War Department
to revise the Federal Militia Laws, plus increasing appropriations for arms and equipment, thereby
providing the incentive for the permanent organization of Militia units by the States and Territories. How
this came about will be covered in the volumes to follow.