I FIRST PHASE OF THE INDIAN WARS OF 1855 – 56 ………………………………………. 1
II SECOND PHASE OF THE INDIAN WARS OF 1855 – 56 …………………………………19

Much has been written of the Indian wars of 1855-56 by historians of the past, generally in
connection with histories of the State or a particular county or area thereof. Some of it was written from
source documents, others from hearsay or newspaper accounts. Much of what has been written is biased
for or against major participants. Therefore, inasmuch as most of the source documents are now available
to this Department, it would appear that the best way to tell the true story of what happened is to use the
more important documents dealing with the actual operations. Therefore, that which follows hereinafter
has been selected from several thousand and arranged in chronological order to tell the true story of what
actually happened, during this period:
Executive Office, Territory of Washington
Olympia, Sept. 22, 1855
Major G. J. Rains, Columbia Barracks, W. T.
Sir: I am informed by Col. J. P. Anderson, who has just returned from the Colville mines, that some
outrages have been committed by the Yakima Indians upon the miners passing through their country. One
man named Mattice, a resident of this place, is known by positive Indian testimony to have been
murdered by four Indians of the band called “Isle de Pierre”. Seven other individuals, who crossed the
Nachess Pass, are reported by the Indians also to have been killed. These murders have taken place upon
straggling parties of one, two or three, and by the Yakima tribe and its branches. A son of Owhi, one of
the principal chiefs of the tribe, is implicated in them.
In addition to this, some twenty or thirty persons are known to have left this vicinity, in parties
from two to three, by the same route, and who are in danger of sharing the same fate. Under these
circumstances I would suggest that a detachment of soldiers, sufficiently strong, should be dispatched at
once through the Yakima country as far as where the trail across the Nachess leaves for Colville, the
object of which would be to discover the perpetrators of the murder of Mattice, to ascertain if the other
murders had been committed, and to punish the guilty parties, and lastly, to furnish protection to the
remaining portion of our citizens who are returning home. These reports may turn out to be without
foundation. You, however, being on the more traveled route, will have earlier information than we can
have here.
Gov. Stevens is expected to be in Spokane country during the present month, and a detachment of
soldiers may be of assistance to him in furthering the public service he is at present engaged in.
I deem it my duty to call your attention to the facts as reported to me.
I have the honor, etc.,
Acting Gov., W. T.
Fort Vancouver, Sept. 26, 1855
Acting Gov. of W.T.
Sir: – I have the honor to acknowledge your letter of the 22nd instant, and in reply, beg leave to state that,
antecedently, I had obtained Col. J. P. Anderson’s information from another source, and forthwith
forwarded an order to Lieut. Day, of the artillery (supposed to be at McKay’s on the Umatilla River, with
forty-four mounted men) to inquire into the facts, with remarks – “It is thought that at Walla Walla, or
Brooks and Bumford’s place, there will be more facilities for information, if so, proceed there, and further
if necessary, as to the move in that direction for this purpose will have a good effect”.
“The only real chiefs among the Indians whose influence is to be dreaded, in that region, are Peu
peu mox mox of the Walla Wallas, and Kamiakin of the Yakimas, who can be communicated with at the
first named place.”
This order was sent to the commanding officer at Fort Dalles to forward as soon as practicable,
and we look for further information from Mr. Bolen, understood to be enroute among the Indians for this
I am, sire, very respectfully, etc,
Major, 4th Infantry, Commanding
Executive Office, Washington Terr.,
Olympia, Sept. 26, 1855
Major G. J. Raines, USA,
Fort Vancouver, W.T.
Sir: – Since my communication of the 22nd instant, I have received additional information of outrages
committed by Yakima Indians.
On the 14th of September, two men, named Walker and Jameson, from Seattle, were shot dead
from an ambush near the point where the Nachess trail crosses the Yakima, some thirty miles above the
Altanam Mission. In addition to this, from all previous circumstances, there is a strong probability of nine
others having met similar fate by the same hands.
The tribe and its kindred branches having entered into treaty stipulations with the United States to
preserve amity with all American citizens, and in defiance of such obligations, having taken the first
opportunity to cut off straggling parties, I immediately, upon the receipt of the last information, made a
requisition upon Captain Maloney, commanding Fort Steilacoom, for a detachment of the troops under his
command, to proceed as soon as possible to the point in question, both to punish the Yakima tribe, and to
furnish protection to such persons as may be traveling through the country. This requisition has been
complied with, and on Thursday (Sept 27th) a detachment of forty men, with forty days provisions, will
start, under the command of Lieut. W. A. Slaughter. In order more fully to carry out the objects intended,
and to effect permanent results, I have to request that the suggestion in my letter of Sept. 22nd be carried
out, and that a detachment of troops be sent either from Vancouver or the Dalles, as soon as practicable, to
cooperate with those sent from Steilacoom.
I am, very truly, etc,
Actg Gov, W.T.
Fort Vancouver, W.T., Sept. 29, 1855
Acting Governor, W.T.
Governor: – Your letter by Mr. Pearson I have the honor to acknowledge, and have ordered into the field a
company of eighty four men from Fort Dalles, O. T., all mounted, and with provisions on pack mules for
one month, to proceed without delay and sweep through the Yakima country to the points you indicated,
cooperating with the force from Steilacoom; also to inquire into the safety of Agent Bolen, who has now
been absent an unusual length of time; a respectful attention to whose views is enjoined – if alive – for
there are grounds to fear otherwise.
I shall approve of the action of the commanding officer at Fort Steilacoom in the premises, and
only regret that the forty men under Lieut. Slaughter, were not a Full company. I have also located an
officer and twenty men at the Cascades.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Major, 4th Infantry, Commanding
Fort Vancouver, October 9th, 1855
SIR: – Information has been received this day from Major G. O. Haller, who was ordered out into Yakima
country. He states that he met the enemy about 3 P. M. on the 6th instant, and fought them skirmishing for
some time. Finally charging them, he drove them out of the brush. From the nature of the country he was
obliged to take possession of the heights surrounding the Pisco River for the night. He was surrounded,
and in that position, has called for reinforcement. All the disposable force in the district will at once take
the field, and I have the honor to make a requisition upon you for two companies of volunteers to take the
field the earliest possible moment.
The composition of these companies to be as follows: One Captain, one First Lieutenant and one
Second Lieutenant, two musicians, four Sergeants, four Corporals and seventy four privates.
The greatest exertions should be made to raise and equip these companies at once.
Orders have been sent to Captain Maloney to take the field with all his disposable force, and it is
expected that the regulars and volunteers will act in concert.
As soon as the first company is raised the command of regulars and volunteers should take the
field without waiting for the other company.
The latter company can start out as soon as raised and equipped.
I am sir, etc,
Major, 4th Infantry, Commanding
Oct. 9, 1855
Actg Gov Mason
Olympia, W.T.
Dear Sir: Herewith I enclose a letter* from Special Agent B. F. Shaw stating the facts of Major Haller and
his command being surrounded by Indians and cut off from wood and water and that all the force that can
be sent in the field is absolutely necessary for his preservation.
The Reserve of fifty men under Lieut. Day left today to join the Major. The express by which Mr.
Shaw’s letter was brought is on his way to Vancouver with a requisition on Major Rains for all the troops
at Fort Vancouver and also calling for volunteers.
The Yakima’s number are evidently largely swollen by acquisition from tribes on the south side of
the Columbia. The Pelouses have all gone over and should Major Haller be defeated there is much
apprehension in that the Walla Wallas, Cayuses and Des Chutes will at once unite in the War. Nothing has
been heard from Lieut. Slaughter, and his command.
I am on my way to the Dalles and from there will keep you apprized of events.
Very respectfully, etc.
Actg. Supt. of Indian Affairs
PS: The place of engagement is at the heights on the Pisco River in the Simcoe valley – we had 8 men
killed and wounded.
*not found.
Olympia, Oct. 14th 1855
Major G. J. Raines
Fort Vancouver
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of Oct. 9th, and to state in reply, that
agreeably to the request therein contained, I have called upon the people of the Territory for two
companies of volunteers, one to report to the commanding officer at Fort Vancouver and the other to the
executive of this place. This last will, as soon as organized, be ordered to report to Captain Maloney, at
Fort Steilacoom, and proceed into the field as soon as possible.
I am, very respectfully, etc.
Actg Gov, W. T.
OCTOBER 14, 1855
SIR: I have sent the bearer of this letter, R. M. Walker, esq., executive clerk, to learn from you how far
the volunteer company ordered to organize at Fort Vancouver can depend upon the post under your
command for arms, ammunition, etc.
The scarcity of these munitions of war upon the sound rendered it necessary for me to make
requisition upon the U S Revenue Cutter “Jefferson Davis”, the result of which I have not yet ascertained.
I sincerely trust that it will be in your power to furnish the necessary arms and accouterments for
the company directed to organize at Vancouver. Transportation and subsistence will, I suppose as a matter
of course, be furnished them by the US Quartermaster and Commissary. Any papers necessary to be
receipted by me will be acted upon immediately upon presentation.
I am sir, etc.
OCT 16, 1855
Dear Sir: From the most reliable Indians that we have in this country, we have information and are
satisfied that Leschi, a sub-chief and half Clickitat is and has been doing all that he could possibly do to
unite the Indians of this country to raise against the Whites in a hostile manner and has had some join in
with him already. Sir, I am of the opinion that he should be attended to as soon as convenient for fear that
he might do something bad. Let his arrangements be stopped at once. Your attention to the above will be
exceedingly appreciated by the people of Nisqually bottoms. For further information, call, and I am at
your service.
October 17, 1855
SIR: I have the honor to inform your Excellency of my arrival at this place, and to state that I can land
twenty men, well armed with Rifles at a moment’s notice and will be happy to do so whenever occasion
shall require it, providing the safety of the vessel is not endangered thereby.
I have the honor, etc,
October 17th, 1855
SIR: – I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your two communications of the 14th instant.
So soon as the company of volunteers from this county is organized and mustered into service, it
will be armed and equipped and furnished with subsistence and transportation.
If I am correctly informed, a company will soon be organized, the members of which will be
mostly men who are residing on claims within twenty miles of this post, and who, from their knowledge
of the country, will be of great assistance in thoroughly chastising the hostile Clickitats and Yakimas.
I am, Governor, etc,
JNO WITHERS, 1st Lieut., 4th Inf, Comdg.
OLYMPIA, OCT 19, 1855, 12 1/2 o’clock, P. M..
Sir: – Since my note of this morning, I have received a messenger from Fort Steilacoom.
I will now request that as many Marines as you can spare may be transferred to Fort Steilacoom
for the general protection of the Post and community.
I have requested Lieut. Drake to remain here until your action in this matter is known.
I am, respectfully, etc.
Whereas, by proclamation bearing date of October 14, 1855, a call was made upon the people of
the Territory of Washington for two companies of Volunteers to augment the force operating against the
Yakima Tribe of Indians.
Now therefore, in order more fully, to secure the lives and property of our inhabitants from any
incursions or outbreak on the part of the Indians, and to be prepared for any emergency, I make this
proclamation calling upon the people of Washington Territory for four additional companies of volunteers
to consist each of: One Captain, one First and one Second Lieutenants, two musicians, four sergeants,
four corporals and seventy four privates.
It is expected that Walla Walla, Skamania and Clark will furnish one company to enroll at
Vancouver; That Cowlitz, Wahkiakum, Pacific and Chehalis will furnish one company to enroll at
Cathlamet; That Lewis, Thurston, Pierce and Suwamish will furnish one company to enroll at Olympia;
and that King, Island, Jefferson, Clallam and Whatcom will furnish one company to enroll at Seattle. Each
volunteer will furnish his own arms and equipment, and each company will elect its own officers.
The Captain of each company will transmit, as soon as possible to the Executive, a copy of the
muster roll together with a statement of the number of arms and equipment, and await further orders.
These four companies are to be considered as a reserve force and will only take the field when
necessity absolutely requires it.
They will, therefor, after organizing, resume their usual avocations and assemble again at the
command of their officers.
Given under my hand at Olympia, this 22nd day of October, 1855.
WHEREAS War exists between the United States and various Indian tribes east of the Cascade
Mountains, the issues of which are at present uncertain; and believing that some of the band of Indians on
this side of the mountains would not hesitate to butcher their white neighbors if a favorable opportunity
occurred, believe it to be our duty to provide for the safety of our families should danger become
imminent. For this purpose we have undertaken and design to complete a work of defense on this Prairie,
to which we can remove our wives and children in case of emergency – THEREFORE –
RESOLVED 1ST – That we pledge to cast other mutual aid and support in case of danger.
RESOLVED 2ND – That we enroll ourselves into a Volunteer Company, and place ourselves at the
disposal of the Acting Governor of this Territory, requesting that we may be immediately armed and
equipped for service, and employed where duty calls for the defense of the country.
RESOLVED 3RD – That in as much as their is a deplorable lack of arms and ammunition among us we
appoint a committee of two to wait upon his excellency, the acting Governor, to represent our condition,
to obtain if possible his approval of our course in fortifying this point, and to obtain such assistance in
arms and ammunition as he is able to furnish – to obtain if possible two small cannon.
RESOLVED 4TH – That said committee be instructed to wait upon the Major commanding in this
regimental district, in the absence of the Colonel and Lieutenant Colonel, and request him to set off this
portion of the County into a Company District, that all persons of lawful age to bear arms, and not
enrolled as volunteers, may be organized into a Militia Company and receive their quota of arms.
RESOLVED 5TH – That we deem it of first importance to defend this position, it being central in its
character, furnishing abundant subsistence for stock, where they can be more easily defended than in any
other portion of the Territory – The defense is important too, to keep in check the bands of Indians in this
vicinity and down the Chehalis.
RESOLVED 6TH – That with the work of defense we have undertaken and design to complete and the
number of men engaged in the enterprise, if we cart receive arms and ammunition, we can defend
ourselves against any number of Indians that can possibly come against us.
After passing the above Resolutions, a Volunteer Company of 44 persons was organized on the
B. L. HENNESS was elected, Captain
E. N. SARGENT – 1st Lieut.
SAMUEL COLTER – 2nd Lieut.
F. M. SARGENT – Orderly Sergeant
D. F. BILES – 2nd Sergeant
WM. B. GOODELL – 3rd Sergeant
E. K. SEARS – 4th Sergeant
A. LANGLOOF – 1st Corporal
A. YOUNG – 2nd Corporal
JACOB KRAWL – 3rd Corporal
G. W. Goodell and A. S. Yantis were appointed a committee to wait on the Governor as
contemplated by 3rd Resolution.
A true copy of the proceedings.
S. W. GOODELL, Clerk
Oct. 23rd, 1855
My dear Mason:
I am happy to inform you that Fort Steilacoom is once more a quiet place -as for the past seven
days it was much like a combination of Military and horse market, etc.
The Volunteer Company got off in fine order 2 1/2 P. M. yesterday – the men in fine spirits and
apparently with a determination of taking the Scalp of every Redskin who may be so unfortunate as to fall
in their way.
Lieut. Harrison of the Revenue Service went out as a Volunteer officer to Captain Maloney’s
command. Colonel A. B. Moses the same. Captain Maloney will have, when he joins Slaughter’s
command – 115 regulars. These with the 87 Volunteers, 31 packers and the 5 officers (with the regulars)
make the Command 238 strong – Captain Maloney took one howitzer with the necessary ammunition.
I have left at this post one howitzer with plenty of ammunition and about 400 rounds of musket
cartridges. However, we are looking for 10,000 rounds from Benicia daily.
Mason if you go away send Mrs. Stevens down with her family. My quarters are at her service,
and I would be glad to have her come. Mrs. Slaughter tells me to say that her quarters are also ready and
she would be very glad to have Mrs. S come. The other ladies would also like to have her come. If she
comes, I think I can make her very comfortable. As you are going to Vancouver, I send you a
communication for Lieut. Withers, Commanding at that post to let him know when the troops left the post
and other matters.
If you don’t go to the Columbia River, you can forward the communication by the earliest
Yours truly,
2nd Lieut., Comdg
OCT 29th, 1855
In accordance with orders which I received from you I joined with the available troops at
Steilacoom, amounting to 75 men, at the earliest possible moment, the 21st of this month Lieut.
Slaughter’s command which had fallen back to the White River prairies. I remained there two days until I
was joined by a Company of Volunteers, under the command of Captain Gilmore Hays. On the 24th, I
commenced my march for the Yakima Country expecting to find you in the field. Yesterday I arrived at
this Camp, where I laid over today to recruit my animals. I received an express today from Steilacoom,
which I get information that you will not be on your march for from one to two weeks. I have also got
information that there are from two to three thousand Indians well armed, and determined to fight in my
front, and, after considering the matter over, have concluded that it is my duty to return to Steilacoom.
My reasons are as follows, Viz; first, my forces are not sufficiently strong to fight them, and
protect the animals and provisions which I have along with me; secondly, If I advance I must meet them,
as there is no front before me before I get into the plains where I can camp and defend myself and animals
where I will not be cut off from communication both in front and rear by high water before you can get
into the enemie’s country; thirdly; In accordance with your orders I started with thirty days provisions, I
have been out twelve days and therefore have only eighteen days provisions, which would be out before
my command could join yours; there is already snow upon the mountains, and there is every reason to
believe that in three or four days it will close the road from here to Steilacoom, and also raise the Nachess
River, so that it will prevent communication between this place and the Yakima plains.
I am of the opinion that the best way to get troops from Steilacoom into the enemie’s country will
be by way of the Dalles. I also hear by the same express that the Northern Indians are showing themselves
in considerable numbers at Steilacoom, and other points on the Sound, intending with other Indians to
strike a blow in case I should be defeated here.
I am, Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant
MAURICE, MALONEY, Capt 4th, Inf, Comdg
Major G. J. RAINS, Comdg Post at Vancouver
Fort Steilacoom W.T.
Oct. 30th, 8 A. M., 1855
I have just received an express from Captain Sterrett, Commanding “Decatur” informing me that
the Indians on White River have broken-out and that seven Whites and two Indians have been murdered.
Amongst the whites were one or two women.
On Sunday the 28th, 55 men under the command of Captain C. C. Hewitt went up the Duwamish
enroute for the White River country.
A rumor came in here last evening (by a friendly Indian) to the effect that, McAlister and nine
others of the Rangers were killed last night on the Puyallup and that the Indians are advancing toward this
post 250 strong – I am unable to say how true this is, but fear it is but too true.
Yours truly,
Acting Gov. C H Mason John Nugen, 2nd Lieut. 4th Inf., Comdg
Ft Steilacoom, W. T., Nov. 2nd, 1855
I have just received an express from Captain Maloney and I send you a copy of his letter to Major
The following men composed the Express – Mr. Bright, James Miles, A. B. Moses, Tidd, Bradley,
Dr. Burns, and Robinson, your sheriff. The Express was ambuscaded near White River and Miles and Dr
Burns killed, and Moses mortally wounded and left in the woods.
I send Captain Wallace with his Company to open communication with Capt. Maloney who will
reach White River tonight – and fear that small parties will be coming in from his Camp tomorrow.
Captain Wallace will make forced march and reach Captain Maloney before day-light if he has good luck.
Hurry up the Rangers so that there may be short work of this matter. You had better let Mrs. Moses know
this sad news – yourself – If he is still alive, Captain Wallace will rescue him.
Yours – truly in haste –
Adj Gen James Tilton John Nugen, Lieut. 4th Inf., Comdg
The following was ertracted from the Olympia Pioneer Democrat newspaper:
“James Tilton of Olympia to be Adjutant General of the Volunteer forces of this Territory for and
during the war with the Yakima and other hostile Indian tribes”.
“Charles H. Eaton, of Thurston County. Captain of the Puget Sound Rangers”.
“Edward Lander to be aide to the Acting Governor with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel”.
“Doctor Gallio K. Willard to be Surgeon of Washington Volunteers”.
“A. B. Stuart to be Commissary of Subsistence and Supplies for Post of Olympia”.
“Major Gabriel J. Rains, US Army, to be Brigadier General, Washington Volunteers, to command
the joint forces of the US Army and Washington Volunteers”.
Adjutant General’s Office
Olympia, W. T., Nov. 2, 1855
1st. The Company “D”, Captain Wallace, raised and organized at Steilacoom, is accepted and
mustered into service, and will cooperate with the garrison at Fort Steilacoom until an expedition against
the enemy is made.
2nd. The Company of Mounted Rangers of Mound Prairie, Captain Henness, is accepted, and will
be mustered in upon rendition of their muster and descriptive rolls.
3rd. Captain Hewitt’s Company of Seattle, being upon an expedition against the enemy, will be
placed upon the rolls of this office in the service, upon rendition of their muster and descriptive rolls.
4th. Captains and other officers commanding companies will keep this office informed of their
movements, and report as often as possible all the information they may obtain relative to the movement
of the enemy, etc. Also, commanding officers of companies will report to this office names of any
officers, non commissioned officers or privates who may distinguish himself by any remarkable gallantry
or extraordinary good service.
5th. Should any officer, non commissioned officer or private refuse a detail for an expedition or
misbehave in action against the enemy, such person will be reported to this office by the commanding
officer of the company or detachment and receive a dishonorable discharge from the service.
6th. Any habitual neglect of guard or fatigue duty or general absence from roll call, inattention on
post, and general disobedience of lawful orders from superior officers will also be reported at the option
of commanding officers of companies or detachments.
7th. An intelligent and gallant citizen soldier must see the absolute necessity of discipline – to
make courage efficient – to insure success against the enemy – and make the duty equal upon all.
James Tilton, Adjutant General
Nov. 3rd, 1855
In Camp at Connell’s Prairie
James Tilton, Adj Gen
Sir: You have doubtless heard before this of our return to this side of the mountains, and also of the
narrow escape of George Bright and comrades. We have had a great deal of anxiety on their account and
had come to the conclusion that they had all been cut off. Dr Burns (not killed as originally reported)
arrived in camp this evening, having been out since the night of the attack. I never saw a man so changed,
he says he shot 7 Indians, and that George Bright three. There is very little doubt of the death of James
Miles, Mr. Connell, Mr. James McAlister and A. B. Moses are all killed, the bodies of the two latter are
found and will be sent to their friends for internment.
Yesterday with a detachment of forty mounted men I discovered some Indians and pursued them
for two miles, but did not succeed in getting near enough to get any of them. Captain Hays took another
trail and found a junction with command under Lieut. Slaughter, but saw no Indians.
This morning a detachment of fifty volunteers and fifty regulars under the command of Captain
Hays and Lieut. Slaughter started on an expedition towards Seattle sending forward an advanced guard of
10 regulars and two choppers to fall a tree across the White River. While chopping the tree one of the
regulars was shot in the neck and died in two or three hours. The command was about 1/2 mile in the rear
when the first gun was fired and we arrived at the scene of action in a full run and found the Indians in
force on the opposite shore of the White River. The men after firing five or six rounds got under cover
and the Indians having done so before, the fight lasted for six hours, our sharpshooters picking them off
whenever they showed themselves. There is no doubt that from 25 to 30 Indians were killed. One soldier
was wounded in the thigh. Mr. Bush’s son had his hat shot off from his head, another, James Wilson, had
a ball through the rim of his hat. All, both volunteers and regulars fought like men and all the officers had
to do was to caution their men not to expose themselves needlessly.
Henry Pearsell, a volunteer, got a position close to the River and killed 4 Indians during the action.
Captain Hays will probably write to you officially – please not consider this as such – We go after
them again tomorrow.
Very respectfully yours,
JARED S. HURD, Lieut. Vols
FORT VANCOUVER, W.T., Nov. 3, 1855
Lieut. John Withers, USA
Commanding Fort Vancouver
Sir: – I have instructed B. F. Shaw, esq., to raise a company of rangers and proceed on the trail towards the
Rocky Mountains, and if possible, to bring Governor Stevens in safety. Mr. Shaw has deputized Mr. Wm.
McKay for the purpose.
In case the company should be organized, and mustered into the service of the United States, I
have to request that you furnish them with all the necessary arms, ammunition, subsistence,
transportation, etc., and dispatch them as soon as possible on the route above indicated.
Mr. Shaw is expected to have the direction of the company, either as a Captain, or as a special
Indian agent.
Very respectfully, etc,
CHAS H. MASON, Actg Gov, W.T.
Camp Montgomery, Nov. 11th, 1855
C. H. Mason, Actg Gov Wash Terr.
On the 4th instant, one hundred and twenty five men, 50 regulars, to Puget Sound Mounted
Volunteers and 25 men of Captain Wallace (Co. D, lst Regt) marched against the Indians on Green River –
on going down the Green River hill one of their sentinels shot one of our guides a Mr. Borge, wounding
him slightly – We could see them on the bottom moving rapidly. We pursued and came up with their rear.
We continued on the run charging them wherever found in the brush until dark when we bedded down for
the night. In the later part of the night our sentinels could see them moving – When daylight came we
found a part of their force ambushed in the driftwood and brush prepared to fire. I then ordered Lieut.
Hurd to charge them on the left – over a deep slough, the river on the right being too deep. However, I
countermanded the order knowing full well that on the charge I would lose more men than the enemy.
They were prepared to fire and then run. We returned to camp – On the next day we routed a party on the
upper Puyallup – We approached them by two routes, the volunteers under my command by one and
Lieut. Slaughter by the other – the enemy was gone except some few of their number who ambushed
Slaughter’s party, killing one and wounding 4 others – all of whom I think may recover. There can be no
blame attached to Lieut. Slaughter as any party could have been, under the circumstances and in that
particular locality.
The Indians are whipped – they will never rally again. There plan will be to ambush, fire and then
run – my men have proven that they fear no danger – they are ready to fight under any circumstances. We
are here and will remain for a day or two. What our future operations will be I have not as yet learned.
Yours truly,
G. HAYS, Capt., Puget Sound Mtd Vols
Monday, Nov. 12, 1855
Actg Gov. C. H. Mason
Governor: – Here we are without a battle, except a skirmish four days since, with some forty Indians, who
defied us as we approached the Yakima River. We thought at first it was the prelude to the big battle with
the whole of their force, and forded the stream to an island with our mounted troops, eighteen dragoons
and eight pioneers. Here we commenced action, firing on the enemy, and ordered up our artillery and
infantry to ford the stream. Our troops made a rush into the water, and being on foot, tried again and again
to cross the river, but failed, the rapid current sweeping away two of our best men, who were thus
drowned; whereupon I sent back to Col. Nesmith for two companies of volunteers, which, with our
dragoons, drove headlong into the foaming torrent, and reaching the opposite shore, charged the enemy,
who fled away over the hills, one of their balls striking, but fortunately not wounding Col. Nesmith’s
Late in the afternoon, after recalling all our force to the south bank of the Yakima River, we heard,
some distance on the plain, the reports of small arms and taking two companies, we proceeded in that
direction until some time that night, when the firing ceasing, we returned back to the edge of the timber
and bivouacked for the night. Next day we found a number of Indians around us on swift horses, which
were driven off by our mounted volunteer companies and as we approached the mountain gorge, found
the Indians about three hundred in number on the hill tops beating their drums and shouting defiance.
These were soon driven off and scattered by discharges from our howitzers. We cut off some of them by a
proper disposition of our troops and two or more were killed.
We continued our march to this place, sweeping the plains with our cavalry, dispersing, killing
and wounding all the enemy we saw, and found the mission abandoned, apparently precipitately.
Captain Maloney not having arrived in conjunction with Colonel Nesmith and the Oregon
Volunteers, we dispatched one hundred sixty eight volunteers and regulars, on our best horses, to proceed
in the direction of the Nachess Pass, and ascertain his whereabouts. We are awaiting their report, for we
cannot tell where the large body of the enemy is, unless gone that way to attack Captain Maloney’s
Our force has alarmed the enemy so much that they may be scattered.
Very respectfully your, etc,
G. J. Rains
Major, US Amy and Brig Gen, Wash Terr Vols
Olympia, W. T. Nov. 13, 1855
1st. Edward Lander, of Olympia, W.T., is appointed Aid to the Acting Governor and Commanderin-
Chief with the rank of Lieut. Col. of the Volunteer forces of Washington Territory, now in the field.
Lieut. Col. Lander will make a tour of inspection, visiting the various companies of Volunteers and
rangers now in the field, or in the garrison, and report to this office upon their condition, efficiency, and
2nd. Dr. Mathew P. Burns is commissioned as Surgeon of Company B, from the date of
3rd. Dr. R. M. Bigelow is commissioned as Surgeon of Company D, and will report for duty to
Captain Wallace, Company D.
4th. Dr. Gallio K. Willard is commissioned as Surgeon of the 1st Regiment of Washington
Territory Volunteers, and will attend professionally to such of the volunteers and rangers now in the
service as may apply to him.
5th. A. B. Stuart is commissioned as commissary of subsistence for the post of Olympia, and will
furnish rations for all volunteers and rangers at the post of Olympia, or those on temporary duty there.
6th. Company A, Captain William Strong, having been mustered into service at Fort Vancouver,
has marched to join Brig. Gen. Rains in the Yakima country, and will receive orders from Brig Gen Rains
or the Commanding Officer of the expedition from Fort Vancouver.
7th. Company E, Captain Isaac Hays, has been organized and accepted into service, and will, for
the present, occupy the country adjacent to Chamber’s Prairie and remain in readiness for marching
orders, should the exigencies of the war require a forward movement.
8th. Company G, Captain McCorkle, of Cowlitz County, is mustered into service, and will guard
the passes of Lewis River, and intercept all communication between the hostile tribes east of the
Cascades, and the Indians inhabiting the country west of the mountains.
9th. Company H, Captain Hewitt, having transmitted his muster and descriptive rolls to this office,
will establish a post at the forks of the White and Green Rivers, and place himself in communication with
Captain M. Maloney, USA, commanding combined regular and volunteer forces at Camp Montgomery.
10th. Company I, Captain Ebey, is accepted into service, and will maintain its position at Port
Townsend – furnish a guard at the mouth of the Snohomish River, to prevent any of the enemy from the
descending the river, or having any communication with the friendly Indians inhabiting the shores of the
11th. The success achieved at the engagement of White River by the gallantry and constancy of
the troops under the command of Captain Gilmore Hays, Company B, Puget Sound Mounted Volunteers,
1st Regiment, W. T. Volunteers, and the regulars of the 4th U. S. Infantry, commanded by Lieut.
Slaughter being detachments from the command of Captain M. Maloney, 4th Infantry, USA, has inspired
a hope that any further accessions of tribes to the enemy is checked and the war on the western side of the
Cascades is rapidly approaching the DEFENSIVE on the part of the savages.
12th. The forces now in the field are deemed sufficient to pursue the enemy and follow up the
success already obtained. It is, therefore, expressly enjoined upon all officers commanding companies and
detachments, to prevent all private warfare upon Indians as unauthorized persons may drive into hostility,
tribes now friendly or wavering. Officers and soldiers will also bear in mind that Indians now friendly or
indifferent may be rendered hostile by careless conduct, and while gallantry of the Volunteers will lead
them to look with contempt upon the number of their foes, they will consider that isolated families may
suffer from any recklessness on the part of those who are so courageously defending them.
Fort Steilacoom, W.T. Dec. 7, 1855 (6 P. M.)
Hon C. H. Mason, Actg Gov, WT
Dear Sir: – I have just received information that on Tuesday night last while Lieut. Slaughter was sitting in
a small house at his Camp about 2-1/2 miles above the forks of White River and Green River, conversing
with Captain Hewitt, Lieut. Harrison and Dr. Taylor, the Indians fired on them and killed Lieut. Slaughter
at the first discharge. Two soldiers were also killed on the spot and five others wounded of whom one is
since dead. Lieut. Slaughter’s body has arrived here.
It is reported on all hands that it is impossible to operate against the Indians with any effect in the
country on White, Green and Puyallup rivers, at this season of the year and I know it to be so from
personal observation. To continue such a course will break down all our men and effect no harm to the
Indians. Our pack animals are broken down, and we must establish our forces on our own ground in
places where they will not suffer at night and where they can best protect the settlers. As you must be far
better acquainted with such points, I would request that if convenient, you will come and see me
I send by the bearer, a letter to Captain Hays, with directions for him to concentrate his company
at Bradley’s to go to the relief of 40 men now encamped on the other side of the Puyallup about 3 miles
from the ford. I do not know where Captain Hays is at this moment. If you know please direct the bearer.
Mrs. Slaughter is at Olympia. Please keep the dreadful news of her husband secret until Lieut.
Nugen can break it to her cautiously.
I am, in great haste, etc.,
Capt., 3rd Arty, Comdg.
Camp Montgomery, W. T.
November 16, 1855
NO. 1)
A Military Commission to be composed of Volunteers and Regulars will assemble at this
Camp, immediately for the trial of some Indian prisoners, accused of being engaged in the present war
between the Indians and the Whites. The following Officers will compose the Commission:
Captain Gilmore Hays, Puget Sound Mounted Rifles
Captain W. H. Wallace, Pierce County Volunteers
1st Lieut. W. A. Slaughter, 4th Regt of US Infantry
CAPT., 4th Infantry, Commanding
Camp Montgomery, W. T.
November 16, 1855
The commission met pursuant to the above order. Present: All the Members.
The commission then proceeded to the trial of the following prisoners:
1st. BISTIAN (An Indian) who was brought into court. The Commission was duly sworn in his
presence, and the prisoner BISTIAN an Indian was arraigned on the following charges – viz; Charges.
That he, BISTIAN, an Indian, was a party to war now existing between the Citizens of the United States
and the Indians of the Nisqually, Klickitat and Yakima tribes of Indians – that he has also been a spy upon
the movements of the U.S. troops in the field and has communicated intelligence to the hostile Indians
relative to the movement of said troops and their members – that he is also guilty of or accessory to the
murders of Whites, in the vicinity of Connell’s Prairie, and the White River settlements. The prisoner
pleaded NOT GUILTY to the above charges – Good Council was then appointed – for him and he was
duly tried for the crimes charged against him and the commission was then cleared and then deliberated
upon the testimony adduced, both for and against the prisoner, and found him GUILTY of the charges
preferred against him; and the commission does therefore sentence him, BISTIAN, to be hung by the neck
until he is dead.
NOTE: Sas-Kit {a boy), Tom or Shu-an-um, San-as-er-it, S-hat-lal, Ye-lon-it, Pas-su-ca, and Sua-ma-hon
were also tried by the this commission on identical charges. All plead NOT GUILTY and the commission
found them NOT GUILITY.
* * * * * *
1st Lieut., 4th Infantry
Capt., Puget Sound Mtd. Vols
I. The proceedings and findings in the foregoing cases of Indians ****** as relates to not finding
them guilty of the charges against them – They are hereby released and set at liberty.
II. In the case of the Indian BIS-TIAN, having been found GUILTY of the crime charged against
him to be hung by the neck until he is dead – The sentence is approved of, and will be carried into effect,
at such time and place as the Acting Governor may direct.
M. MALONEY, Capt., 4th Inf
Commanding Troops against hostile Indians
Olympia, December 22, 1855
The proceedings of the above Commission are truly approved as far as concerns the Indian
BIS-TIAN; he will be retained in custody until further orders.
C. H. MASON Actg Gov, WT
In view of the unsettled condition of the Indians between the Cascades and Bitter Root Mountains,
a portion of the Indians being now in arms against the Government and the remaining tribes with the
exception of the Nez Perces being in an excited state, that portion of Walla Walla County of the Territory
of Washington lying between the above limits is hereby erected into a Military District, and Colonel B. F.
Shaw of the Militia of the Territory of Washington is hereby assigned to the command of that District
according to his rank in said Militia. He will organize the Militia thereof according to the laws of the
Territory, call it immediately into service and generally take such measures for the protection of the
settlers and friendly Indians as may in his judgment be necessary and as he may hereafter receive
instructions thereon from superior authority.
Given under my hand at the Headquarters Camp, Washington
Territory Volunteers, Walla Walla Valley, Washington Territory this 27th
day of December 1855.
Olympia, W.T., Dec. 28, 1855
Captain G. Gansevoort
Comdg U S Sloop or War “Decatur”
Under the present relations existing in this territory between the Citizens of the United States and
the Indians residing within our limits, I have to request your cooperation with the Officers of the Indian
Department in such measures as have been adopted for our self-preservation, and for the protection of
such Indians as may at present be deemed friendly.
In order to remove the Indians residing on the eastern side of Puget Sound as far as possible from
the influence of the hostile bands and from communication with them, and at the same time to protect
them from any careless or outward conduct on the part of the troops now in the field, they have been
ordered to certain localities, designated by the Indian Agents, on the Western side of the Sound.
This order has been very generally and cheerfully complied with at all points with the exception of
a small band at the town of Seattle. This point from its proximity to the hostile ground must necessarily,
for the protection of all concerned, be subjected to the same policy that has been carried out through other
parts of the Territory.
Orders have been given to the Indian Agent for the Puget Sound District to this effect and in case
of difficulty he has been directed to apply to you for assistance.
This request is not confined to this particular place or the circumstances connected with it, but to
any and all occasions in which it might be necessary to strengthen the influence of the Officers of the
Indian Department of this Territory.
In conclusion I will say that the Indians residing on Puget Sound, as far as at present is ascertained
are friendly and it requires put a judicious and friendly but firm course to maintain the present amicable
The Indians that have thus far been collected have been placed in charge of Special Agents who
have decided not to allow them to leave their present locality without a pass from the Agent in Charge.
That you may be aware of the persons at present holding this authority I furnish their names – A. J.
Simmons, J. B. Webber, D. S. Maynard, H. H. Tobin, N. D. Hill, Robert C. Fay and E. C. Fitzhugh.
Should any more special agents be appointed, you will be informed of same.
Actg Gov., Wash Terr.
Walla Walla Valley, W.T., Dec. 31, 1855
The inhabitants of Walla Walla County are called upon to enroll themselves for the protection of
themselves and families, and for such aid as they may be able to render in prosecuting the existing war
against the Indians.
Colonel B. F. Shaw, of the Militia of Washington Territory, is assigned to the command of the
military district embraced in Walla Walla County, and will see that the inhabitants are duly organized.
When the settlers and friendly Indians are moved to the place already designated for their winter
camp, he will have such defensive works thrown up as may be necessary.
Colonel Shaw will give to the same end, the necessary directions to the settlers on the Spokane,
and at Colville and at Colville Valley.
It is believed that this call will be responded to by every inhabitant in the county. The inhabitants
will thus render aid in prosecuting the war, whilst protecting themselves.
The settlers in this valley will be called upon to act as their own guards. It is believed that, with
the force which will remain in the valley till offensive operations are resumed, they are entirely competent
to perform this service.
Colonel Shaw will cooperate with the force from Oregon in the defense of the Walla Walla
Valley, or in the offensive operations against the Indians. The importance of entire harmony and unity of
action between the two territories in the prosecution of the existing war cannot be too strongly impressed
upon the minds of all.
Sidney S. Ford, Jr., is commissioned as Captain, and Green McCafferty as 1st Lieut. of the
volunteers from Washington, in the existing war against the Indians, and will report to Col. Shaw for
JAMES DOTY Lieut., Col., ADJT.
1st. Wm. Craig is appointed, Aid to the Commander in Chief, during the existing Indian War to
rank as Lieut. Colonel.
2nd. The Nez Perce volunteers, who have formed a portion of the force from Washington
operating against the hostile Indians will return to the Nez Perce country, and there be mustered out of the
service, by Lieut. Colonel Craig, who will send a copy of his muster roll and descriptive list to the office
of the Adjutant General at Olympia.
3rd. Especial thanks are due the Nez Perce volunteers for their cheerful obedience to orders, and
exemplary deportment, whilst in the Service of the Territory.
4th. Lieut. Colonel Craig will take the necessary measures for the protection of the Nez Perce
tribes of Indians against any hostile efforts from the tribes in arms, and will call upon Colonel B. F. Shaw
in command of the military district of Walla Walla for aid and supplies.
5th. It being necessary for the Commander in Chief to go to the settlements without delay, Lieut.
Colonel James Doty will assume the command of the Walla Walla Battalion consisting of the Steven’s
Guards and Spokane Invincibles. They will be moved to the Dalles, as soon as the weather moderates and
there be mustered out of the service.
6th. The Commander in Chief returns his thanks to the Battalion for the alacrity with which they
have obeyed his orders and discharged their duty, their constancy and manliness in the rapid movement
which they made from Spokane to this valley, in bad weather and in an inclement season – movement
began and nearly half accomplished with the certain knowledge that a large force of hostile Indians was to
be met in this valley and no expectation that aid was at hand, and would be extended in season.
7th. But aid was at hand, and the Commander in Chief would do injustice to his own feelings and
those of the men of his immediate command, if, in this General Order, he did not acknowledge the
services of the gallant volunteers of Oregon, who successfully met in arms in this valley, the combined
forces of hostile Indians at the time he was moving from the Spokane to the Nez Perce country.
ISAAC I. STEVENS, Gov. & Comdr in Chief
Ft. Steilacoom, W. T. Jan. 21, 1856
Hon Isaac I. Stevens. Gov., W. T.
Sirs – I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your notes of yesterday’s date.
It is my desire to cooperate most cordially with your excellency and the volunteers in the
prosecution of the war against the Indians. I shall be glad to confer with you, to exhibit the force and
means I have at hand, and as soon as arrangements can be made which shall offer reasonable hopes of
success, I will take the field. Until I meet you I shall continue the measures I have employed for some
time past to keep the enemy quiet, to ascertain his position and strength and the best way to reach him.
Our first blows ought to be vigorous and rapid.
I am, Sir, very respectfully, etc.
E. D. KEYES, Capt. 3rd Arty, Comdg
Fort Vancouver, W.T., Jan. 18, 1856
His Excellency Isaac I. Stevens,
Governor of Washington Territory
Dear Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge yours of the 17th instant and beg leave to state in reply that
from the instructions received from Major General Wool, commanding Department of the Pacific, and his
policy pursued, I am left no discretion nor judgment in the matters requiring the action you consider
The General has thought proper to put a stop upon my course of action in the Campaign against
the hostile Indians, and it only remains for me to carryout his views entirely, which necessarily compel
me to frankly state to you, that the troops will not be sent now to the Walla Walla country though I have
ordered Brevet Major Fitzgerald’s company of Dragoons to the Dalles preparatory.
Very respectfully, etc.
G. J. Rains, Maj, 4th Inf & Brig Gen, WTV
PS: A copy of your letter will be forwarded to Gen. Wool, comdg. Col. Wright and the 9th Infantry have
arrived, but it is mounted troops we want.
Whereas, during the past three months a band of hostile Indians have been spreading alarms
amongst the settlers, residing on Puget Sound – murdering families, destroying property, causing claims to
be abandoned and preventing usual avocations of the farmer, whereby a large portion of the Territory has
become deserted, and positive want, if not starvation stares us in the face during the coming year; and
whereas, the term of service of the troops already called into the field, either has, or is about to expire, and
that by a vigorous prosecution of the War, it is believed that a peace can soon be conquered, or our
enemies west of the cascade Mountains be annihilated, especially from the friendly attitude, up to this
time, maintained by the Indians residing immediately upon the waters of Puget Sound.
Now, therefore, I, Isaac I. Stevens, Governor of the Territory of Washington, do hereby call upon
the citizens of the said territory for six companies of Volunteers to serve six months, unless sooner
discharged; one to enroll at Port Townsend in the county of Jefferson; one at Seattle in the county of
King; one at Steilacoom, in the county of Pierce; two at Olympia, in the county of Thurston; and one at
Vancouver, in the county of Clarke. Said companies to consist of one Captain, one First and one Second
Lieutenant, four sergeants, four corporals and sixty privates – to – organize by electing their own officers,
and report to the Adjutant General at Olympia and wait further orders.
And furthermore, in view of the impoverished state of the Territory, and the exigencies of the
occasion, I do most earnestly call upon the citizens of this Territory for their cooperation, and to furnish
such supplies on the credit of the United States Government, to be paid for by appropriations, which is
expected will be made at the present session of Congress.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty third day of January, 1856.
Governor of Washington Territory,
BY THE GOVERNOR: and Commander in Chief of the Militia
OAK POINT, W. T., Jan. 31, 1856
Governor Stevens:
Dear Sir: I have some scruples of conscience in troubling you at this busy time. But, I would much like to
call your attention to a few facts in connection with a Memorial which has passed the Legislature for a
Military road from the Columbia River near this place, to intersect the road from Vancouver to
Steilacoom. I need not tell you how much a good road from the river to the sound is needed, especially in
a time like this, when it may be necessary to concentrate the whole military force at one of the two
extremes of the Territory. But in order to make a road that will be of greatest benefit to the Territory I
think it should combine the following advantages. To have a good landing place on the river where any
class of vessels can land at all times of the year. To be the nearest point on the river to the Sound – and to
have good ground to make the road on, clear of grades. And all these advantages are combined in the road
the Memorial asks for. A copy of the report of Commissioners who located a Territorial road, over the
route from Boisfort Prairie to this place is in the Secretary’s office. A good road is already opened to the
Boisfort from Fords and there is less than 25 miles of road to make over a good route, in order to have
what I believe to be a better road than can be made to the river at any other point. I have explored all the
country west of the Cowlitz pretty thoroughly and believe this to be the only practicable route for a road
without incurring a very great expense. I believe the road asked for in the Memorial would be the shortest
and could be made at less cost per mile than any other west of the Cowlitz River. There is one peculiarity
of our side of the river, not generally known. At the mouth of the Cowlitz and for 8 miles below is low
bottom land subject to overflow which extends to Vancouver. So that from the point where our territorial
road terminates, to Vancouver, there is no landing place not subject to overflow. From that point down the
river there is only one other landing (Cathlemet) above the mouth of the river where it would be possible
to make a road from on account of the very high bluffs – so that any road made to the river will be obliged
to terminate at one of these three points, Vancouver, Oak Point or Cathlemet or else depend on the
Oregon side for a shipping point. My object in writing now is to ask you (if you think it of enough
importance to do so) to use your influence with the War Department or with the gentlemen who have
charge of the road from Steilacoom to Vancouver to have a reconnaissance made on the route of our
Territorial road in connection with that road. If you notice the maps of the survey, you will see that by
crossing the Chehalis at Cochran’s Ferry, taking the road to Boisfort and from thence the route of the
Territorial road to this place, as far as where it crosses the 3rd standard parallel, east of township line
between 3 or 4 west and from there southeast to Monticello and so on up the river, that it would be as near
or nearer than to take the old road to the landing and then the east side of the Cowlitz and Columbia, as I
believe is the route decided upon. I think it would justify a reconnaissance of the route and then the
practicability of the road could be decided on by those who are disinterested and competent to judge. If
the route is found to be a good one and the road to Vancouver located over it, it would answer the purpose
of both roads if that road should not be brought that way. Congress could have reliable information
concerning the importance of the road asked for in the Memorial. I have written much more than I
intended but trust to your kindness to excuse my prolixity.
Allow me to congratulate you on your safe return from your dangerous and laborious expedition.
And also allow me to say that I very much approve of the energetic measures you have adopted in the
conduct of the Indian war. This first Indian War should be so conducted as to make it the last one.
Respectfully yours, etc,
February 1st, 1856
1st. The existing organization of volunteers is disbanded and Captains of companies will make the
necessary reports to the Adjutant General’s office at Olympia, as early as practicable.
2nd. No troops will be accepted for service except such as raised for six months and subject to the
orders of the Executive for the general defense of the Territory. The orders recently issued for the raising
of troops for the defense of particular localities are hereby revoked.
3rd. The citizens of the Territory are urged to enroll themselves as rapidly as possible. Supplies
and transportation will be in readiness.
Sir: -You will make the following disposition of the force under your command:
1. Establish small posts at Bellingham Bay, Port Townsend and on Whidby’s Island, not exceeding
15 men, each.
2. You will keep the same number afloat in case no steamer of war is on the Sound.
3. Your remaining force you will push up the Snohomish, occupy Fort Ebey with 15 men, and
station the rest at the falls. Here a blockhouse should be built.
4. If a body of 100 men can be collected at the falls under your command, you will receive orders
to move towards Green and White Rivers, to meet columns moving towards the same point from
Steilacoom and Seattle.
5. Report from time to time to the Adjutant General’s office at Olympia, and especially report
immediately the number of troops you will be able to concentrate at the falls of the Snoqualamia.
6. Robinson has been appointed Quartermaster and Commissary of your command, and of the post
of Port Townsend, and has been instructed to comply promptly with your requisitions.
Very respectfully,
1. Till the hostiles are met and defeated in their own country, a steamer should be on the move
continually, and posts of 15 men each be established at Bellingham Bay, Port Townsend and Whidby’s
Island, and a post of 30 men at the Snohomish.
2. The want of a steam vessel to be supplied by a sailing vessel, to cruise between Port Townsend
and Bellingham Bay, occasionally running down the Straits, and by a supply vessel from Port Townsend
to the Snohomish.
3. In case of attack, the settlers enrolled as Militia should be called together for the emergency.
4. If two companies are formed in the lower part of the Sound, they mostly have to act in concert,
and should be under the command of a Major, to be elected by the companies.
1. If the force stationed there should not be competent, the enrolled Militia, or a portion thereof,
should be called out.
2. With a suitable blockhouse, one quarter of the citizens as a daily guard, would probably, during
the existing Indian difficulties, be sufficient to maintain it, and get information of the approach of hostile
Indians, and in case of attack being threatened, give notice to the settlers.
3. In case of attack, all the citizens should assemble to repel it.
4. Every exertion will be made to keep a steamer on the waters of the Sound, to establish a weekly
mail between Bellingham Bay, and other points on the Sound, and Olympia.
5. If the citizens of Bellingham Bay come forward in the defense of the Territory, they will, in
connection with the company to be enrolled at Port Townsend, be organized mainly for the defense of the
lower part of the Sound. But it is possible their services may be required elsewhere, and they should enlist
Fort Steilacoom, Feb. 14, 1856
Captain Gansevoort,
Commanding, Naval Forces, Puget Sound
Sir: – Col. M. T. Simmons is operating on the rear of the hostile Indians from the falls of the Snoqualamie.
He has with him Pat Kanim and 60 friendly Indians.
They need support. I have ordered Captain Isaac N. Ebey, the enrolling officer of the Lower
(Northern) Battalion at once to dispatch all of his disposable force to that quarter. He is at Port Townsend
and one company is there, ready to take the field.
I will therefore ask you to dispatch the “Active” immediately to Port Townsend, take on Captain
Ebey’s forces and transport them to the mouth of the Snohomish. It is a most vital operation and I trust
you will see your way clear to immediately dispatch the “Active”.
I am, etc,
Olympia, February 17, 1856
His Excellency, G. L. Curry,
Governor and Commander in Chief of Oregon
Sir: I have appointed Col. B. F. Shaw, with whom you are acquainted, Assistant Adjutant General for this
He has been instructed to organize at Vancouver a force of two hundred mounted volunteers, who
will be pushed into the Walla Walla with all possible dispatch, there to establish a depot, leaving a small
force to guard it, and then push forward to the Yakima Mission, taking with them a large supply of
provisions and ammunition. At that point they can establish a post of considerable strength, and be in
position to act efficiently against any Indians in that valley.
Our Captains who are recruiting in the vicinity of Vancouver will no doubt wish to pass into
Oregon, and I trust that the hearty cooperation and friendly feeling which has existed between citizens of
the two territories will continue, and that they may receive any required aid. I feel sure that there will be
cordial cooperation.
NOTE: Letters, similar to that above, were also sent to the Governor’s Militia Staff of Oregon and replies
similar to the Commissary General’s were received therefrom.
Commissary General’s Office, Commissary Dept.,
Portland, Feb. 20, 1856
His Excellency, I. I. Stevens,
Governor, Washington Territory
Dear Sir: I received yours of the 17th of February, 1856, informing me of the appointment of Colonel B.
F. Shaw as Assistant Adjutant General of Washington Territorial Militia, and your desire to have me
cooperate with your efforts to procure supplies, transportation, etc., in Oregon; and also your wish to push
your forces as speedily as possible to the Walla Walla and Yakima Mission. It will give me great pleasure
to render what assistance is in my power, to you or any officer under your directions, to further your very
laudable object, and I will confer with Colonel Shaw upon the subject, without delay.
I am, etc,
Salem, March 27, 1856
His Excellency, I. I. Stevens
Governor, W.T., Olympia
Dear Governor: I have authorized Mr. Bradbury, who starts today from this place for San Francisco, to
call upon your Quartermaster’s Department at Portland, and in connection with such supplies as he
purchases for us at that place, to do likewise for Washington Territory, as he might be more fully
indicated and specified by the officer upon whom I desire him to call at Portland.
Yours sincerely, etc.,
Olympia, Feb. 17, 1856
Captain G. Gansevoort
Commander, Naval Forces, Seattle
Sir: From information I have received, I am apprehensive of a descent on the settlements on the lower part
of the Sound of 16 war canoes of the Northern Indians, and I have most respectfully but strongly to urge
that the “Active”, after having moved troops, be kept cruising the whole time between Port Townsend,
Bellingham Bay and Seattle.
These Northern Indians are a daring force and their intelligence greatly surpass the Indians of the
Sound. Their War Canoes carry 75 men, can be moved through stormy seas and with great rapidity. I
deem it essential to the protection of the Lower portion of the Sound that a Steamer should be constantly
in action there.
I trust therefore you will be able to comply with my request and I remain,
Very respectfully, etc,
Executive Office, Wash. Terr.
Olympia, Feb. 22, 1856
Captain G. Gansevoort,
Comdg U S Sloop of War “Decatur”
Sir: By the schooner “Potter”, I send to you the two powder tanks furnished to Acting Governor Mason by
Commander Isaac S. Sterrett.
I have instructed Lieut. Col. Lander to employ the force under his command in removing the
Indians now at Seattle to the other side of the Sound and to confer with you upon the subject.
Dr. Maynard, Special Indian Agent, is directed by me to place at Colonel Lander’s disposal a force
of friendly Indians, to act in concert with the troops against the hostiles.
Captain Enoch S. Fowler has been appointed a Special Indian Agent and I have directed him to
raise 100 men of the Clallam and Macaw tribe of Indians, and selecting an efficient white man, push them
on the line of the Snoqualamie, as auxiliaries to the Volunteer force now moving in that quarter.
Quartermaster and Commissary Robinson is instructed to furnish supplies for the Indians to be
raised by Captain Fowler.
Captain Howe, Commanding Company on Whidby’s Island, has been ordered to push his
command up the Snohomish and a Blockhouse is directed to be built at the falls.
The Volunteers will move forward from Montgomery’s to the Puyallup tomorrow morning and
there establish a Ferry and Blockhouse thence to Porter’s and there establish a Ferry and Blockhouse and
then move forward to the Muckleshoot.
You will accept my thanks for the prompt manner which you ordered the “ACTIVE” to perform
the services indicated by me and I respectfully urge that she continue to cruise wherever danger is to be
Very respectfully, etc.,
February 25, 1856
1st. The 2nd Regiment Washington Territory Volunteers, called into the service of the United
States, against the Yakima and other hostile Indian tribes, will be organized into three battalions, to be
designated respectively the Northern, the Central and Southern battalions.
2nd. The Northern battalion includes Company G, commanded by Captain Van Bokkelen,
Company I, Captain Howe, a detachment of Company H, Captain Peabody, and will be commanded by a
Major, to be elected by the command upon its concentration.
3rd. It will receive supplies and transportation from the Quartermaster and Commissary, Captain
Robinson and move immediately up the river to Snoqualamie Falls.
4th. The Central battalion, commanded by Major Gilmore Hays, will comprise, Company B,
Captain Rabbeson, Company C, Captain Henness (Mounted Rangers), the Train Guard, Captain Shead,
and the Pioneer Company, commanded .by Captain White, with detachments of Scout’s, commanded by
Captain Swindal of Company F, and be supplied by Quartermaster and Commissary Weed, at the post of
5th. This battalion will march to the Muckleshoot Prairie – establish Blockhouses at the Yelm
Prairie, at Montgomery’s Station, and the crossing of the Puyallup river; and forming a junction with the
regulars, erect a depot, hospital and Blockhouse at or near the forks of White and Green rivers.
6th. The Southern battalion, commanded by Lieut. Col. Shaw, will organize from the companies
now forming by Captains Maxon, Achilles, Higgins and Pearson, upon the Columbia River, and will
march to the Walla Walla as soon as possible.
7th. The Southern Battalion will be supplied by Quartermaster and Commissary Hathaway, at Fort
8th. Officers, commanding battalions, will appoint Adjutants for their commands.
9th. The battalion Adjutant will conduct the military correspondence, make the necessary reports
to this office and keep the papers of the battalion.
10th. Quartermasters and Commissary’s will make their reports to Quartermaster and Commissary
General W. W. Miller; at Olympia.
11th. Lieut. Col. Lander, commanding post at Seattle, will organize Company A, of the 2nd
Regiment of Washington Territory Volunteers, with as many friendly Indians as may report to him, and
make war upon the hostile Indians infesting the forests between Elliott’s Bay, and the country lying
adjacent to Seattle; and cooperate with the Naval Forces now in the bay of Seattle and will be supplied by
Quartermaster and Commissary F. Matthias.
12th. Jared S. Hurd and H. R. Crosbie, Esq., are appointed Aids to the Commander in Chief, with
the rank of Lieut. Colonel.
13th. Eustis Hager is appointed Acting Adjutant of the 2nd Regiment, W. T. Volunteers, with the
rank of 1st Lieut.
14th. Sidney S. Ford, Jr. is appointed a Captain, and attached for special service of organizing a
force of friendly Indians of the Chehalis and Cowlitz tribes for operations upon the Puyallup.
15th. Captain C. W. Riley, with the force raised at Steilacoom, will build a fort at “Lone Tree
Point”, north of the mouth of the Puyallup River and occupy that post until further orders.
16th. Warren Gove is appointed Quartermaster and Commissary at the post of Steilacoom.
17th. A. H. Robie is appointed Quartermaster and Commissary of subsistence at the Dalles.
18th. G. K. Willard to be Surgeon and Purveyor of Medicine and medical stores at Headquarters.
19th. M. P. Burns is appointed a Surgeon in the 2nd Regiment and ordered for duty with the
Central Battalion.
20th. Dr. R. M. Bigelow Surgeon for the Northern Battalion.
2lst. The officer commanding the Southern Battalion will appoint a Surgeon for his command, and
report his name to this office, that a commission may issue.
22nd. Edward Furste is appointed Chief Clerk to the Quartermaster and Commissary General.
23rd. James Roberts is appointed Military Clerk to the Commander in Chief.
24th. In all service of combined volunteer and Indian Military forces, the military officer will take
command of the whole.
25th. All officers commanding are requested to make reports to this office, as frequently as
Adj. Gen, WTV Forces
Camp Montgomery, Feb. 27, 1856
Major Gilmore Hays, Comdg Cen Bn
Sir: On your arrival at the Muckleshoot Prairie, it is expected a junction will be made with the regular
troops under the command of Lieut. Col. Casey, and you are directed to cooperate with him in the
occupation of that point and in the prosecution of the campaign. This is not intended either directly or
indirectly to place you under the orders of Col. Casey, or to make your operations subordinate to his. You
will exercise your own judgement, apply your force in the way which will effect the greatest result
bearing in mind that the part assigned to you enters into a general plan, which it is hoped will ensure a
blow being struck, and the enemy not escaping out of your hands.
Lieut. Col. Casey is an officer of energy and experience, and from my frequent conferences with
him as well as my knowledge of his previous character, I am assured of his disposition to cooperate with
the volunteer forces.
The prairie above the Falls of the Snoqualamie, and an advance point on Cedar Creek on the trail,
will shortly be occupied by the available troops of the Northern Battalion; and in their operations, they
will be assisted by Pat Kanim and his band of friendly Indians, who has again returned to the field.
Lone Tree Point is also occupied by a force of 15 men; and a band of friendly Indians, principally
of the Cowlitz and Chehalis tribes, under the command of Captain Sidney S. Ford, Jr., will be pushed onto
you at the Muckleshoot, as soon as practicable. They will be informed and due notice given you.
In the occupation of Muckleshoot Prairie, a defensive building, in relation to which I have already
written you, and a corral, will be immediately required.
On your arrival at Muckleshoot, provision must at once be made for killing some twenty-five
beaves and salting them. Salt is sent out and as many empty barrels as can be hauled.
A limited number of oxen should be retained for labor around the depot, finishing the building and
corral and for establishing auxiliary defenses, and for the return of the expedition when its object is
attained, and a small number might be kept for fresh beef.
The remainder of the train should be sent back to this point with a suitable guard. With
blockhouses on the route, the guard need be but small.
From the Muckleshoot the operations must be made without train or baggage animals; the men
carrying, each one, his blanket and haversack with four days provisions on his back.
It may be that the train can be returned through the route to be opened by Col. Casey. This you
will be able to decide on conference with that officer. My impression is that if Col. Casey gets wagons
through to the Muckleshoot, it will be on your route, and that the wagons will have to return by the route
they go out.
I hope to send additional force to your aid, and shall at once take measures to increase the numbers
of the existing companies.
To take charge of all the operations in his department, Quartermaster General Miller will
accompany your command and bring back the train. From his familiarity with the details of transportation
and subsistence, and his known energy of character, I am sure his services will do much to facilitate your
Before deciding to take a different route to the Muckleshoot than by Porters, have the ground
carefully examined to the banks of White River, the crossing itself examined, and the route thence to
Muckleshoot Prairie. It is known, we can push the train to Muckleshoot by Porter’s, and that if this good
weather continues, we can ford White River at Porter’s. In moving by Porter’s, I consider a blockhouse
there indispensable as you go out.
My own impression is that the surest and probably the only practicable plan without extreme labor
to reach the Muckleshoot, will be by Porter’s. It is an important point to occupy and should be occupied,
and a blockhouse built after the occupation of Muckleshoot, if not before. Is not the grass better at
Porter’s? But you have been over the ground, and I leave the matter to your own judgment.
The blockhouses at the Puyallup and at Porter’s, can, in my judgment, be held by ten men each.
This, however, I leave to your discretion.
I send you a brief memorandum in regard to the march and the establishment at the Muckleshoot,
which you will consider as a part of these instructions.
Report as frequently as possible, and I will advise you of operations at other points. It is hoped
that a line will be opened up the Duwamish from Seattle at an early day. Trusting that the most complete
success will crown your exertions, I remain, etc,
1. Before moving the train from point to point, see that the road is opened and the way clear to a
camping place at night, which, whenever practicable, should be in a prairie, and gun shot from the woods.
2. The wagons should be examined on reaching camp and be repaired and strengthened, and
broken down wagons with their loads brought up.
3. The consumption of forage and provisions will, it is hoped, so lighten the train as to equalize the
breaking down of wagons and any increasing difficulty on the road.
4. On moving from the Puyallup, disabled oxen and their wagons should be sent back. It is not
supposed that an escort will be required.
5. The defensive building and corral at the Muckleshoot should be gun-shot from timber, or the
wood cut down within gun-shot.
6. A good blockhouse should be built at the crossing of White River, and a ferry established. This
can be done after the establishment at the Muckleshoot if deemed expedient. If the route be by Porter’s, a
blockhouse should be built there as the expedition moves out.
7. A blockhouse on Green River on the route towards Cedar Creek and the prairie above the falls
of the Snoqualmie, will, with a blockhouse at Porter’s protect the rear of the establishment at the
Muckleshoot. A blockhouse is therefore recommended on Green River.
Camp Puyallup, Feb. 29, 1856
I. I. Stevens, C in C, WTV
Sir: I am able this morning to communicate the gratifying intelligence of the death of the celebrated War
Chief “Te-nas-kut”. He was shot this morning at the break of daylight by Private Kehl of Company D,
Ninth US Infantry. Two companies of US soldiers encamped on the evening of the 28th instant a half a
mile east of our camp. At the break of day an Indian was seen at a distance of one hundred yards by the
sentinel approaching the camp in the most stealthy manner, occasionally beckoning to others in his rear to
advance. When he drew within forty yards, the sentinel fired his ball taking effect in the shoulder and
ranging to the hip. He was then brought into camp – he told them, he was “Tenaskut” – that he wanted
them to kill him – that his voice was for war and that the voice of his people was for war that his
Tillicum’s were men and would avenge his death. He urged those that accompanied him to come to his
relief and fight to the last. The Indian guide recognized him as “Tenaskut”, also Mr. Brannan and others
of the Volunteers. Of the death of “Tenaskut” there is not doubt. Colonel Casey of the Ninth Infantry
ordered that he be hanged immediately. A rope was placed about his neck, and while looking for a tree on
which to suspend him, the appearance of Indians in the vicinity changed the purpose and the savage
murderer “Tenaskut” was shot through the brain. His gun was a fine rifle with fifty rounds of powder and
ball. He had on his person a butcher knife and a spear. The same party have doubtless been hanging about
our camp every night since our arrival, but for some reason have not approached so near our sentinels. I
approve heartily the details which you have made of Sergeant Phillips and Private Mise. We shall leave
early tomorrow.
All well, and in fine spirits, very respectfully, etc.
Camp Connell, March 2nd, 1856
I. I. Stevens
Commander in Chief
Sir: At an early hour this morning, I received an express from Col. Casey, bringing information of an
engagement on yesterday with a part of the force of Capt. Maloney, under command of Lieut. Kautz and a
part of the force under Col. Casey, commanded by Capt. E. D. Keyes. Lieut. Kautz had been sent forward
from the Muckleshoot with fifty men to open a road leading to Connell’s prairie over which Col. Casey
was to have passed this day to join his forces on the Muckleshoot, when he descended the White River
hill to the bottom, he saw Indians on whom he fired, the Indians in turn fired on his party and he soon
found himself surrounded, the Indians being on both sides of the river. He forwarded an express to Col.
Casey who sent Capt. Keyes and fifty three men to his relief. Capt. Keyes engaged the party on this side
of the river and drove them before him upstream where he forced a passage, the Indians making stubborn
resistance at every point and were only made to yield by the gallantry of the Captain and his command,
who charged the enemy wherever they made a stand. Capt. Keyes lost in this engagement one man killed
and nine wounded, amongst the number, slightly, Lieut. Kautz in the leg. It is not known how many
Indians were killed. There was no time to look over the battleground. They drove the Indians before them
and continued the pursuit till dark. It is believed that many were killed.
The conduct of Lieut. Kautz in this engagement is highly complimentary to so youthful an officer.
From all I am able to learn of this battle, the officers and men deserve the greatest credit. The battle was
fought on the same ground where the command under myself and Lieut. Slaughter fought the same rascals
on the 3rd of November last.
In haste, very respectfully, etc.
Executive Office, Terr. of Washington
Olympia, March 8, 1856
Lieut. Col. James Doty
Sir: As the Aid de Camp of the Governor, you have has recently entrusted to you important duties in the
prosecution of the existing Indian War.
You left here near midnight on the second day of March, but instead of attending to your duty, you
remained at Steilacoom from Tuesday, March 4th to yesterday, in an almost helpless state of intoxication.
You have brought discredit upon yourself and are hereby dismissed from the public service.
Yours respectfully; etc,
Olympia, March 9, 1856
Washington, D. C.
Sir: Referring to my previous communication, setting forth the necessity of calling out volunteers to
protect our settlements, and cooperate with the regular troops in waging war upon the hostile Indians, I
have the honor to submit for the information of the department, the present condition of the volunteer
The general plan of operation and the staff arrangements made to give efficiency to the service,
will be shown in General Orders No. 4, herewith enclosed.
It will thus appear that three battalions are to operate against the enemy.
The Northern battalion is now rendezvousing at the falls of the Snoqualamie, will number about
ninety men; will be supported by Pat Kanim and his band of nearly one hundred friendly Indians. This
battalion is ordered to establish blockhouses on the prairie above the falls of the Snoqualamie, and on
Cedar Creek; will be supplied with sixty days provisions, and will prevent the Indians either crossing the
mountains by the two passes of the Snoqualamie, or going down the Snohomish to tamper with the
friendly Indians on the reservations.
The Central Battalion, under Major Gilmore Hays, is now established at Connell’s prairie, on the
south side of the White River. A blockhouse and corral have been built, and the communication with the
same is secured by a ferry and blockhouse on the Puyallup, and by blockhouses at Montgomery’s and on
Yelm prairie. They have one hundred days supplies of provisions, taken in by ox teams, which have since
been withdrawn, and will immediately establish blockhouses at the crossing of White River. The cordial
relations between the regulars and volunteers referred to in my last communication, still continue. I have
every assurance that the volunteers will do their duty.
The department will observe that one of the companies is a company of Pioneers. They are
experienced axemen, and have rendered the most efficient service in opening roads and building
blockhouses. The war will be emphatically a war of blockhouses.
In the movement of the regular troops upon the Muckleshoot, a decisive battle was fought with the
Indians, in which the latter were signally defeated. Their establishment at Porter’s has since been broken
up, and they have been driven towards the Green River. If they continue their retreat further, they will be
met by the volunteers and friendly Indians of the Northern battalion.
The Southern battalion is still organizing, but their movement to the interior will be delayed for a
short time, in consequence of my finding myself obliged to order over one company to the defense of the
Sound. A band of hostiles, under the notorious “Quimuth”, had, unknown to us, established themselves in
the Nisqually bottoms, within twelve miles of this place, and the garrison at Steilacoom. We became
aware of their presence one week since, they having on that day killed one of our citizens. One of the
teamsters had been for some days missing, and that he was also killed was ascertained the same day. The
whole force of the Central Battalion, except 15, was then in the Indian country on White River.
Immediately an express was dispatched to the Columbia River, ordering Captain Maxon’s company to the
Sound, and tonight his company will be at Jackson’s, ninety miles on the road. The rapidity of the
movement is the best evidence of the necessity of action, and the disposition of the troops to obey orders.
In the meantime, I have raised the force of 15 men to sixty, and in addition, have sent twenty nine friendly
Indians into the field. These Indians are led by experienced white men.
The hostiles have, within ten days, driven off much stock, and have alarmed our entire settlement.
We hope soon to rout them. It is necessary to have considerable guard to all our teams. The mail from the
Columbia came on Friday with an escort of 4 men.
The danger is not so much from the harm which this band may, of its own strength do, as it
numbers not over 40 warriors, but from the facility with which they may communicate with the friendly
Indians on the reservations, and stir them up to hostility.
Seattle is held by a company of volunteers, consisting of 40 odd men, commanded by the Chief
Justice of the Territory, Lieut. Col. Lander.
Lone Tree Point, which commands a trail from the camp of the hostiles to the Sound, whence they
may communicate with the reservations, is also held by a volunteer force of ten men. They have built a
suitable blockhouse.
Our people are not dismayed. Wherever 4 families are, they will build a blockhouse, hold it
against the Indians, and endeavor to get in their crops. Over one-half of the able-bodied men on the Sound
are bearing arms. Our people have patriotically placed at the disposal of the authorities all their available
means. We need aid from general government – ample appropriations to defray the expenses of the war.
I have refused to receive into service a single man for local defense. All are enlisted for six
months, subject to the orders of the Executive. In this way, and effectual stop has been put to any attempt
to enroll troops for nominal service, with a view to extorting pay and rations from the government.
I am, very respectfully,
Your most obedient servant.
Governor or Washington Territory
Fort Tilton, March 10, 1856
To James Tilton, Adj. Gen, WTV
Sir: Your dispatch bearing date of Feb.21st was received through the hand of Lieut. Huger on the 22nd on
receipt of which I immediately with the assistance of Messers Collins and Mowry engaged fifteen canoes
to transport my command up the Snoqualamy river.
I was somewhat bothered in the operations as Capt. Pat Kanim through himself back on his dignity
and insisted upon my waiting upon his pleasure but, he at last consented to proceed with part of my
command up the Snoqualamy river to Pat’s house where we had to remain as Pat had ordered them to take
us no further.
After two days by using threats I succeeded in making seven of them take me up to the falls to
look for a location to establish a Fort according to instructions when I selected the present sight which I
have taken the liberty to name “Fort Tilton”. It is situated at the head of canoe navigation and three miles
below the Falls with a large tract of bottom land around it which is never overflowed.
After arriving here I was again delayed in consequence of my being ahead of my supplies and not
having the tools to work with.
In the meantime, with the assistance of Collins and Mowry, I layed out a road from this place to
the prairie above the Falls the said road being 6 to 7 miles in length.
Two days since on receipt of axes, etc, I immediately put my command to work cutting the road
for pack animals to travel which will be finished in a couple of days.
I have delayed doing anything on the blockhouse at this place as I was so far behind in my
movements in the expectations of the Commander in Chief, that I thought it advisable to push matters
through leaving the blockhouse to be erected by the detachment to remain at this place.
Yesterday by the hands of Sergeant Ebey of my command I received all the back instructions from
Captain Ebey, together with a map of this country with my line of march layed out. I also received by the
express running to this station ammunition and other articles forwarded from Quartermaster’s Department
as per your favor bearing date of Feb. 25th, which is acceptable. By the express I learn that Kanim’s
Company is at Fort Ebey and will be at this station tomorrow to report for duty. A portion of Captain
Howe’s Company is also at Fort Ebey, say 18, and talk of remaining for some fifteen days, for what
purpose I cannot tell.
I have sent an express to them ordering them up to this station to report themselves (I acting as
senior officer) without delay. So I am in hopes that this Division will be at this place in 4 or 5 days from
date when a Major will be elected and the line of march taken up.
I have so far laboured under great difficulties in the other companies of this battalion not using
proper exertions in pushing business and getting animals to pack our provisions. I am in hopes of
obtaining some from Pat Kanim and I have also sent this day a detachment of twenty men under Lieut.
Mounts with five Indians to secure five horses that are roving above the Falls and the Indians tell me they
belong to the enemy. My Indian auxiliaries are hard to get along with – in my opinion are rather inclined
to show the “White Feather”. As yet the Quartermaster has been unable to furnish me with tents, but I
shall start without them if I can only raise pack animals enough to pack ten days provisions for the
The balance of the time that I remain at this place awaiting the arrival of the other companies I
shall employ in erecting the blockhouse at which I shall commence tomorrow. So far the movements of
this Division has been very expensive as we had to deal with a hard crowd and slow in their movements,
but I assure you that in all my operations thus far I have exerted myself to push matters and at the same
time to avoid any unnecessary outlay in the way of expenses.
This evening Lieut. Mounts and party returned bringing in four horses and report no Indians on the
upper prairie. Expecting to date my next dispatch on the line of the march.
I remain, etc
PS I have to report Dr. Bigelow for neglect of duty. He will not come to this place but is continuously
visiting Penn’s Cove and other places (instead of attending to his business) for no earthly purpose.
Camp Connell, March 10, 1856
His Excellency I. I. Stevens
Governor & Commander in Chief, WTV, Olympia
Sir: At about 8 o’clock this morning, Captain White, with his company were ordered to the White River to
build a blockhouse and ferry, supported by Captain Swindall and ten privates. He had not proceeded more
than a half mile from camp when he was attacked by a large force of Indians, supposed to be at least one
hundred and fifty warriors, and large number of squaws. I immediately forwarded Capt. Henness to his
support with twenty men. Captain Henness moved with great rapidity, a tremendous volley of guns
announcing his arrival. I became satisfied that additional force was necessary, and dispatched Lieut.
Martin of Company “B” with 15 additional men. The Indians by this time were seen extending their flanks
to the left with rapidity. I then forwarded Lieut. Van Ogle. Co. B, with fifteen men to check their flank
movement, but before he could gain a position they had extended their line as to make it necessary to send
another party of twelve men, under command of Capt. Rabbeson, who succeeded in checking them. The
fight by this time extended the whole length of our line, and one continuous volley could be heard from
the Indian guns on the hill and those of our men in the bottom. This firing continued some two hours. I
saw the advantage which the Indians had in position, and, determined to charge them. I ordered Capt.
Swindall to charge them from his position, which was central, and Capt. Rabbeson to make a
simultaneous move against their extreme left, while Capt. Henness and Capt. White were ordered to hold
the position which they occupied.
This order was promptly obeyed, and the charge made in the most gallant style by Capt. Swindall
against their center, and Capt. Rabbeson against their left, through a deep slough, driving the enemy from
his position and pursuing, them some distance in their flight. Capt. Rabbeson returned to camp, while
Capt. Swindall took a position on a high ridge in the rear of the main body of Indians. I ordered Captain
Rabbeson to take his men and join Capt. Henness and Capt. White, and to say to Capt. Henness to charge
the Indians from his position if he deemed it advisable. The Indians in front of Captains White and
Henness held a strong position from behind logs and trees, and from an elevated hill. It was deemed too
dangerous to charge them in front. Capt. Rabbeson was ordered to take a few men and join Capt. Swindall
to make a flank movement to the right and charge the enemy in his rear. This they succeeded in doing in
the same gallant manner that they had done at an early hour during the fight. Simultaneous with this
movement, Captain Henness and Capt. White charged them from the front. The Indians were routed, put
to flight, and pursued for a mile or more along the trail or trails covered with blood. It is believed that not
less than twenty five or thirty Indians were killed dead on the field, and many wounded – they were seen
carrying off their wounded and dead from the time the fight commenced until its termination. Withes and
ropes were found on the ground they occupied which had been used in dragging off their dead into the
bush. Hats, blankets and shirts were picked up with bullet holes in them, stained with blood. They were
forced to give up their drum, which they had abandoned in their retreat. But two Indians were found dead
in the field, one of them was recognized as “Chehalis John”, the other was placed under a log, and has not
yet been examined. I regard the victory of this day as complete – a grand triumph. The Indians had
together their whole force. They picked their ground. They brought on the attack without being seen by
our own troops. They exceeded us in numbers nearly if not two to one, and we whipped and drove them
before us. I do but justice to the officers and privates when I say each acted a distinguished part in this
fight – each performed his whole duty. I gave no command that was not obeyed most promptly, let the
danger be ever so great.
There was the most vigorous effort on the part of every man from the Captain to the private to
render his country service and his name conspicuous.
It is proper that I should state that Mr. James Goudy rendered important service in carrying
intelligence from place to place during the fight, and is deserving of the highest praise.
I cannot close this communication without referring to the smallness of our force, being but 110
men, all told, and to the still more important fact that, in my judgment, if our force had been but 100 more
today, we could have captured or cut to pieces the whole of the Indians engaged in arms against us on this
side of the mountains. Col. Casey would have gladly furnished us aid, but his force were all absent on
scouts. In this fight we had four men wounded, all of whom I think, will soon get well.
In haste, etc,
Olympia, March 13, 1856
Major G. Hays, Comdg Cen Bn, 2nd Regt.,WTV
Sir: – Your dispatch, dated Camp Connell, March 10, 1856, announcing the success achieved by the
gallantry and constancy of the troops under your command, is received. This victory has inspired the most
lively satisfaction throughout the country, and reflects great credit upon the Battalion and the Territory.
The Commander in Chief desires me to communicate his gratification to the Central Battalion, and
express to yourself, Captains Swindal, Henness, Rabbeson and White, and the officers and men of the
command, his thanks for the efficient and daring service rendered at the battle of Connell’s Prairie.
The charge you speak of made by the volunteers, and the result as shown by the twenty-five or
thirty slain of the enemy, exhibit unmistakable evidence of the valor and discipline of the Central
The morale of the enemy being now broken by the shock it has received from the blow lately
inflicted by the Central Battalion, following so rapidly the defeat of the enemy lately sustained from the
U.S. regulars under the gallant Col. Casey of the 9th Infantry, it is confidently expected that these savages
will be speedily annihilated or driven over the Cascades.
Reinforcements are being moved up towards your line of operations as rapidly as possible. The
Southern battalion, under Lieut. Col. Shaw, is ordered from the Columbia River to assist in following up
the blow the Central Battalion have so well bestowed.
Captain Maxon’s company of horse is here from the Columbia, and are ranging the country from
Fort Henness to Montgomery’s, and protecting the trains moving towards the White River country.
Agents have been dispatched to California and Vancouver’s Island for supplies, and it will be the
subject of vigilant attention at headquarters that the brave and devoted citizen soldiers now shedding their
blood and devoting their service to their country, shall be supplied with every facility accessible, during
the war, and of the greatful remembrance of a suffering people in all time to come, they may assure
themselves of.
Very respectfully, etc.
Olympia, March 15, 1856
Major General John E. Wool
Commanding Pacific Division
Sir: I hear this morning of your arrival in the Territory of Washington, or your having left Vancouver in a
steamer for the Sound, and that you are now probably at Steilacoom.
In the discharge of my responsibilities as the highest federal officer of the Territory of
Washington, and in view of my oath of office, I have called out a large force of volunteers, and a band of
Indian auxiliaries, who are now actively engaging the enemy in the field.
Actuated by no motive than the public good, I have endeavored to cooperate with the military and
naval forces on the Sound, with the object that all and every available means of carrying on the War
should be applied as a unit to its prosecution.
I therefore send the Adjutant General of the volunteer forces, James Tilton, Esq., to confer with
you. He is instructed to advise you of the plan of operations which I have adopted, the force in the field,
and the condition of the country. I have to acquaint you of my desire to cooperate with you in all plans
you may think proper to adopt, and I shall be pleased to hear from you in reference to the prosecution of
the campaign.
I am sir, etc,
Fort Steilacoom, W.T., March 15, 1856
Governor I. I. Stevens, Olympia, W.T.
Sir: – I respectfully request that you will at once issue your proclamation calling into service of the United
States two companies of volunteers to serve on foot, for the period of four months, unless sooner
discharged. Each company to consist of one Captain, one First Lieutenant, one Second Lieutenant, four
sergeants, four corporals and seventy privates.
I wish both companies to be mustered into service at Ft. Steilacoom.
The authority for calling for the above named troops has been given by the General, commanding
the Department of the Pacific.
I received yesterday an accession of two companies of the 9th Infantry. With this accession of
force, and the two companies of volunteers called for, I am of the opinion that I shall have a sufficient
number of troops to protect this frontier without the aid of those now in the service of the Territory.
I am sir, etc,
Silas Casey, Lieut. Col., 9th Inf., Comdg.
Olympia, March 16, 1856
Lieut. Col. Casey, 9th Inf
Comdg, Puget Sound District, Ft Steilacoom, W. T.
Sir: – I have received your letter of the 15th instant, advising me of accession to your command of two
companies of regulars, and requesting me to issue my proclamation calling into the service of the United
States two companies of volunteers to serve on foot, for the period of four months, unless sooner
discharged. These companies you wish to be mustered into the service at Steilacoom.
You also express the opinion that if this requisition be complied with, that you will have a
sufficient number of troops to protect this frontier without the aid of those now in the service of the
I am also advised that you have been authorized to make this requisition for troops by the general
commanding the department of the Pacific.
You have been informed by me not only of the volunteer force which has been called out to
protect the settlements, and to wage war upon the Indians, but the plan of campaign which I have adopted,
of the positions which these troops occupy, and the blows already struck by them against the enemy. I
take it for granted that this information has been communicated to General Wool, and has been considered
by him in his official action.
In the two visits which I have made to Steilacoom to confer with you, one of them made at great
personal inconvenience, I have waived etiquette in my anxious desire to cooperate with the regular
service. I have communicated unreservedly my plans and views and have endeavored, so far as my
operations were concerned, to conduct affairs in a way to insure the whole force operating as a unit in the
prosecution of the war.
I am happy to say, that in our several interviews and communications, you have met me in the
same spirit of cooperation to the extent that the impression has been made upon my mind, that such
disposition had been made of the volunteers in your opinion, as to make them an efficient element in the
general combination. Now your requisition on me to issue my proclamation to call into the service of the
United States two companies of volunteers, in connection with the expression of your opinion, that if the
call were complied with, the services of the troops now in the service of the Territory may be dispensed
with, is in fact, a call upon me to withdraw all the troops – now in the field, with their sixty to eighty day’s
provisions, to abandon the blockhouses, to leave the settlements both north and south open to attacks by
marauding Indians, and, at the very moment when our troops are prepared to strike a blow, and perhaps
the decisive blow, to abandon the campaign and reorganize anew.
Are you aware that in the patriotic response of the citizens of this Territory to the call of the
Executive, over one half of our able-bodied men are bearing arms, that the people are almost entirely
living in blockhouses, and that it is entirely beyond the ability of our citizens to organize an additional
company of even fifty men?
The two companies you call for can, therefore, not be raised except by the withdrawal of the
troops, and abandoning the campaign at the very moment when the prospects are flattering to end the war.
For the reasons above it will be impossible to comply with your requisition. Nor can I suppose that
in making the requisition, either Major General Wool or yourself, believed for a moment that the
requisition would be seriously entertained by me.
But I am of the opinion that even were the requisition complied with, your force would not be
adequate to the protection of the frontier and the settlements. Having the highest respect for your opinion,
knowing how cautiously and carefully you approach any field of labor, and how thoroughly you
investigate it, and reach your conclusions, I am constrained to express my judgment that you would soon
be obliged to call for additional force equal in all, to the force which has been called out by my previous
In such case, I have no other alternative than to act according to my deliberate judgment. For, if
waiving my own judgment to yours, injury would result, the responsibility would attach to me no less
than to yourself.
Otherwise, why is the Militia organized, and the Executive made its Commander in Chief? It is to
meet emergencies like the present.
But were it practical to comply with your requisition, and were these requisitions in my judgment
competent, I should not deem it expedient to place the force thus raised, under the command of the
officers of the regular service.
The war has now gone five months. It is a war emphatically for the defense of the settlements. So
much so, that I have ordered to the Sound four companies from the Columbia River, and at this critical
period it is important that there should be no changes in the command, or in the plan. In view of this, and
also, in view of the changes of opinion and of plan on the part of the officer in chief command of this
coast, growing out of a want of proper understanding of the difficulties to be encountered, I am of the
opinion that the whole force will be more efficient, and that there will be a better spirit of cooperation, if
the regular and volunteer services are kept distinct. Be this as it may, the campaign is, I trust approaching
its consummation, and the changes of plan can only be fraught with mischief.
The citizens of this territory have great confidence in the officers of the regular service, and
especially in this case with the people of the Sound. These relations have been more than cordial; these
are the witnesses of the efficiency of the troops stationed here, and their gratification has been announced
on several occasions since the organization of the Territory.
The force now in the field has not been mustered into the service of the Territory, but in the
service of the United States. My authority as the highest federal officer in the Territory, is derived from
the same source as that of the Major General commanding the Pacific division. I am commissioned by the
President, and I act under authority of the laws of Congress, and the responsibilities of my oath of office.
For these reasons, your requisition cannot be complied with, at the same time, you may rest
assured of my doing everything in my power to cooperate with you, and I hope that, through the action of
us all, the war may soon be closed, and the suffering inhabitants of the Territory may be rescued from
their present unhappy condition.
With greatest respect, etc,
Governor & C in C, WTV
Olympia, March 21st, 1856
Sir: – In my two reports of February 19th, and March 9th, I laid before the department the circumstances
of my return from the Blackfoot country; the condition of the Territory, and the measures taken by me to
call out volunteers, and to apply them to the prosecution of the war. I now propose to lay before the
department a full view of the whole matter, and to indicate the measures which, in my judgment, are still
necessary to protect these distant settlements, and to inflict that summary chastisement upon the Indians,
demanded both by their unprovoked atrocities, and the permanent peace of the country.
I have caused two maps to be prepared – one of the country west of the Cascades, showing the
points now occupied by that portion of the friendly Indians who, for five months, have been under the
charge of local agents – the lines occupied by the regular troops now in the field, under the command of
Lieut. Col. Casey; the point occupied by the naval forces; the lines occupied by the volunteer forces now
in the field; the blockhouses occupied by our citizens; the lines of supply; the depots for their protection;
the country now occupied by the hostiles; the lines over which reinforcements can come to them from east
of the Cascades, showing the tribes, the lines of communication, and the points at the latest advices
occupied by the hostiles. The number of souls and warriors will be shown on this map.
The settlements are now secured by blockhouses, that the citizens will hold them even should
every Indian on the Sound become hostile, and be reinforced by large bands from the North.
The whole country on the eastern shore of the Sound, from the Skookumchuck to the Snohomish,
is a war ground. No friendly Indian is allowed there unless he has a pass from an authorized agent, stating
his special business, or be connected with the military or naval forces. Two parties of Indian auxiliaries
are now in the field, besides which quite a number of Indians are employed as guides and in canoe
I will give a condensed view of the present condition of the military operations on the Sound.
1. The regular troops now occupy the Muckleshoot prairie as their central position. The line of
communication to Steilacoom is secured by a blockhouse and ferry of the Puyallup. A company has been
sent to Seattle to move up the Duwamish and open communication with the central position. A
blockhouse will be established at the mouth of Cedar Creek, and probably at John Thomas’. The force
under Lieut. Col. Casey has been very active, and this gallant officer has made the most favorable
impression upon our people.
2. The naval forces occupy Seattle. This place is also held by a company of volunteers, who, for some
days, have been under orders to occupy the line of the Duwamish, and who, in that duty, will cooperate
with the company sent there by Lieut. Col. Casey.
3. The Northern battalion have their headquarters at Fort Tilton, near the Falls of the Snoqualamie.
They number about 90 white men, and about the same number of friendly Indians under Pat Kanim. They
will establish blockhouses at the prairie above the Falls, and on Cedar Creek and will extend their scouts
to the Muckleshoot and Duwamish.
4. To circumscribe the field occupied by the enemy, I have suggested to Captain Swartout, in
command of the naval forces, a joint operation upon the lake back of Seattle. A blockhouse to be built on
the lake at the nearest point to Seattle, a good road opened with Seattle, and boats from the Navy with 100
men to be placed on the lakes. Capt. Swartout, does not, however, by his instructions, feel authorized
either to cooperate with the military authorities of the Territory, or to take part in any operation carrying
his force away from the immediate shores of the Sound. I enclose, a copy of my letter to Captain
Swartout, and his reply thereto.
5. The Central battalion have their headquarters at Connell’s prairie and at Porter’s. Their
communication with the rear is secured by a blockhouse and a ferry at the crossing of the Puyallup, and
blockhouses at Montgomery’s, at Yelm prairie, at Nathan Eaton’s, and at Lowe’s. The battalion numbers
the field, including the garrison at Yelm and Montgomery’s; and the crossing of the Puyallup about 150
6. Our supplies are drawn mainly from the country between this point and Cowlitz Landing. The
route is well secured by blockhouses.
7. Lone Tree Point is also held by a volunteer force of ten men. It guards several important trails.
8. Bellingham Bay has its blockhouse, defended by 15 men of Captain Peabody’s company.
9. The Southern battalion, on its arrival on the Sound, will be for the most part dismounted, and sent
to reinforce the Central battalion. The two battalions will then operate up White River towards the
Nachess Pass, cooperating with Lieut. Col. Casey.
The map of the country east of the Cascades will show the large number of Indians already hostile,
or who may be incited to hostility – the ease with which they may communicate with each other the great
number of excellent trails – the large extent of country embraced in the theater of operation, and the
facility with which reinforcements can be sent over the Cascades.
Hence the importance of the most vigorous and decisive blows to get possession of the whole
country east of the Sound, now infested with the savages, and to hold in our hands the routes over the
Cascades, before they become practicable in May, and hence the necessity of the most vigorous measures
east of the Cascades, in order that the Indians may be simultaneously struck in the Yakima country.
It is probable that the hostile Indians rather exceed the minimum estimate of two hundred men, as
stated in my letter to General Wool, a copy of which has been sent to the department, but I do think they
will be found to exceed three hundred men.
Their headquarters have been on the Muckleshoot prairie, now occupied by Lieut. Col. Casey, and
now they have moved up either White or Green River. But there are bands also on the lake back of
Seattle, and probably up Cedar Creek.
The map will show that even the hostiles are only within a four hour’s distance of every
reservation. There are many trails known only to the Indians, and it will not be possible in any
contingency, entirely to prevent communication.
From the hostile camps, marauding parties can steal out, and turning the heads of the Puyallup and
Nisqually, they can, in from 6 to 12 hours, strike any settlement from Steilacoom to Cowlitz Landing.
More than this, there are places where they can, on this line of settlements, establish themselves, and for
many days defy our efforts to drive them out.
Consider the face of the country, prairies and heavy timber, and many streams, almost
impenetrable brushwood on the banks, and heavy drift along the shore. There is not a road or trail of
twenty miles in the whole Sound country which does not afford one or more ambuscades.
Between this place and Cowlitz Landing are two Indian reservations, the Chehalis and Cowlitz.
The former can easily be incited into hostility, and number a little more that 100 warriors; we know some
three or four men who are endeavoring to stir up the tribe to war. My plan has been to get up small
auxiliary forces of some 15 of the best of the tribe, who make scouts every few days to the head of the
Skookumchuck. It has been found to work well. The difficulty is, that if the men of the tribe, believed to
be in alliance with Leschi, were summarily disposed of, the tribe would break out. We have no positive
evidence, except the impression of their commander, Capt. Ford, who is of the opinion that in his
last trip, two of the men tried to kill him. He has great daring and presence of mind, and he believes that
he can prevent an outbreak.
So of the reservation opposite Olympia. Lieut. Gosnell has made one scout in the Nisqually
bottom of ten days, with 14 Indians. Yesterday morning he started out on a scout of three days with thirty
Indians. The effects of the first scout was salutary. Such I doubt not will be the effect of the second, yet
the first scout Lieut. Gosnell went with his life in his hands. Some of the Indians were more than
suspected, and he went with them alone.
The most melancholy feature of the war is, that the Indians who have taken the lead in murdering
our men, our women and children, were those who received the most favors from the whites, and were
held by them in the most consideration. Many cases have occurred of Indians killing their friends and
benefactors. Are you surprised that a general distrust of all Indians pervades the public mind? Therefore,
consider the task which has been imposed upon the Territorial authorities to see to it that the Indians not
taking part with the hostiles are treated as friends.
In short, this whole country is a frontier, within a few hours of the camps of the hostile Indians,
and with four thousand friendly Indians in our midst of whose faith we cannot be certain.
Our safety lies in two things. lst. To carry the war against the hostiles with the whole force of the
Territory, and to bring them to unconditional submission. And 2nd. To give no cause of offense to the
friendly Indians in our midst, even in the case of persons more than suspected.
You have served in an Indian country, and know something of the Indian modes of thinking, and
can appreciate that when, in a contest like this, troops have once entered the field, they must not be
withdrawn till they have accomplished the object for which they were sent into the field. We must push
forward and do the work we have undertaken, else the Indian will say HE has driven us from the field,
and thereby get large accessions from the tribes who would otherwise continue friendly. General Wool
has recently visited the Sound, and, with full knowledge of the course of action taken by me in calling out
the volunteers of the territory, of the cordial spirit of cooperation between Lieut. Col. Casey and myself,
and the fact that the volunteers were actually in the field engaging the enemy, has ignored, officially, the
necessity of this; but has practically admitted it in directing Lieut. Col. Casey to make requisition upon
me for two companies of volunteers. This requisition I have refused for reasons which will be found in
my letters to Lieut. Col. Casey and Major General Wool herewith enclosed.
Those reasons, it seems to me, are conclusive, and they show the necessity of removing from the
command of the Department of the Pacific, a man who has, by his acts, so far as this Territory is
concerned, shown an utter incapacity.
I most respectfully call your attention to my letter to General Wool, and to his letter, to which
mine was an answer, and I simply ask that justice be done us.
So long as I am the Governor of Washington, and till I receive instructions from my superior, I
shall press on the path indicated in that letter to General Wool.
I beg leave respectfully to recapitulate briefly the points of difference:
1. General Wool states that the movement of the Oregon Volunteers was entirely unnecessary, and
precipitated the Walla Walla and other tribes into hostility.
I assert that this movement probably saved my party from destruction, and that the Indians then
hostile had been so even before the Oregon volunteers moved against them.
2. General Wool states that Governor Curry had no right to move his troops into the Territory of
I assert and have shown that the Oregon volunteers fought the Indians mainly of Oregon, and that
near the confines of the two territories.
3. General Wool states if the Oregon volunteers are withdrawn, he will have no trouble in managing
affairs, and keeping the Nez Perces friendly.
I state officially to General Wool and to the Department, that the Nez Perces are in my hands, and
that, without an armed man, I will undertake to keep the Nez Perces friendly, if General Wool does not
interfere with me in the management of those Indians. But also I state that General Wool, in addition to
the regular forces, will require the best efforts of the Oregon volunteers to strike such blows this spring
and summer as will protect the settlements. He can do nothing more. He must wait till next winter to
strike blows to end the war east of the Cascades. I refer to my Memoir.
The Department will thus see that I consider the war east of the Cascades of great magnitude, and
that it would have been vastly greater were it not for the concurrence of two things. lst. The movement of
the Oregon volunteers to the Walla Walla valley, and 2nd. My return by the direct route, and not by way
of New York; (suggested by General Wool).
It is simply an exigency to be met, and met by all the authorities, in the spirit of cordial
cooperation, looking to the public good alone, without any reference to personal considerations.
I have, therefore, suggested to General Wool the necessity of recognizing the services of the
Oregon volunteers. But I expect nothing from him, and I shall, therefore, take my own course, with the
determination that, if disasters occur, not a little of the responsibility shall be attached to me.
The war here must be ended as rapidly as possible, and all the disposable force kept in the field till
the enemy’s country is occupied, and his forces scattered.
All our horsemen must then be ready to cross the Cascades, to move against the hostiles, who may
then, with greatly superior numbers, be encountering the troops.
I have, therefore, ordered all the troops from the Columbia valley to the Sound, and have directed
a train of 100 pack animals and 40 wagons to be ready to cross the Nachess the last of May.
I have ordered that supplies and transportation be engaged to place in depot at Walla Walla 75
day’s provisions for 250 men.
The Oregon volunteers have crossed Snake River, and have already probably struck the enemy.
Should they succeed in striking, on their return, the enemy in the Yakima country, and should the
movement be followed up by the regular troops, I trust that my operations will be confined to the country
on the Sound.
Should, however, nothing decisive be done in the Yakima country till the passes are open, our
situation here will be critical, and the defense of the Sound, as regards the Indians east of the Cascades,
may be best accomplished by waging war against them in their own country. I have looked to this
exigency from the beginning. Hence volunteers were raised for six months.
Hence supplies and transportation for the same period.
But we will be prepared for the worst, and hope for the best.
The following papers accompany this report:
1. Copy of Gen. Wool’s reply of Feb. 12, 1856, to my memoir to him of the 23rd of December
and 29th January. This memoir has already been transmitted to the War Department.
2. Copy of my answer to this reply, dated in March.
3. Copy of my letter to Gen. Wool on his arrival at Steilacoom, introducing Adj Gen Tilton,
and expressing my desire to Cooperate with the regular service.
4. Copy of Lieut. Col. Casey’s letter, calling on me for two companies of volunteers.
5. Copy of my answer to the same, declining to call out the companies.
6. Copy of my letter to Capt. Swartout, commanding naval forces of the Sound, proposing a
combined movement of military and naval forces.
7. Copy of Capt. Swartout’s letter declining to cooperate.
I have thus endeavored to lay before the department the condition of affairs, and the measures of
preparation and precaution taken by me to protect our suffering people, and I have the honor, sir. to be
Very respectfully, etc.,
Vancouver, March 29, 1856
By the express per Mr. Wallace, I informed you of the taking of the Cascades by the enemy. Also
of the forming of a volunteer Company at this place. I have taken the responsibility to consider the
company as recognized by yourself and so far as necessary and as far as possible have equipped the men,
now numbering sixty men, good and true and they are at least doing what has not been done heretofore –
they are stopping all communication between these and other Indians. Captain Kelly, commanding the
company, has several Indians in custody who will be tried by a jury of 12 good and true men and if found
guilty will be suspended between the heavens and the earth.
The Cascades remained in possession of the Indians until yesterday, excepting only Bradford’s
house and the blockhouse which held out until finally relieved. Some of the families went to the Dalles
and others came below. No blow was struck on the other side of the River. Bradford’s house still stands –
the blockhouse and one or two houses near – all else in ashes. Col. Wright who with the 9th regiment was
at the Dalles is now at the Cascades and I hear has countermanded his order of advance to the Indian
country, thinking there is a war nearer home. I think, Governor, our country needs defenses above the
Washougal and on Lewis River for I do believe the enemy will next attempt the destruction of the
deserted claims. Captain Kelly proposes, if we can mount him, to send out a detachment either to one or
the other of the parts mentioned. We how have here about 125 to 150 regulars (a portion just returned
from the Cascades), some 50 Quartermaster men and between 60 and 70 volunteers.
At the Cascades only one woman was killed, a Mrs. Brown. Some 12 were killed in all. Captain
Baufman was intercepted before reaching the steamer “Mary” and made for the mountains suffering many
hardships, but is now safe. A little boy fired and ran the engine and another quite young man lay at the
wheel and although the bullets were flying through the pilot house like hail escaped unharmed and very
gallantly these two youths took on all the families along the river and reached the Dalles safely.
At the first firing Mr. Sinclair of Walla Walla who was at the Bradfords stepped to the door and
was shot never speaking after. They drew him into the house and made a gallant resistance. Portland has
shown a gallant spirit – Day before yesterday the steamer “Fashion” arrived with a company of about 30
men – men of business – working men – mechanics and what they lacked of equipments I supplied nearly
all of which was returned today on their way back. They went up and took a gallant stand on this side of
the river while the regulars, a small body only, being then below escorted the “Belle” up to a convenient
place, for crossing to the other side. About the time they were ready to go on board for crossing the 9th
came rushing on and a general stampede ensued. Captain Wallen, after crossing to the Oregon side passed
up opposite the blockhouse, recrossed and thus relieved the blockhouse. The Indians are still loitering for
depredations. In the early part of the day, Captain Wallen’s company came down and the 9th passed up
and after meeting and separating a building of some kind was fired by the Indians. As I say again
“Hurrah” for the spirit that displays itself among the people.
* * * * * *
I am respectfully, etc.,
Camp McCloud, March 30, 1856
Adj. Gen James Tilton, WTV, Olympia
Sir: On my way to this place I found the prisoners I send to you, at their homes. They all acknowledged
that they are violating the orders of the Governor. I considered it my duty to send them to the Governor,
and state that I consider them guilty of treason, and can prove Wren guilty of giving aid and comfort, by
Osterland, who belongs to my company. McCloud alleges that he has been robbed, but has evidently
“cached” his property, as my men have found the very things that he says he has lost. I think it useless to
try to get the Indians while these men are allowed to remain here.
The Indians have been and are near here. Not more than three have been seen at once.
I am, very respectfully, etc.,
H. J. G. MAXON, Capt. Mtd. Rifles
Olympia, April 2nd, l856
Commanding 9th Infantry, Ft Vancouver.
Sir: – I have respectfully to suggest the propriety of a thorough understanding between the regular and
volunteer service, so their joint efforts may be applied to the protection of the settlements and the
prosecution of the war.
The recent attack on the Cascades must convince all persons that this is no time for forms, but for
vigorous, energetic and united action.
We have the worst country in the world for summer operations. The Indians, basing their
operations on the mountain region about Rainier, St. Helens and Adams, a region affording inexhaustible
quantities of food, numerous and inaccessible retreats, can defy the utmost energies of a vastly superior
force to do ought else than protect the settlements.
We are now rapidly approaching that condition of things, and it becomes a paramount duty to
prepare for it.
Not only in my judgment is the present force in the field, both regulars and volunteers, inadequate,
but it should be strengthened, and that rapidly, or the force of Oregon Volunteers will be left to contend
single handed against a vastly superior force.
I am now raising an additional company in Lewis county for the protection of the people, and to
watch the passes in that quarter. A company has already been raised in Clarke county which will, if
practicable, be mounted.
The effect, in that settled portion of the Territory ought to be to keep the farmers on their claims.
In Clarke county, I learn the inhabitants have gone to Vancouver and St. Helens.
There should be blockhouses on the Washougal settlement and on the Lewis River.
I therefore propose to apply the company raised in Clarke county in ranging duty, and every effort
will be made to induce settlers to return to their farms and secure themselves by blockhouses.
I am most anxious to arrange my operations that no force need be thrown away, and I will ask you
to communicate with me and make such suggestions as may seem to you appropriate.
I am, sir, etc
ISAAC I. STEVENS, Gov., Wash. Terr.
Fort Vancouver, W.T., April 10th, 1856
Governor I. I. Stevens, Olympia, W.T.
Governor: I have this moment received your communication of the 2nd instant, and in reply, have to say,
that I am now using all the force at my disposal for the protection of the settlements, and in restoring
confidence to the farmers east, west and north of us. In the first place, I am erecting blockhouses at either
extremity of the Cascade portage; they will be completed in a few days. I have also organized a
detachment of mounted infantry under an enterprising officer, to range over the whole country and afford
protection to the farmers. The panic is subsiding; the people are now beginning to return to their
vocations; all they require is union among themselves, and the knowledge of the fact that scouting parties
are constantly moving over the country.
The temporary success the enemy met with at the Cascades, has not given him confidence; my
sudden return and total dispersion of all the Indians at that point, with a loss of twelve or fifteen of their
warriors, with all their baggage and animals, will have convinced them that they are safe only in their
mountain retreats. The unfortunate affair at the Cascades, it is hoped, may arouse our people to the
necessity of having their arms always with them; had such been the case, many valuable lives might have
been spared.
We must keep an eye on the “Friendly” Indians. I am well satisfied that they knew full well at the
Cascades that an attack was to be made, and that many of them joined the hostile party. However, I have
given them a lesson which they will long remember. Ten of these Indians, including their chief, have been
hung by sentence of a military commission. The residue, some forty men, and seventy or eighty women
and children have been placed on an island without any means of leaving it, and under the observation of
troops. As soon as our lines of communication are well secured and quiet and confidence established in
the settlements, I shall be prepared to advance into the country of the Yakimas.
A strong post must be established in then heart of that country. It will not do to march through an
Indian country simply; we should make them understand that we are going to make a permanent
settlement with them. Break up their fisheries, and harass them constantly, in order that they will have no
time to lay in a supply of rood. By this course, I think they may be brought to terms, perhaps not until
next winter; it is only a question of time, it must be accomplished in the end.
I return immediately to the Cascades.
With great respect, etc,
April 20, 1856
1st. B. F. Shaw is elected Lieut. Colonel of the 2nd Regiment, W. T. Vols., and will assume
command of the Central and Southern Battalions.
2nd. H. J. G. Maxon is elected Major of 2nd Regt., W.T. Volunteers and will assume command of
the Southern battalion.
3rd. Edward Gibson is appointed extra aid to the Commander in Chief.
4th. 1st Lieut. W. W. DeLacy is appointed Adjutant of the Southern Battalion.
5th. Humphrey Hill is appointed Adjutant of the Northern Battalion.
6th. B. F. Ruth is appointed Adjutant of the Central Battalion.
7th. Justin Millard is appointed Surgeon in the 2nd Regt., W.T. Vols.
8th. Christopher C. Pagett is appointed Asst. Q.M. and Commissary, and is assigned to duty with
Captain Warbass’ Company.
9th. Albert Eggers is appointed Assistant Surgeon.
10th. U. G. Warbass is appointed Assistant Surgeon.
11th. Officers elected by Co. L, 2nd Regt: Henri M. Chase, Captain; V. L. Fontaine, 1st Lieut;
Louis Raboin, 2nd Lieut. (Walla Walla county) Should be “M” Co.
12th. Co. K (Mounted Rifles): Francis M. P. Goff, Captain; Israel Hedges, 1st Lieut; Thomas
Waite, 2nd Lieut.
13th. Co. J (Mounted Rifles): Bluford Miller, Capt; Anthony W. Pressly, 1st. Lieut; Andrew
Sheppard, 2nd Lieut.
14th. Co. M (Lewis County): Edward Warbass, Capt; John W. Anderson, 1st Lieut; John B.
Bouchard, 2nd Lieut. Should be L Co.
15th. Clark County Rangers: William Kelly, Capt; John D. Biles, lst Lieut; Patrick Ahern, 2nd
16th. Daniel Smalley is elected Captain of Co. G, vice J J H Van Bokkelen elected Major of
Northern Battalion, 2nd Regt.
17th. Arthur A. Denny is elected 1st Lieut. of Co. A, 2nd Regt., vice H. H. Peixotto, resigned.
18th. J. Q. Cole elected 1st. Lieut. Company E.
Olympia, April 24, 1856
Commanding Columbia River District
Sir: My object in addressing you is to ascertain whether it is a point of your plan of campaign soon to
occupy the Walla Walla country. Should the Oregon Volunteers be disbanded, and the Walla Walla not be
occupied, my train will require a considerable escort.
In this event, will you furnish me with an escort of one company on my requisition.
Very respectfully, etc.
Governor of Washington Territory
Headquarters, Northern Dist., Dept. of the Pacific
Camp at Dalles, O. T., April 27, 1856
Governor Isaac I. Stevens,
Olympia, W. T.
Governor: Your communication of the 24th instant has this moment reached me; and in reply, I have to
say, that it forms no part of my present plan of campaign to occupy the Walla Walla country. I cross the
Columbia River tomorrow morning with five companies, and march into the heart of the Yakima country,
with the hope of terminating the war in that quarter at an early date.
The expedition to the Walla Walla has been deferred for the present, as we are assured that the
Indians in that district, and on the Snake River are peaceably inclined. It has been seemed adviseable to
operate with a strong force in the Yakima country.
Your communication has been forwarded to the Major General, commanding the department, for
his action in the matter.
With great respect, etc,
G. Wright, Col., 9th Inf., Comdg
May 8, 1856
Col. George Wright,
Commanding Northern District.
Sir: Your favor of the 27th instant reached me last evening. My object in writing is to state, that my
information in regard to the Indians on the Walla Walla and on the Snake River is that they are
determined to prosecute the war.
This was the declaration made by the prominent chiefs of the Cayuses to the express of Mr.
McDonald some weeks ago. This is the opinion of my agent in the Nez Perce country, and of the Nez
Perce chiefs, and it would seem to be indicated by the recent attack by the Indians on the volunteers at the
I have, therefore, thought it my duty to communicate these views, and I will suggest that you
receive with great caution any information of their peaceable intentions, to the end that you may not be
thrown off your guard.
Very respectfully, etc,
Isaac I. Stevens, Gov. of Wash. Terr.
Olympia, May 12, 1856
General John E. Wool
Commanding Pacific Division, USA, Beneicia, Calif.
Sir: I have received a letter from your aid-de-camp, Lieut. Richard Arnold, of 4 April, returning to me
with its inclosures, my letter to you of the 20th of March, and stating that it was done by your direction.
It can only be construed as evidencing a determination on your part to have not further
communication with the Executive of the Territory of Washington, at the very time when, from the
circumstances of the country, and the nature of their respective duties, there should and must often be
such communication.
It is a matter which is not to be decided by personal feeling, but of consideration of public duty,
which alone should govern public acts. I shall therefore continue in my official capacity to communicate
with the Major General, commanding the department of the Pacific, whenever, in my judgment duty and
paramount interests of the Territory shall demand such communication to be made, casting upon that
officer whatever responsibility before the country and his superiors, may attach to his refusal to receive
said communications. My duty shall be done. Let others do their duty.
I am, sir, very respectfully, etc.
Governor of Washington Territory
Vancouver, May 15, 1856
Gov. I. I. Stevens, C in C & Supt of
Indian Affairs.
Sir: A steamer arrived this morning from the Dalles bringing unofficial, information that Colonel Wright’s
command was on the bank of the Nachess River and 1200 armed Indians were on the opposite bank
inviting him to give them battle. Col. Wright could not cross the River in face of the enemy and sent for
reinforcements. One company of regulars start from here today, and another starts from the Dalles
tomorrow for the camp of Colonel Wright, but doubtless a battle will have been fought before the
reinforcements arrive. Colonel Wright is not in immediate danger, but cannot safely return. This is all the
information I can get. The steamer “Fashion” will arrive this afternoon with official information, probably
from Col. Wright. I send this by steamer which starts immediately for Monticello and give this to Clerk of
boat to hand to Expressman Wallace who will be taken on board some 15 miles below this place.
Very respectfully, etc.
Joseph Cushman
Thursday, May 15/56 -10:00 A. M. Started our march from Fort Hays, crossed White River at Emigrant
crossing. After entering Porter’s Prairie, took a northeast course from Fort Pike. Went through an open
country, good land and easily cleared but rather wet at this season of the year. Traveled seven miles from
Fort Pike and camped on a dry prairie containing one hundred acres of splendid grass with a stream of
water running on the eastern side of it. The country to the east of the prairie is level and good land, easily
cleared as most of the large timber is dead and scattering.
Friday 16th. Started early and went down on a piece of bottomland with the same stream running through
it. After crossing it in a northeast direction two miles, raised a ridge gravelly and covered with burnt
timber. Traveled with train in northeast direction. During the day, Captain Smalley scouted the country to
the eastward reports that, the country bears the same appearance to base of the mountains. Found no new
signs. Train traveled eight miles and struck Green River, at a good crossing but the river high. Scouted
river bottom on south side but found no new signs but plenty of old signs.
Crossed Green River and think it is as far up as the river can be crossed as immediately above the banks
become high and show signs of anthracite coal. Camped on the northern side.
Saturday 17th. Started out Lieut. Mounts with party down stream and Captain Smalley with a party
upstream to examine country. Captain Smalley reported banks of river high and no signs of Indians. Lieut.
Mounts reported a large vine maple bottom two miles in width and extending some distance down stream.
Suppose that our camp is some 8 to 10 miles above the Indian village. In the bottom Lieut. Mounts found
signs of Indians and horses supposed to be about three months old. Their trails lead to the settlements.
Started with train from camp at 3:00 P. M. in northeast direction. Had to cut road the same as yesterday
after travelling four miles struck small lake (the same as we camped upon before in our march through
from Fort Tilton). This afternoon we travelled through a poor country of burnt timber. Found no signs of
Indians having been on the lake since we left it. Found feed on the borders of the lake.
Sunday 18th. A little after daylight, scouting parties under Captain Smalley and Lieut. Mounts started out
to examine the country both to the right and left of our old trail. Started with train at 10 A. M. Following
old trail found signs of three or four Indians with one horse travelling north. Scouting parties connected
with train at 3 P. M.. Report finding about a mile from trail on another small lake and Indian camp and
from the appearance of a carcass of a bear they had not left over a week. From top of hill could see a large
lake on south side of river (Green River) with level land around suppose to be prairie. Excepting these
two lakes, all the country scouted is high hills and rolling land covered with burnt timber. Banks of river
high and about 3 miles from trail. Travelled 8 miles northeast and struck green river where banks were
very high. Left river and travelled nearly northwest five miles and struck burnt prairie. Camped at western
end near a spring of water on the side hill. To the south of some bark shanties there is a trail leading to it
and is the only water within five miles. Staked the horses on the northern side of the hill where there is a
little grass. Travelled this day with train – 12 miles.
Monday 19th. Started scouts ahead. After leaving Burnt Prairie raised a divide and travelled in an eastern
direction four miles and then descended steep hill to crossing on Cedar river. Crossed and found as much
water in Cedar as in either of the other rivers. Travelled up Cedar river eight miles. The land for the most
part is rocky and of little account. Struck Rattlesnake prairie which lays about a mile back from the river
with a high hill between it and the river. It contains about 200 acres most of it covered with grass and I
think supplied with plenty of water the year through. Camped.
Tuesday 20th. Started all the party through to Ranger’s prairie excepting myself. Captain Smalley and
eleven others who started for summit. On leaving prairie had to raise a high hill after which the trail
followed the ridge until we had travelled 10 miles from camp when we had to descend to the borders of
lake. Followed the borders of the lake travelling on a side hill trail two miles till we struck some low land
with several streams running through it. Raised a hill and travelled two miles and camped not far from
River. Captain Smalley still ahead with advance party.
Wednesday 21st. Started early to overtake Captain Smalley leaving blankets at camp. After travelling four
miles found Captain Smalley’s camp. He had gone. Followed on his track, the trail gradually rising up hill
towards the Summit. Travelled twelve miles and found snow in patches. Met Captain Smalley returning
from Summit. He reported having been three miles further and struck water running down eastern slope.
After passing lake, reports the snow does not extend over 2-1/2 miles and not over two feet deep.
Returned and camped at old camping ground. Thursday 22nd. Started early returning by same route.
Travelled 24 miles and reached Ranger’s prairie where we found the boys encamped. Ranger’s prairie is
six miles long and three wide. The land between it and Rattlesnake prairie is good but timbered. There is
also two other prairies in the immediate neighborhood. There is a very large extent good land in this
neighborhood and well supplied with water.
Major, Comdg No. Bn., WTV
PS Our trail to the pass from Rattlesnake prairie bore south. The pass lays about ten miles to the
southwest of the prairie.
May 19, 1859
To His Excellency, Isaac I. Stevens
Governor of Washington
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 18th instant, requesting me
to approve your requisition on the military storekeeper at this post for howitzers, rifles, ammunition,
In reply I have to say that it will be impossible for me to grant the authority desired. My
instructions from the Major General commanding the department of the Pacific on the subject of issuing
arms, etc. to troops not in the service of the United States, are positive, and I cannot depart from them.
* * * * * *
In case of any descent upon this portion of the Territory, my command will do all in its power for
the safety and protection of the citizens and property, and will cooperate with the troops of the Territory;
as far as practicable.
My command consists of one company and a few recruits. A company of the 9th Infantry, left here
Thursday, last, to join the command of Colonel Wright.
I am sir, respectfully, etc,
Lieut. Col., 4th Inf., Comdg Post.
PS. It maybe proper to state that there are no mountain howitzers here for the use of the post, all having
been forwarded some time since, to Fort Dalles, and I am informed by the ordnance officer that there are
but enough rifles for the troops of the district.
His Excellency, I. I. Stevens
Governor of Washington Territory
Sir: I called a council of the officers of the Central and Southern battalions now at this post, to take into
consideration the expediency of a movement across the mountains. The following was the result:
We unanimously concluded that the expedition is highly necessary for the following reasons:
1st. Our crossing the mountains with our horse will force Col. Casey to remain here with his foot
or rather, it will devolve the necessity of protecting the settlements on him. But if we remain here until he
starts, then we will be forced to remain and protect the settlements, while he will march a force of
footmen into a country, where horsemen are alone needed, thus rendering both forces inefficient.
2nd. Yakimas are the ruling power among the Indians, in this war, and hence the necessity of
breaking their main body before we can attack them in detail.
3rd. Col. Wright, with his footmen, cannot follow them if he does whip them.
4th. By remaining here, we can never know what our enemy is doing 150 miles off.
5th. The Volunteers must make a fight before going out of service.
6th. With the troops that are left, we can, with good management, effectually protect them.
7th. It is necessary to have depots of provisions in the Yakima country before winter.
8th. The enemy on this side of the mountains has been repeatedly defeated, whilst on the other
side, he has never been checked.
Olympia, May 24th, 1856
Honorable Jefferson Davis,
Secretary of War, Washington City, D.C.
Sir: Although the exact phase which the Indian war will assume the present summer is not yet fully
developed, enough is known to point out clearly the preparations which should be made to meet probable
I propose, therefore, in this communication to set forth the present condition of the war, and the
measures of preparation and precaution taken by me as Executive of the Territory, and the Commander in
Chief of the Volunteer force.
The war has been prosecuted with exceeding vigor, energy and success. The Indians have been
defeated in two battles, one by the regulars at the crossing of White River, the other by the volunteers at
Connell’s Prairie. The Indians have been repeatedly struck since by the regulars, by the volunteers, and by
the Indian auxiliaries. The country has been thoroughly and repeatedly scouted in every direction, and is
now firmly held by blockhouses and roads. Two hundred Indians have been got back of Seattle by the
volunteers, and those believed to have been engaged in the war, are now being tried by a military
commission ordered by me at Seattle.
On the Puyallup and Nisqually, the Indians have been got into the number of nearly three hundred.
Some have been tried by a commission ordered by Lt. Col. Casey, others by a commission held under my
The principle adopted in all these commissions is to try and punish summarily those accused and
proved to be instigators of the war, and parties to murder. The remainder are sent to reservations in charge
of local agents.
The main body of the hostiles have been driven across the mountains, and under the lead of
Leschi, are in camp of the confederated hostile force on the Nachess Pass.
Their spies are on this side are constantly communicating information to them, and the plan of the
hostiles is to send parties through different passes to lay waste and burn the settlements.
This suggests the plan to be pursued to meet the emergency –
1. To move over the Nachess with two hundred horsemen, to strike the enemy in
conjunction with the regular troops, to closely pursue and drive him across the
Columbia. Thus the war will be transferred from the settlements to the interior.
2. But as small parties may defy the utmost exertions and vigilance of a vastly superior
force, and cross the mountains to the settlements, troops should be in position to
watch the passes, and at suitable points in reserve to protect a point unexpectedly
A volunteer force of one hundred strong is in the neighborhood of the falls of the Snoqualamia, at
the depot at Fort Tilton, below the falls, at a post on a large prairie above the falls, and at an advance post
on Cedar Creek. Their orders are to watch the passes, to send scouts over across the mountains, to
maintain their position in case of attack by a superior force, and send back for reinforcements.
This flank is a very important one, and must be maintained at all hazards, because it gives direct
access to the great body of friendly Indians on the reservations, and if broken, considerable accessions
might accrue to the hostiles.
The regular force, in conjunction with a small volunteer company raised in Seattle, is now
occupying the country on White and Green Rivers, the lower portion of Cedar Creek, and the country
about Black River and Duwamish Lake. They also occupy the lower crossing of the Puyallup and the
country about Steilacoom.
The volunteer force occupies the country with posts thence to Vancouver. The report and map
already forwarded will explain where posts have been established. Since the report has been transmitted, a
post has been established at South Prairie, a large blockhouse built on the Tenalquot plains, a short line of
communication opened from Yelm to Grand Mound, and a wagon road nearly pushed through from the
Cowlitz Landing to Monticello. Two ferries have been established on the Cowlitz.
A company of nearly ninety men has been raised on the Cowlitz. It is divided into an active and
reserved list. The former, consisting, of about forty men, is constantly engaged on scouting duty up the
Cowlitz River, and towards Lewis river pass. A small company of Indian auxiliaries will be employed
with them. The reserved list meets once a week for inspection. But except for the day of inspection, they
are not provided with rations nor will payment for services be recommended by me.
It is here proper to state the utmost cordiality pervades between the regular and volunteer forces.
They have scouted together, and have practically held the whole field in cooperation, and brought about
the present condition of things. All this has been essentially done in the rainy season. The toils, hardships,
and marches, and the blows struck by all troops in heavy rains and inclement weather, is worthy of special
But the passes are now open, leaves are on the trees, food is abundant for the Indians. I consider
this the critical period of the war west of the Cascades. Let us look, therefore, to
It is not to be disguised that the tribes east of the mountains thus far consider themselves the
victors. When Colonel Wright commenced his march into the Yakima country early this month, they
practically held the whole country for which they had been fighting. Not a white man now is to be found
from the Dalles to the Walla Walla; not a house stands, and Colonel Wright, at the last advices, was on
the Nachess in presence of twelve to fifteen hundred warriors, determined to fight. All the confederated
bands are there.
Colonel Wright met the hostiles on the 8th day of May – made an ineffectual attempt to treat with
them till the 14th. On the evening of the eleventh, he dispatched an express to the Dalles for
reinforcements, and on the 13th or 14th, three companies went to his assistance, and probably reached
him on the 16th or 17th inst. His force then would number some 250 effectual men.
If the Indians are so emboldened by their success as to believe they can overcome Colonel Wright
in a hard fight, it will be fortunate, as the regular force will strike a severe blow, and may drive them
across the Columbia.
It seems to me probable that they will simply attempt to harass and annoy him, will steal his
animals, will draw him further north into their country, will send parties to the rear to compel him to make
detachments, will gain time, so that his provisions may be consumed, and reduce his operations mainly to
occupy a post or two and supplying them.
Two hundred horsemen on the Nachess, well supplied and mounted, under a vigorous officer, at
this juncture, will, with the operation of the regular troops, drive him across the Columbia. This force I
am now organizing at Camp Montgomery. It will be ready in ten days.
In this view, the Walla Walla country must be held; communication be established with the Nez
Perce auxiliary, and the enemy restricted to the country north of the Snake River, and on the immediate
banks of the Columbia, north of the Snake.
I am organizing a force of two hundred men to occupy the Walla Walla. One hundred men are
already at the Dalles. They will move with one hundred day’s provisions, and some to spare for the Nez
Perce auxiliaries, and the troops which may be concentrated there from the Yakima country.
The Yakima and Walla Walla country firmly held, the passes well watched over the Cascades – the
main force of the enemy on the Snake and upper Columbia – we may then be able to disband the bulk of
the remaining volunteers on the Sound.
This most favorable view of the progress of the war, which cannot be developed in a shorter
period than four to six weeks, will practically keep in service all the volunteers for their six month’s term
of service, and may render it necessary to extend the term on the part of those occupying the Walla Walla.
I cannot too strongly urge the policy of accumulating supplies in the Yakima country and in the
Walla Walla, in readiness to wage a winter campaign.
On the first of November, there should be six month’s supplies for all the troops in both the
Yakima and Walla Walla country. There should be ample supplies of forage. There should be a post and
ferry at or near the sight of old Fort Walla Walla, and at or near the mouth of the Palouse.
With proper preparations, a winter campaign can be waged, and the war ended. I have personal
knowledge of the winter features of the country.
To diminish transportation, make use of ox teams; send forward salt; return the wagons with two
yokes instead of three; use fresh and dried beef as much as possible, and reduce the ration of flour to one
half pound a day.
Troops would be perfectly healthy with one-third of a pound of flour per man each day, using
fresh or dried beef.
Thus, to transfer the war from the settlements on the Sound and the Columbia River to the interior,
to strike such blows as opportunities may offer, and to be in readiness to prepare for a vigorous winter
campaign, I shall, in ten days be ready to move over the Nachess with two hundred horsemen and 150
pack animals, and to the Walla Walla with two hundred horsemen and 100 day’s provisions.
For the lower Columbia, a company has been organized in Clarke county. Several blockhouses
have been built. A portion are constantly kept scouting. The remainder will form a reserve list without pay
or rations.
I am, sir, very respectfully,
In the meantime, during the foregoing campaign against the Indians west of the Cascades and
while searching out for small bands of Indians who had been dispersed, it become apparent that some of
the old time employees of the Hudson Bay Company were giving aid and comfort to these Indian bands
and even furnishing them with food and arms. Their homes were on the outskirts of the settlements and all
were married to or living with Indian Women. Governor Stevens therefore ordered all of them to move
into the settlements which they did for a short time and then returned to their claims. Late in March,
Captain Maxon finding them back on their claims, arrested Charles Wren, John McCloud, L. A. Smith,
Henry Smith and John McField and sent them to Fort Steilacoom following which he advised Governor
Stevens he considered them guilty of treason for aiding the hostile Indians. Within two days after their
arrival at Fort Steilacoom, Frank Clark and W. H. Wallace, Steilacoom lawyers, were engaged by the
men, and immediately prepared to sue out a writ of habeas corpus for their release. Governor Stevens,
learning that one of the lawyers was enroute to Judge Chenowith’s home on Whidby Island to present the
writ, issued a Proclamation on April 3, 1856 declaring MARTIAL LAW in Pierce County.
The proclamation caused some excitement and the public awaited developments with some
expectation. As the day for opening the court neared, Judge Chenowith, claiming that he was too ill to
travel, asked Judge Lander to preside for him. Judge Lander at that time was in command of Company A,
2nd Regiment, WTV, with station on the Duwamish. However, he arrived at Steilacoom on the appointed
day and opened court. However, he adjourned it immediately and sent a message asking Governor
Stevens to revoke his proclamation. Governor Stevens refused and directed Col. B. F. Shaw to enforce the
On the morning of May 7th, Judge Lander again opened court. As soon as the court was called,
Colonel Shaw with a detachment of volunteers, entered the courtroom and arrested Judge Lander and his
clerk and took them, with their records to Olympia. Both were liberated the following day. For his action
some of the citizens criticized the Governor for his actions at a meeting apparently instigated by the
lawyers. Resolutions to this effect were adopted at this meeting and forwarded to The Congress and
A week after Judge Lander’s arrest, he announced that court would be held in Olympia in his own
district where the Governor’s proclamation did not apply. However the day before the court was to
convene; Governor Stevens issued another proclamation declaring Thurston county under MARTIAL
LAW. This action was also disregarded by Judge Lander who convened the court on May 14th. He
immediately issued a warrant for Governor Stevens to show cause why he should not be punished for
contempt of court. Learning that a detachment of mounted volunteers had arrived in Olympia, Judge
Lander adjourned the Court and went to the office of the Clerk. Captain Bluford Miller, in command of
the detachment, came to the Clerk’s office and arrested both of them. The clerk was later released and
Judge Lander was taken to Camp Montgomery where he was detained until MARTIAL LAW was
terminated by Governor Stevens on May 26, 1856.
In the meantime, the prisoners had had a hearing before Military Commission held at Camp
Montgomery, the proceedings of which were as follows:
1. Charge: Relieving the Enemy.
1st Specification: In this that the said Lyon A. Smith, John McCleod and Charles Wren, the
accused, did at divers times between the first day of November, 1855 and the 26th day of April 1856, in
the county of Pierce and Territory of Washington, relieve certain hostile Indians waging war against the
United States in said Territory, with victuals and ammunition.
2nd Specification: In this that the said accused, during the time mentioned above, were ordered by
the Commander-in-Chief to retire from their land claims in said county (the same being frequented and
infested by hostile Indians) to Olympia, Steilacoom, or Fort Nisqually, and although the accused did
temporarily obey such order, they afterwards, during said time and the continuance of the war, return to
their land claims without authority or permission from the said Commander-in-Chief.
2. Charge: Knowingly Harboring the Enemy.
1st Specification: In this that the said accused, did, at divers times between the said 1st of
November 1855 and April 26, 1856, receive at their houses in the county of aforesaid, visits from hostile
Indians, waging war against the United States, knowing the said Indians to be engaged in war against the
United States.
3. Charge: Knowingly Protecting the Enemy.
1st Specification: In this that the said accused did at various times during said period and the
continuance of the said war, receive divers Indians at their houses, knowing them to be hostile and
engaged in war against the United States, and afforded them shelter.
2nd Specification: In this that the said accused have at various times and in divers ways during
said time and the continuance of the Indian war, exhibited friendship towards certain Indians, knowing
them to be engaged in war against the United States in said Territory.
3rd Specification: In this that the said accused have at various times claimed and pretended to a
right to live on their farms (situated in a locality infested and frequented by said hostile Indians) and
remain neutral in a war in which as good citizens it was their duty to afford aid and assistance to the
Military of the United States.
4th Specification: In this that the said accused at divers times during the said period, possessing
knowledge of the whereabouts and movements of said hostile Indians, neglected and failed to give
intelligence thereof to the Military of the United States (when they could have done so conveniently), and
when they did give such notice, it was not until the possibility of such information being useful had
ceased from lapse of time.
4. Charge: Holding Correspondence with the Enemy.
1st Specification: In this that the said accused have at various times and in divers ways during
said period in said county, held correspondence with certain Indians, knowing them to be engaged in a
war against the United States.
5. Charge: Giving Intelligence to the Enemy.
1st Specification: In this that the said accused have at various times during said period and the
continuance of said Indian war, given intelligence to certain hostile Indians in said county, knowing them
to be engaged in a war against the United States in said Territory.
Governor and Commander in Chief
May 20, 1856
12 o’clock M, May 20, 1856
The court met pursuant to the said order.
Lieut. Col. J. S. Hurd Aide de Camp to Commander in Chief
Major H. J. G. Maxon Commanding Southern Battalion, 2nd Regt.
Captain C. W. Swindal 2nd Regt., W.T.V.
Captain W. W. DeLacy 2nd Regt., W.T.V.
Lieut. A. Shepherd 2nd Regt., W.T.V.
Victor Monroe -Judge Advocate
Quincy A. Brooks -Recorder
The Order convening this Court not being present, the Court adjourned until tomorrow at 12
o’clock M.
Camp Montgomery, Wash. Terr.
12 o’clock M, May 21, 1856
The Court met pursuant to adjournment. The following is the order constituting this court and
which was omitted to be inserted in yesterdays’ proceedings, viz:
Office, Adj. Gen, W. T. Volunteers
SPECIAL ORDER: Olympia, May 16, 1856
A general court martial or Military Commission will assemble at Camp Montgomery on the 20th
of May 1856 for the purpose of trying such persons as may be brought before it.
Lieut. Col. Hurd Captain Swindal
Major Maxon Lieut. Shepherd
Capt. DeLacy Supernumerary, Lieut. S. B. Curtis
Judge Advocate. – Victor Monroe, Esq.
JAMES TILTON, Adj. Gen W. T. Vols
Present: Lieut. Col. J. S. Hurd, Major H. J. G. Maxon, Captain C. W. Sindal, Capt. W. W. DeLacy,
Lieut. A. Shepherd and Supernumerary, Lieut. S. B. Curtis.
Present also the Judge Advocate, and Recorder.
The recorder, at the request of the Judge Advocate, read the order convening the Court.
The recorder, at the request of the Judge Advocate, also read the charges and specifications against
Lyon A. Smith, Charles Wren and John McLeod.
The Judge Advocate then made a written application (marked A, appended), asking an
adjournment of the Court in order to obtain authority to amend the charges. Whereupon the Court was
cleared for deliberation and after mature consideration the Court adjourned until tomorrow at one o’clock
P. M.
Camp Montgomery, Washington Territory
1 o’clock P. M. , May 22, 1856
The Court met pursuant to adjournment. Present: Lieut. Col. Hurd, Major Maxon, Capt. Swindal,
Capt. DeLacy, Lieut. A. Shepherd and Lieut.Curtis. Present also the Judge Advocate and Recorder.
The Judge Advocate presented a 4th specification ordered by the Commander in Chief, which was
ordered by the Court to be filed, and which is annexed to the original specifications.
The Judge Advocate asked leave to amend the phraseology in the second specification,
substituting the word “they” for “he”. Whereupon the Court was cleared for deliberation and after mature
consideration the Court ordered the proposed amendments to be made.
A copy of the 4th Specification having been delivered to Lyon A. Smith, Charles Wren and John
McLeod, the orderly Sergeant brought into Court, Lyon A. Smith.
The Judge Advocate read aloud to the prisoner the order convening the Court and the Charges and
Specifications and asked him if he had any cause of challenge to any member of the Court mentioned in
the Warrant Order, to which the accused answered that he had no objection to any member of the court.
The Judge Advocate then administered the oath prescribed by law to all the members of the court
and to the Supernumerary, and the President Lieut. Col. J. S. Hurd administered the required oath to the
Judge Advocate.
The prisoner asked to be allowed as Counsel, Wm. H. Wallace, B. F. Kendall and Frank Clark,
Esqrs. Whereupon the Court was cleared for deliberation and after mature consideration granted the
request of the prisoner and allowed said gentlemen to act as his counsel.
The prisoner, by his counsel, then offered a written protest or plea to the jurisdiction, appended to
these proceedings, which was read by the Judge Advocate. The Judge Advocate having asked time to
reply to the plea of the prisoner, the Court adjourned until tomorrow at 8 o’clock A. M.
Camp Montgomery, Washington Territory
8 o’clock A. M. , May 23, 1856
The Court met pursuant to adjournment. Present: All the members of the Court, Supernumerary,
Judge Advocate and the Recorder. Lyon A. Smith, the accused, also present.
Upon reading the minutes of the proceedings of yesterday, the prisoner made the following written
Mr. President:
L. A. Smith requests that the plea to the jurisdiction be copied into and form a part of the
record of the trial.
L. A. Smith
The court was cleared for deliberation and after consideration the Court ordered the plea to be
entered on the Record and is as follows:
Mr. President
Lyon A. Smith
Protests against the competency of this commission or court martial for
want of jurisdiction on these several grounds:
1st. The allegations and charges set forth in the specifications constitutes the crime of “Treason”
which can only be tried in the civil courts of the United States.
2nd. Citizens cannot be tried either by court martial or Military commission.
3rd. This is not a legally constituted tribunal inasmuch as the present Volunteer forces of this
Territory are not organized under the Militia Laws of this Territory or under any law of the United States
and that this court has been ordered by a person incompetent to do so.
4th. That neither Militia nor volunteer forces, until mustered into the service of the United States
are amenable to or authorized to institute any military court as they have no authority conferred by the
Constitution and laws of the United States or by the Statutes of this Territory.
5th. That the order for this court martial or Military commission makes it a special commission
and does not designate the person to be tried by said commission.
Lyon A. Smith, by Attorney.
The Judge Advocate then read the following paper, viz:
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Court:
The allegations and charges set forth in the specifications against L. A. Smith, the accused, are that
he did knowingly harbor, protect and assist with victuals, ammunition, shelter, sympathy and friendship,
certain marauding bands of hostile Indians waging unlawful war in Washington Territory against the
United States. And any persons guilty of such an offense is subject to the jurisdiction of a court martial or
military commission whether he be a citizen or an alien.
This is a legally constituted tribunal having been called by Isaac I. Stevens, Governor of the
Territory of Washington and Commander in Chief of the Volunteer forces (Militia) of the Territory, now
in the field, called out by his Proclamation and cooperating with the regular forces against the common
enemy now waging war in said territory against the United States. The said Isaac I. Stevens in his capacity
of Governor and Commander in Chief, being perfectly competent to call out such forces.
The Warrant Order of this court martial or military commission does not make it a special
commission but on the contrary it is a general commission to try all persons brought before it, and under
the charge and specification filed against the accused, he has been regularly brought before the court. It is
therefore asked that the protest or plea of L. A. Smith filed may be overruled and that he be required to
Whereupon the court room was cleared for deliberation, and after a short time spent in
consideration, the Court was opened, the prisoner brought in, and the President announced that the
decision of the Court would be made known at 1 o’clock this afternoon to which time the Court was
Camp Montgomery, Washington Territory
1 o’clock P. M. , May 23, 1856
The court met pursuant to adjournment. Present: All members, supernumerary, Judge Advocate,
Recorder and L. A. Smith, the accused.
The Court was then cleared for deliberation and after mature consideration, the Court opened and
gave the following opinion, viz:
The charges against Lyon A. Smith is “Aiding and comforting the enemy”. We are of the
opinion that such an offense constitutes the crime of Treason, and that this Court has no
jurisdiction as a Military Court to try and punish a prisoner for such an offence.
We are, however, of the opinion that this Court was ordered by competent authority, and
that it is legally constitutionally created and has jurisdiction of such crimes as are recognizable by
military tribunals.
The Court then adjourned until Monday, May 26, 1856 at one o’clock P. M.
(Signed) JARED S. HURD, PRES. M.C.
I certify that the foregoing is a correct copy of the testimony and proceedings had before a General
Court Martial or Military Commission held at Camp Montgomery, W.T. commencing on the 20th day of
May 1856 an ending on this day in pursuance of an Order as set forth in the proceedings of said Court
Martial on the 21st day of May 1856. Witness my hand at Camp Montgomery, W. T. May 23rd, 1856.
On May 26, 1856, the commission again convened and tried two Volunteers for the murder of an
Indian by the name of “Mowitch”. After hearing the testimony, the Court cleared Joseph Brannon and
James A. Lake, both of Olympia. Brannon was a member of Co. C, 2nd Regt. and served in the first phase
of the war in Co. B, lst Regt. as 4th Sergeant. Lake was a Corporal in the Pioneer Company.
This Commission was one of three known Commissions appointed by Governor Stevens during
the Indian wars. A commission composed of Captain Franklin Matthias, Lieut. Eustis Huger, Lieut. David
A. Neely, with W. W. Ward as Judge Advocate was convened from May 15th to 26th in Seattle for the
trial of 15 Indians suspected of participating in the attack on Seattle. The Commission, after 10 days of
hearing testimony, found all the Indian NOT GUILTY.
Another Commission was convened at the Dalles on 18 June 1856 to try two Indians accused of
murdering settlers. This Commission composed of Capt. F. M. Goff, Lieut. Israel Hedges, Lieut. A. W.
Presley with A. Townsend as Judge Advocate found both prisoners guilty and sentenced them both to be
hanged. However the: Reviewing Officer, Governor Stevens, remitted the sentence of one to confinement
at Fort Dalles for duration of war and approved the hanging for the other at Ft Dalles on Friday, June 20,
1856 between the hours of 12 noon and 2 P. M.
Olympia, June 5th, 1856
Comdg Right Wing, W.T. Vols, Ft. Hicks
Sir: The information received from Captain DeLacy has determined me to abandon the movement by the
Your views as to moving over the Nachess are adopted. It is of great importance that everything
should be pushed with all possible vigor. The orders for the movement will go from the office of the
Adjutant General today.
It is doubtful whether all the powder you ask for can possibly be procured. Nearly one hundred
pounds shall be forwarded from Olympia. I inclose a requisition for an amount not exceeding two
hundred pounds on Lieut. Col. Casey. I trust, if he has that amount to spare for a brief period, that, he will
see his way clear to forward it.
I will purchase every pound that can be got in the town of Steilacoom.
The ammunition, powder, ball, caps, etc., shall be sent out tomorrow.
Truly respectfully, etc.,
June 4th, 1856
Lieut. Col. E. C. Fitzhugh,
Aid-de-Camp, Holmes Harbor
Sir: I have conversed with the messengers of Te-i-as and Owhi, and have directed them to return to Te-ias
and Owhi, and invite them and all friendly Indians to come, with their women and children, to the
prairie above the Falls of the Snoqualamie, and submit unconditionally to the justice and mercy of the
Absolute and unconditional submission is required. Those guilty of murders, or have urged on the
war, will be punished. The remainder will be treated with mercy, as in the case of Indians on the Sound.
On the arrival of these Indians at the prairie, you will, in connection with Colonel Simmons,
examine carefully into their connection with the war, have them tried, and carry into effect the decisions
of the court. I invest you my whole authority in ordering and approving the proceedings of the
You are authorized, however, either to suspend the execution of the sentence, or defer the trial of
the criminals for the period which reason and policy may require.
In deferring the trial or execution of the sentence would favor more criminals being got in, or
would tend to bring over all the Indians who have opposed the war, and are sincerely desirous of peace, or
would enable Col. Shaw to strike a blow at the hostiles by falling upon them unawares, or if any other
advantage could result, then let the matter be deferred.
Should it be deemed adviseable by yourself and Col. Simmons for me to visit the Indians on the
Snoqualamie, send for me and I will go. And you will exercise your own judgment as to sending any of
the chiefs or people to Olympia to see me.
I shall immediately push up the Snoqualamie a supply of provisions for the Indians.
When Lieut. Col. Shaw starts for the Snoqualamie I will advise you by special express.
Having had a full personal conference with Col. Simmons, I write necessarily briefly.
I say to both of you, use your own judgement in effecting the end desired, and you will be right.
You will make known to Major Van Bokkelen the duties with which you are charged, and you will make
with him the necessary arrangements to insure the safety of the Indians on their way to the place of
Olympia, June 8th, 1856
Sec. of War., Washington City, D.C.
Sir: In my last communication, I gave, at length, my views and suggestions in regard to the Indian war in
this Territory, and presented the measures of precaution which the present condition of affairs demanded.
The two expeditions referred to, one over the Cascades into the Yakima country, the other from
the Dalles to the Walla Walla, are nearly ready for movement. Both expeditions I deem of vital
consequence, in view of the present condition of things in the interior.
All the information which I have received, goes to satisfy me that unless the most vigorous action
is at once taken all the tribes from the Cascades to the Bitter Roots will be at war, a portion of the Nez
Perce alone excepted.
The long delay of Colonel Wright on the Nachess, and his entertaining propositions of peace
before striking the enemy, in connection with the withdrawal of Oregon Volunteers, has emboldened the
Indians, and has probably enabled them to effect a general combination of the tribes. But no overt act has
yet been committed.
The enclosed copy of a letter from Lieut. Col. William Craig, special agent of the Nez Perces,
discloses the condition of things in the interior. It was written on the 27th of May, and reached me on the
evening of the 5th of June, a distance by land, of about 400 miles, and by water 150 miles, or 550 miles in
I shall tomorrow push, to the Dalles, and urge the Walla Walla expedition forward with all
possible dispatch. I trust it will be in season. The troops all reached the Dalles yesterday, but it was
supposed that a portion of the animals which were taken on the emigrant trails from the Willamette to the
Dalles, will be a day or two behind.
If the troops reach the Walla Wall a before an overt act has been committed, I am certain that the
combination can be broken up, and that the Nez Perces and the Indians on and in the neighborhood of the
Spokane will remain friendly.
I am, sir, very respectfully,
Dalles, O. T. June 18th, 1856
Colonel George Wright
Comdg Northern District, Camp on Nachess, W.T.
Sir: Lieut. Col. Shaw, on Thursday last (12th) marched from Camp Montgomery over the Nachess. It is
supposed he will camp on the Wenass tonight. His orders are to cooperate with you in removing the seat
of war from the base of the mountains to the interior, and for reasons affecting the close of the war on the
Sound obvious to all persons.
He will then push to the Walla Walla valley, crossing the Columbia at Fort Walla Walla. The
supplies and escort for the Walla Walla will move from the Dalles on Friday morning. The Walla Walla
valley must be occupied immediately to prevent the extension of the war into the interior.
Kamiakin has, since your arrival on the Nachess, made every exertion to induce the tribes, thus far
friendly, to join in the war. He has flattered the Spokanes, where he was on the 25th of May, and has
endeavored to brow beat the Nez Perces. The Spokanes have answered in the negative and the Nez Perces
will, I am satisfied, continue friendly.
I am ready, as the Superintendent of Indian affairs, to take charge of any Indians that may be
reported by yourself as having changed their condition from hostility to peace. And in this connection, I
will remark, that I have been informed of your views in reference to the Oregon Superintendent taking
charge of certain Indians of my jurisdiction, those at Vancouver and those recently sent to you. I am ready
to agree to any arrangements which may be for the good of the Indians.
From all I can gather, I presume your views and my own do not differ as to terms which should be
allowed the Indians, viz; unconditional submission, and the rendering up the murderers and instigators of
the war for punishment.
I will, however, respectfully put you on guard in reference to Leschi, Nelson, Kitsap and
Quiemuth from the Sound, and to suggest that no arrangement be made which shall save their necks from
the Executioner.
I am sir, respectfully, etc,
June 20, 1856
Gov. I. I. Stevens
Commander in Chief, Port Townsend
Sir: I regret to inform you that the mission you were pleased to entrust to Col. Simmons and myself has
turned out a perfect failure. The causes of the failure I cannot give you in full, but will tell you why we
think we were not partially successful.
Col. Wright of the “regulars” has for the last month been entertaining the Indians over the other
side of the mountains, besides feeding the Tyees, making them presents, etc., after having sent for
reinforcements to different points, and tickling the community with the belief that he intended speedily to
demolish all the Indians on the east side. The Indians would not come over to us, as they hoped to get
better terms from him.
Our Indians informed us that Col. Wright told all of them that he was the “Big Dog” in this part of
the world, and had come a long distance to treat with them, and if they would only stop fighting, that all
would be right.
The Indians of course, are willing to play quits, save all their people and stop the war. If they
succeed in doing that, as soon as they are well prepared to carry on the war with any prospects of success,
the government will have the same expense and trouble over again. They notified us that as soon as they
made friends of the soldiers, they would come over and treat, but as there was no time specified, we
thought there was no use of our remaining. We accordingly left. This is the end of your attempt to treat
after nearly two month’s time being consumed, to say nothing of some five or six hundred dollars it has
cost the government.
I believe that you are entirely correct in your impression, that they only wished to gain time and
information. I believe that Owhi and Te-i-as, and some of the sub-chiefs and their bands would have
surrendered unconditionally to the government, but for the inducements held out to them by Col. Wright,
that they could treat with him on better terms, and save all their people. As things now are, they will have
to be well thrashed before they will treat.
From the beginning of the difficulty to the present time, the regulars, from their commander-inchief
down, have stultified themselves. They have done no fighting, and now wish to patch up a treaty, so
as to get the credit for putting an end to the war.
I must refer you to Col. Simmons for all particulars, as he goes direct to Olympia.
I am, very respectfully, etc,
Olympia, July 7, 1856
Hon. Jefferson Davis,
Sec. of War, Washington, D.C.
Sir: The two columns moving from the Sound over the Nachess Pass, and from the Dalles up the
Columbia, are probably now assembled in the Walla Walla Valley. They are well mounted, are in good
condition of discipline and have one hundred day’s supplies.
The force from the Sound, under the immediate command of Lieut. Col. B. F. Shaw, moved from
Camp Montgomery on Wednesday and Thursday, June 11th and 12th, and crossing the mountains with
the loss of only one animal, camped on the Wenass on the 20th. At that point Lieut. Col. Shaw received
orders from me to push to Walla Walla, unite his force with that moving from the Dalles, and take
command of the whole.
The force from the Dalles moved from camp five miles beyond the DesChutes River, on
Wednesday, June 25th, and was expected to reach Walla Walla on the 4th of July.
Each column numbers nearly two hundred men. The whole force consists of 350 enlisted men, and
about one hundred quartermaster and Indian employees.
From the Walla Walla, Indian supplies will be pushed to the Nez Perces and Spokanes, and an
escort will accompany them, should the simple presence of a force, in the Walla Walla be not sufficient to
insure the safety of the train, protected, as it is expected, it will be by Indians auxiliaries.
Letters have been received from Lieut. Col. William Craig, agent of the Nez Perces, of the 29th of
May and the 8th of June, speaking more favorably of the conditions in the interior.
Kamiakin, at a council held with the Spokanes on the 25th of May, wherein he urged that tribe to
join the war, received a negative to his proposition. The Spokanes, however, harbor the hostile Cayuses,
which has caused me to be somewhat apprehensive of the sincerity of their professions.
I was at the Dalles from Saturday, June 14th, to Monday, June 30th, getting the expedition off and
collecting information in relation to the Indians. At that time the hostile bands were much scattered. Some
three hundred hostiles were at the head of John Day’s River; a large camp of hostiles, supposed to be
Walla Wallas under the son of Peu peu mox mox, were at Fort Walla Walla. The Cayuses were on the
Spokane. The Clickitats and Yakimas were on the Pischouse River, and probably small parties at Priest
Rapids. The large camp reported by Lieut. Col. Craig, in his letter of May 27th, and composed of
individuals of several tribes, including the Snakes, I have no information that they have moved from the
place where they were when Lieut. Col. Craig wrote.
There were Snakes with the party at the head of John Day’s River, and the force was increasing.
It is proposed to strike the party at the head of John Day’s River, by a force of about 175 men,
consisting of 100 volunteers of Oregon under Major Layton, and 75 volunteers of Washington under
Captain Goff.
The plan was to move from Well Springs on the 30th of June, which point is on the emigrant road,
some 85 miles from the Dalles.
Lieut. Col. Shaw, in moving to Walla Walla, will strike the hostiles wherever he finds them.
On occupying the Walla Walla valley, he is also directed to spare no exertions to reduce to
unconditional submission any hostiles within reach.
This decisive policy is believed by me indispensable to secure the permanent peace of the Indian
Very truly and respectfully, etc.,
Olympia, July 24, 1856
Hon. Jefferson Davis
Secretary of War, Washington, D.C.
Sir: I have the honor to report that the volunteer troops that have been called into service on the Sound are
now being disbanded.
I propose simply for a limited period to keep on the line of Snoqualamie a small company of about
50 or 60 men, and at the head of the Sound at the Yelm and Tenalquot Plains, some forty men.
It is possible that a small force, say some twenty men, may be required at Bellingham Bay.
In consequence of the killing of a Northern Indian (from Canada) at Steilacoom, some two weeks
ago since, by some soldiers from the garrison in a drunken frolic, the tribe are greatly exasperated, and
have threatened to make reprisals. In consequence, a small force of 15 men has been sent to Whidby
Island from the line of the Snoqualamie. The naval forces, however, are attending vigilantly to the matter,
and the two steamers, the Massachusetts and John Hancock, are cruising diligently.
The trouble, it is hoped, will soon be allayed. Lieut. Col. Casey is using every exertion to bring to
justice the soldiers who committed the offense.
The volunteer forces east of the mountains met on Mill Creek, in the Walla Walla valley, on the
8th instant. The Nez Perces are entirely friendly; and it is believed the Spokanes will also continue
Very truly yours etc,
July 24, 1856
Adjutant General, W. T. V., Olympia.
Sir: In my letter of the 12th inst., I announced my intention of making a scout towards the Grand Ronde
as soon as I could make the necessary arrangements for placing this post in security during my absence.
The trail towards it was reconnoitered, and an excellent guide secured – “Captain John”, a Nez
Perce Chief.
I started at dark on the evening of the 14th inst., with the majority of the command, consisting of
six companies, viz; Lieut. Williams, Lieut. Waite, Captain Miller, Captain Henness and Major Maxon, in
all 160 men and officers, besides the pack train with ten day’s rations. We marched all night, so as to get
into the mountains before daylight, so that the dust could not be discovered. We took a trail travelled by
Indians, and but little frequented by them lately. We arrived in the Grand Ronde valley on the evening of
the 16th, and camped on a branch of the Grand Ronde in the timber, sending spies in advance, who
returned and reported no fresh signs.
On the morning of the 17th, leaving Major Blankenship of the Central Battalion and Captain
Miller of the Southern Battalion, assisted by Captain DeLacy, to take up the line of march for the main
valley, I proceeded ahead to reconnoitre accompanied by Major Maxon, Michael Marchman, Captain
John and Dr. Burns. After proceeding about five miles, we ascended a knoll in the valley, from which we
discovered dust arising along the timber of the river. I immediately sent Major Maxon and Captain John
forward to reconnoitre, and returned to hurry up the command which was not far distant. The command
was instantly formed in order. Captain Miller’s Company in advance, supported by Maxon’s, Henness’ and
Powell’s companies, leaving the pack train in charge of the guard under Lieut. Goodwin, with a
detachment of Goff’s company in reserve, with orders to follow on after the command.
The whole command moved on quietly in this order, until within half a mile of the Indian village,
where we discovered that the pack train had moved to the left down the Grand Ronde River. At this
moment, a large body of warriors came forward, singing and whooping, and one of them waving a white
man’s scalp on a pole. One of them signified a desire to speak. Whereupon, I sent Capt. John to meet him,
and formed the command in line of battle. When Capt. John came up to the Indians, they cried out to one
another to shoot him, whereupon he retreated to the command, and I ordered four companies to charge.
The design of the enemy evidently was to draw us into the brush along the river, where from our
exposed position, they would have the advantage – they no doubt having placed an ambush there. To
avoid this, I charged down the river towards the pack train. The warriors then split – part going across the
river and part down towards the pack train. These we soon overtook, and engaged. The charge was
vigorous and so welled sustained that they were broken, dispersed and slain before us. After a short time,
I sent Captain Miller to the left, and Major Maxon to the right – the latter to cross the stream and cut them
off from a point near which a large body of warriors had collected, apparently to fight, while I moved
forward with the commands of Captain Henness and Lieut. Powell to attack them in front.
The Major could not cross the river, and, on our moving forward, the enemy fled, after firing a few
guns, part taking to the left, and part continuing forward.
Those who took to the left fell in with Captain Miller’s company, who killed five on the spot, and
the rest were not less successful in the pursuit which was continued to the crossing of the river, where the
enemy had taken a stand to defend the ford. Being rejoined by Captain Miller and by Lieut. Curtis with
part of Maxon’s company, we fired a volley, and I ordered a charge across the river, which was gallantly
executed. In doing this, Private Shirley Ensign, of Henness’ company was wounded in the face. Several of
the enemy were killed at this point. We continued the pursuit until the enemy had reached the rocky
canyons leading towards Powder River, and commenced scattering in every direction, when, finding I had
but five men with me, and the rest of the command scattered in the rear – most of the horses being
completely exhausted – I called a halt, and fell back, calculating to re-mount the men on the captured
horses, and continue the pursuit after night.
I found the pack train, guard and reserve, encamped on a small creek not far from the crossing, as I
had previously ordered them to do, and learned that a body of the enemy had followed them all the way,
and annoyed them, but had inflicted no damage beyond capturing many of the animals which we had
taken in charge, and left behind.
I learned also, that Major Maxon had crossed the river with a small party, and was engaged with
the enemy, and wanted assistance. I immediately dispatched a detachment under Lieuts. Williams and
Waite, sending the men who brought the information back with them as a guide. They returned after dark
without finding the Major, but brought one of his men, whom they found in the brush, and who stated that
one of the Major’s men was killed and the last he saw of them they were fighting with the Indians. At
daylight, I sent out Captain Miller with 70 men, who scouted around the valley without finding him, but
who, unfortunately had one man killed and another wounded whilst pursuing some Indians. I resolved to
move camp the next day to the head of the valley, where the immigrant trail crosses it, and continue the
search until we became certain of their fate. The same evening, I took 60 men, under Captain Henness,
and struck upon the mountains and crossed the heads of the canyons to see if I could not strike his trail.
Finding no sign, I returned to the place where the Major had last been seen, and there made a search
in different directions, and finally found the body of one of his men (Tooley) and where the Major had
encamped in the brush. From other signs, it became evident to me that the Major had returned to this post
by the same trail by which we first entered the valley.
Being nearly out of provisions, and unable to follow the Indians from this delay, I concluded to
return to camp, recruit for another expedition in conjunction with Capt. Goff, who had, I presumed,
returned from his expedition to John Day’s River.
I should have mentioned previously, that in the charge, the command captured and afterwards
destroyed about 150 horse loads of lacmas, dried beef, tents, some flour, coffee, sugar, and about l00
pounds of ammunition and a great quantity of tools and kitchen furniture. We took also about 200 horses,
most of which were shot, there being about l00 serviceable animals.
There were present on the ground from what I saw, and from information received from two
squaws taken prisoner, about 300 warriors of the Cayuse, Walla Walla, Umatilla, Tyh, John Day, and
Deschutes tribes, commanded by the following chiefs: Stock Whitely and Sim-mistastas, Deschutes and
Tyh; Chick-iah, Plyon, Wic-e-cai, Wat-ah-stuar-tih, Win-imi-swoot, Cayuses; Tah-kin, Cayuse, the son of
Peu-peu-mox-mox, Walla Wallas, and other chiefs of less note.
The whole command, officers and men behaved well. The enemy was run on the gallop for fifteen
miles, and most of those who fell were shot with the revolver. It is impossible to state how many of the
enemy were killed. Twenty seven bodies were counted by one individual, and many others we knew had
fallen and been left, but were so scattered about that it was impossible to get count of them. When to these
we add those killed by Major Maxon’s command on the other side of the river, we may safely conclude,
that at least forty of the enemy were slain, and many went off wounded. When we left the valley there was
not an Indian in it, and all the signs went to show that they had gone a great distance from it.
On the 21st inst., we left the valley by the emigrant road, and commenced our return to camp.
During the night, Lieut. Hunter, of the W. T. Volunteers, came to camp with an express from Capt. Goff. I
learned, to my surprise, that the Captain and Major Layton of the Oregon Volunteers had seen Indians on
John Day’s River – had followed them over the head to Burnt River, and had a fight with them, in which
Lieut. Eustis and one private was killed, and some seven Indians. They were shaping their course for the
Grand Ronde valley, and had sent for provisions and fresh horses. I immediately sent Lieut. Williams
back with all my spare provisions and fresh horses, and continued my march. On Wild Horse creek, I
came across Mr. Files, a pack master, who had been left in camp, who informed me, to my extreme
satisfaction, that Major Maxon and his command had arrived safe in camp, and were then near us with
provisions and ammunition. These I sent immediately to Captain Goff.
I learned that Maxon had been attacked in the valley by a large force of Indians, on the day of the
fight had gained the brush and killed many of them – that night he tried to find our camp, and hearing a
noise like a child crying, probably one of the captured squaws, had concluded that my command had gone
to Powder River, and that the Indians had returned to the valley by another canyon. He moved his position
that night, and the next day saw the scout looking for him, but in the distance thought it was a band of
Indians hunting his trail. Conceiving himself cut off from the command, he thought it best to return to this
camp, thinking that we would be on our way back to Grande Ronde with provisions and ammunition.
Enclosed you will find the Surgeon’s report of the killed and wounded.
Respectfully, etc,
Camp Mill Creek, Walla Walla Valley, July 24, 1856
James Tilton, esq.,
Adjutant General, W. T. V.
Sir: I send you my report of the killed and wounded in the engagement on the Burnt River and Grand
Ronde on the 15th and 16th of July, 1856:
2nd Lieut. John Eustus, Co. N – Residence: Luckimate, O.T. KILLED
Daniel Smith, Co. K. – Residence: French Prairie, O.T. KILLED
James Cheney, Co. K. – Residence: O.T. WOUNDED in thigh, slightly.
Wm. F. Tooley, Co. A. – Residence: Cape Horn Mtn, W.T. KILLED
Wm. Irvin, Co. A. – Residence: Vancouver; W. T. KILLED
Wm. Holmes, Co. K. – Residence: Thurston County, W.T. KILLED
Thomas Como, Co.A. – Residence: Vancouver, W.T. DANGEROUSLY WOUNDED
Snirley Ensign, Co. C, – WOUNDED in nose and cheek.
Wm. Downey, Co. D. – WOUNDED in knee with arrow, slightly
T. N. Lilley, Co. J, – WOUNDED, forearm fractured and head cut by
an Indian with an empty gun
I remain, etc,
Mathew P. Burns, M.D.
Surgeon, 2nd Regt. W.T.V.
HEADQUARTERS, CO. M, 2nd Regt., W.T.V.
Lapwai, July 31st, 1856
James Tilton, Esq.
Adjutant General, W.T. Volunteers
Sir: Your letter of June 16th was received on the 10th of July. I am under many obligations for the
valuable information given.
I will now endeavor to give you a sketch of my operations since the formation of my company. It
was organized, officers elected and ready for duty on the 11th day of March. On reporting to Lieut. Col.
Craig he ordered me to remain at this place for the purpose of protecting the Agency, and to prevent
hostile Indians from coming into the country.
On the 12th of March, I took prisoner a Pelouse Indian from the war party who came into the
country to spy. On examining him he confessed to having murdered two Americans. I hung him on the
afternoon of the day he was taken prisoner.
On the 20th of March, in pursuance of an order from Lieut. Col. Craig, I proceeded with a part of
my command to the camp of the friendly Cayuses for the purpose of looking for stock and taking any
hostile Indians which might be in that section of the country. On arriving there I heard that a small party
was encamped on the north side of the Snake River, just below our encampment. I immediately sent a
detachment below and took them prisoner together with a large number of horses. The head Chief of the
Cayuses had been with the party, but he gaining intelligence of my approach, through some Nez Perces,
escaped. I brought my prisoners and stock to this place on the 23rd of March.
I have labored under many disadvantages at this place, having been almost destitute of provisions,
and clothing, and no way of procuring them. Beef was our only fare while it lasted, and after that was
gone, roots. On the arrival of the train in charge of Quartermaster and Commissary A. H. Robie, I
supposed I would be able to get supplies, but was disappointed. This state of things created a great deal of
dissatisfaction in the company. In consequence of this I was disbanded by Lieut. Col. Craig, giving the
officers, however, the usual time for the settlement of their business.
I have given you a brief but faithful history of the little which I have been able to accomplish
during the existence of my company.
Considering the circumstance, I could have done no more and a future maintenance of the
company would be but useless expense. Although I think it highly necessary for a force to be stationed at
this place for the maintenance of peace. But it should be of sufficient strength to command respect.
Affairs in this country at present wear rather an alarming aspect, many of the principal chiefs
heretofore supposed to be friendly, now seem otherwise disposed.
You will confer a great favor by writing on receipt of this.
Your obedient servant, etc,
Henri M. Chase, Capt. Comdg & Acting
Quartermaster & Commissary, Co. M,
2nd Regiment, W. T. Volunteers
August, 1856
The Commander-in-Chief, for himself, and the inhabitants of Washington Territory, desires me to
express to Lieut. Colonel B. F. Shaw, the gallant officers and men of the Right Wing of the 2nd
Regiment, and the officers and men of Major Layton, of Oregon Territory, and Captain Goff, of
Washington Territory, his high, appreciation of their late brilliant and successful achievements at the
battles of Grand Ronde and Burnt River.
The intelligence of these successes has given the highest gratification to those of their fellow
citizens of the Territory, who are well aware the blessings of a permanent peace with the savages can be
obtained only through such vigorous and decisive blows as those inflicted at the Grand Ronde and Burnt
Orders are issued to raise 200 men to strengthen the command of Lieut. Col. Shaw. Ample
supplies are being collected, and nothing will be left undone to furnish every support to the brave and
gallant territorial forces, whose energetic, active, and intelligent officers are so ably seconded by gallant
and willing men.
With the assurance to the right wing of the 2nd Regiment, that its patriotic and vigorous services
are fully understood at headquarters, and that the present and future citizens of Washington Territory will
fully appreciate them, and perpetuate their memory in history.
Olympia, August 3, 1856
Colonel G. Wright,
9th Infantry, Comdg. District, Yakima Country.
Sir: The volunteer force under the command of Lieut. Col. B. F. Shaw, has struck the hostile Indians a
severe blow in the Grand Ronde, where they had collected to the number of four hundred warriors. The
Indians were completely routed, and engaged in a running fight for sixteen miles in which forty of them
were killed. Three hundred of their horses, one hundred fifty packs of provisions and a considerable
quantity of ammunition were also captured. The battle took place on the 17th of July. On the 15th and
16th, Major Layton and Capt. Goff, with their commands defeated another portion of the hostile Indians
on the head waters of Burnt River.
By late advices I learn that a large majority of the Nez Perces are very restless and disposed to
assume a hostile attitude. I do not, however, think they will immediately break out into open hostility to
the whites, but prompt measures are necessary to prevent it.
I will, in a few days, go in person to the interior, and much desire that you should go with me. I
will suggest that you at once send a force including all your mounted men, say three companies, to occupy
the Walla Walla valley.
My object in visiting the interior is a general pacification of the Indian tribes. I am advised that the
Spokanes are friendly.
I will be at the Dalles Thursday, August 14th and am desirous, at all events, to meet you at that
point to confer with you in reference to the Yakimas; and I again express the hope that you will go to the
Walla Walla.
I am, sir, etc.
VANCOUVER, W. T., AUG 14, 1856
Hon Jefferson Davis
Secretary of War, Washington City, D.C.
Sir: In my last communication relating to the Indian war in this territory, I dwelt upon the proposed Walla
Walla expedition as absolutely indispensable to preserve the peace of the Indian tribes of the interior, and
I expressed the opinion that the indecision and procrastinating course pursuing and pursued in the Yakima
country, had brought, or nearly brought about a general combination of the tribes eastward. That
combination I hoped to break up.
The Walla Walla expedition has been completely successful. Col. Shaw was on Mill Creek, Walla
Walla, on the 8th of July, with all his command, except a force of 75 men under Capt. Goff, who, in
conjunction with Major Layton, of the Oregon Volunteers, had ascended John Day’s canyon, and were
then actively in pursuit of the enemy. On Mill creek were assembled on that date 190 men, who crossed
the Cascades over the Nachess under the immediate orders of Lieut. Col. Shaw; 100 men from the
command of Goff, who escorted the wagon and pack train from the Dalles, and the Nez Perce auxiliaries,
60 strong, under the command of the chief, Spotted Eagle, and accompanied by the agent, Lieut. Col.
Wm. Craig.
Supplies were immediately sent forward to the Nez Perce country, special agent Robie taking
there 100 pack animals without escort.
Col., Shaw learning there was a large force of hostiles in the Grand Ronde, determined to attack
them. Moving in the night of the 14th, he struck them on the 17th, and after a running fight of some 15
miles, he entirely defeated them, capturing a large number of their animals, destroying nearly all their
provisions, and also got possession of about 100 pounds of ammunition.
This gallant fight of Shaw has broken up the combination, for, on his return to Mill Creek, he
found their Special Agent Robie, who had almost been driven out of the Nez Perce country. He brought
back the words of the chiefs, ordering white men out of the country, etc. Robie, on his return from the Nez
Perces, marched one hundred miles without halting.
Lieut. Col. Shaw immediately sent the Nez Perce Chief “Capt. John” to the Nez Perces with this
message: “I am your friend. I have not come to fight you, but the hostiles. But if you beat your drums of
war, I will parade my men for battle”.
On the arrival of “Capt. John”, the Nez Perces had heard of Col. Shaw’s defeat of the Indians at
Grand Ronde, and they immediately sent back the most friendly messages.
Thus has the vigorous movements of the volunteers of Washington under Lieut. Col. Shaw,
secured the fealty of the Nez Perces, and prevented a general combination of the interior tribes.
I enclose Lieut. Col. Shaw’s report of his engagement with the Indians, at the Grand Ronde, and
also a copy of his letter stating the message he sent to the Nez Perces by “Capt. John”. Also the records of
three councils held with the Nez Perces, one by Lieut. Col. Shaw on his arrival at Mill Creek; one on the
Nez Perce country by Capt. Robie; and one by Lieut. Col. Craig when they received Shaw’s message
through Capt. John.
On an interview held yesterday with Col. Wright, I learn that he designs sending forward a force
of four companies to occupy the Walla Walla under the command of Lieut. Col. Steptoe. I shall
accordingly raise no more troops. The terms of service of those under Col. Shaw will expire on the 8th of
September. On being relieved by the command under Col. Steptoe, they will be withdrawn and mustered
out of service.
All the troops on the Sound have been mustered out of service.
I push forward in person to Walla Walla tomorrow to meet the Indians, and establish relations of
friendship with the tribes generally, and especially those struck by Lieut. Col. Shaw.
I am sir, very respectfully, etc.
Itinerary of the march of the Right Wing of the Second Regiment of the Washington Territory
Volunteers, under the command of Lieut. Col. B. F. Shaw, from Montgomery’s to Grand Ronde.
June 12th. After several weeks of active preparation on the part of the Quartermaster and Commissary
Departments, which interval had been usefully employed by the troops in actively scouting the adjoining
country, the Right Wing consisting of 3 companies of the Southern and one company of the Central
Battalion commenced its march for the Yakima country – thus opening a campaign which, although at
first attended by the wearisome tediousness of long marches made without seeing the enemy, terminated
at length gloriously for the Battalion and the country.
The greatest pains had been taken that the men should be as well mounted and equipped as
possible. About 23 beef cattle accompanied the Battalion, and the pack train carried supplies for 30 days.
The Battalion was composed as follows:
General Staff
Lieut. Colonel Benjamin Franklin Shaw, Commanding
Major George C. Blankenship, Central Battalion
Major Hamilton J. G. Maxon, Southern Battalion
Captain Walter Washington De Lacy, Topographer and Adjutant, Rt.Wing.
Captain C. Hughes Armstrong, Quartermaster
Lieut. Benjamin F. Ruth, Adjutant, Central Battalion
Henry Gallagher, Sergeant Major
David F. Byles, Sergeant Major, Central Battalion
Central Battalion
Co. C- Captain Benjamin L. Henness, Lieuts. Charles Bishop
and Francis Goodwin – 37 non-commissioned officers and men.
Southern Battalion
Washington Mounted Rifles – Major Maxon, Lieuts. William S. Bennington and Silas B.
Curtis – 67 non-commissioned officers and men.
Co. D – Lieut. Japtha S. Powell, Comdg., 30 non-commissioned officers and men.
Co. I – Captain Bluford Miller, Lieut. John A. Kemp, 26 non-commissioned officers and
Grand Aggregate: 175 officers and men.
The pack train consisted of 26 packers and 82 pack animals, under charge of Captain C. H.
Armstrong; and the Battalion was also accompanied by Messrs Coffee and Hughes, expressmen. Six of
the pack animals were loaded with ammunition.
After some delay the command commenced its march and, crossing the Puyallup River, reached.
Fort Hays on Connell’s prairie late at night. Distance 17 miles.
June 13th. Left Fort Hays, crossed White River and camped on a small branch called Boise’s Creek where
there was prairie and good grass. From this point there is no grass for the animals until we reach Bear
prairie nearly at the foot of Natchez Pass. Distance about 12 miles.
June 14th. Started late as some of the cattle had strayed during the night. Crossed Boise’s creek and
directed our course towards White River until we reached emigrant road on which we continued most of
the day. The road was very rough and hilly, and in passing mud mountain, in horrible condition, a new
mass or mud in which the animals sank up to their knees at every step; in fact the whole command led
their horse most of the way. We were able, however, to make good progress and at night camped on
White river at the first crossing. Here there was no grass, but one day’s forage had been brought along and
consequently the animals did not suffer. Distance 18 miles.
June 15th. On examination this morning, the state of the river forbade the probability of our being able to
ascend it by Emigrant Road and cross it several times, without loss of men and animals. It was, therefore
determined to cut a trail on the same side where we were, and endeavor to reach Bear prairie by night.
Major Maxon volunteered to head a party of pioneers for this purpose. This service was most efficiently
performed. Fortunately an Indian trail was discovered which assisted the progress of the troops, but
turning too much to the left was abandoned after two or three miles and the cutting resumed to the right
which resulted in our reaching the Emigrant Road again some three or four miles from the mouth of the
Green water, a branch of the White River. Some four miles more brought us to Bear Prairie, where after
day of great fatigue, the command was encamped. Some of the men and a part or the train did not get in
until long after dark. Bear Prairie is very small, the grass is scant in quantity and very inferior in quality
and the animals suffered from hunger. Distance about 22 miles.
June 16th. Left Bear Prairie early. Soon after again encountered Green Water. This stream we crossed 17
times before commencing the ascent to the Natchess Pass. It is of course like all mountain streams, rapid
and brawling, and in some place difficult to cross. Leaving it, we commenced the ascent, which the road
being in excellent order was accomplished in safety; and about 2 P. M. we reached the summit of
Natchess Pass, where we encamped on a prairie of tolerable dimensions, and could let our poor animals
have, what they much needed, a good feed. At this camp we found a number of snow shoes which it was
supposed had been left by the Yakimas, sixty of whom had crossed over to the Sound under Qualston, the
son of Owhi, and fought at the battle of Connell’s Prairie last spring. Distance 12 miles.
June 17th. Started early, and before long came the snow. This was in some places at least two feet deep,
but the crust was hard and could easily bear our animals. This lasted for about two miles. About two miles
further we gradually commenced descending. This descent was gradual. Pioneers were sent forward to
clear away trees which had fallen across the road and spies two or three miles in advance to see if there
were any lurking Indians about. They reported none; and about 11 o’clock, crossing the head waters of the
Natchess River, we entered a beautiful prairie covered with magnificent grass. To encamp, unpack the
animals, and turn them out to the feast was the work of but few minutes. This prairie was the same one
which Captain Maloney and the lamented Slaughter came when they crossed the Natchess Pass, and
where they received the intelligence which caused them to turn back. The ashes of their camp fires were
still visible. Distance 12 miles. As we were now fairly in the enemy’s country, it was resolved by Colonel
Shaw to prepare and publish a general order, designating the manner in which military duty should be
carried on and marches regulated. The guard was regulated on the system of the U. S. Army and was
mounted every morning previous to packing up, each company furnishing men in proportion to its
numbers, and each Orderly was instructed by the Adjutant how to keep a roster, so as to prevent
discontent among the men and make each one do his fair share of duty. This guard generally consisted to
24 men. In all halts they acted as a horse-guard – and during the march, six were detailed every two hours,
each one to lead one of the ammunition horses. Two commissioned and two non-commissioned officers
were each day detailed for duty with it. The march was thus regulated. The guard as advanced guard, then
two companies, the pack train and the beeves – and two companies as rear guard, each company taking it
in turn to be in the advance. That there might be no mistake, the Adjutant communicated every morning to
each Captain his position in the line. All firing was specially prohibited without permission from the
Officer of the Day. After the days march, the Colonel or Adjutant indicated to each company its camp,
generally in the shape of a “corral”, so that the animals could be tied inside at night. These regulations
were in force during the whole campaign.
June 18th. Read General Orders No. 1 to the Battalion. Packed up and started down the Natchess. For a
few miles our route passed through a succession of beautiful prairies in the different bends of the stream
which we crossed a number of times. We then entered a canyon with high basaltic walls. The stream
became more and more tortuous and the valley narrower. As it was not far from here that Coffee and
Sharpe, the expressmen, had seen Indians in their trip over the mountains shortly before, Major Maxon,
Captain de Lacy and a few men went forward to reconnoitre and pick out a camp. Within two miles they
crossed the stream 18 times. No Indians were seen and a good camp was found. The command came up
after two or three hours and camped on excellent grass. Distance 20 miles.
June 19th. Notwithstanding an early start, we made little progress today. Within half a mile we came to a
remarkable rock or rather precipice, called “Edgar’s Rock” from Mr. John Edgar, who was killed at South
Prairie last winter, who always came by this route when trading with the Indians. The trail went up one
side of this rock to the summit and passing some distance over came down the other. It was difficult for a
man to get up, but by this, the whole train had to pass. It did so, fortunately, without accident, but it took
almost all day, and we camped after going about 4 miles.
June 20th. On leaving camp, continued along the river for about 4 miles over rough basaltic ground, then
turning to the northeast ascended the divide between the Natchess and Wenass, until we reached the
Emigrant road along which we continued some distance then turned east on a trail until we struck the head
of a dry stream emptying into the Wenass which we followed to its junction with that stream and there
camped. Excellent grass everywhere. Distance 15 miles.
June 21st. Remained in camp today, both to rest the animals and scout around the country. The scouts
discovered Col. Wright’s and Lieut. Col. Steptoe’s camps. No Indians. Kamiakin had left. It had been Col.
Shaw’s intention to attack at once had he found him in front of Col. Wright’s camp. Col. Wright on being
asked “had nothing particular to send to Col. Shaw”. Kamiakin after feeding some time very comfortable
at the expense of Col. Wright, agreed to treat. Col. Wright prepared a bower. Kamiakin left for parts
unknown. Bower a dead loss.
June 22nd. Messrs. Hughes and Purcel started on express to Olympia by way of the Natchess Pass, went
with a report of the movements of the Battalion. Started late and descended the valley of the Wenass.
Scattered pines ceased. Country rolling with excellent grass. Valley from 1/4 to a mile broad. Distance 12
June 23rd. Remained in camp today and sent scouts out who discovered nothing important.
June 24th. Raised camp and leaving the Wenass struck the valley of the Yakima. Passing over some
rolling hills, we entered a sage desert. Crossed the Natchess River near its mouth, and entering another
sage desert, finally camped at the mouth of Atanim Creek, the scene of Major Rains battle with the
Yakimas. Distance 25 miles.
June 25th. Left canyon and passed along the south bank of the Yakima in a southeast direction. Camped
on a slough where there was fine grass. Rain during the night. Distance 12 miles.
June 26th. Major Maxon this morning ordered his men to fire off their arms against orders and avowing
the act was arrested by the Colonel. He refused to submit to the arrest and attempted to take the command
of the Southern Battalion from the Colonel, which with all but his own company, was unsuccessful. His
company refused to obey orders or march under either of their Lieutenants. Consequently, when the order
was given to march they remained behind. In the course of about an hour they followed us, but remained
entirely separate. Our route lay in the beautiful level country, partly along the bank of the slough and
partly along the Yakima, Covered with beautiful grass and clover. Passed Pisco Creek and camped on
Skloom Creek. Distance 20 miles. Maxon’s company passed us some 2 miles and camped on the river.
June 27th. Started at 8:00 o’clock. Course a little northeast along the river avoid the bends. In the first part
of the day’s journey, we passed some excellent land, the latter part, sage desert and very rocky. Excellent
pasture for animals on the side of the hills. Camped at dark. Distance 23 miles.
June 28th. To avoid going around the bend of the Yakima, the Colonel resolved to leave it and go directly
over the country to the Columbia. Starting early, therefore, we climbed the low hills bordering the river
and took a general southeast direction. A march of 25 miles brought us to the Columbia. Country rolling –
no water – but most magnificent grazing for thousands of animals. There were signs of large herds having
been driven across, probably a month before. Camped opposite to some islands, and the mouth of a small
June 29th. Remained in camp today to recruit the animals.
June 30th. Started and moved up the river with the intention of camping opposite Fort Walla Walla. The
journey was rather a rugged one much of it over basaltic rock, until we ascended to the table land where
we had an agreeable march for some miles, until we again descended to river bank in the evening opposite
a large island. On arriving here the Colonel, who was in advance, discovered two Indian canoes heavily
loaded, each manned by two Indians, proceeding down the river. He hailed them, to which they returned a
defiant answer, whereupon he fired. The men by this time had also reached the bank and also commenced
firing and with such effect as to force the Indians to abandon one canoe and run to the opposite side of the
island. One man jumped out of the other canoe, but the remaining man gallantly paddled away; and,
although he had upwards of 50 shots fired at him, some of which took effect in his canoe (for we could
see him stop to bail her out) he succeeded In carrying her off round the island out of sight and taking off
after his comrades. The abandoned canoe was a great prize for us, as we could thus communicate with the
opposite shore; and accordingly two of the boys stripped, swam a 1/4 mile across the river and brought
her over. It being late we proceeded a short distance to the first good grass and camped. Distance 22
miles. Major Maxon, who had come around the bend of the Yakima, was camped about a mile above us,
opposite Fort Walla Walla.
July 1st. Remained in camp.
July 2nd. Remained in camp. Mr. Coffee sent to Olympia.
July 3rd. Moved camp about 3 miles up the river on account of grass for the animals – there being no other
advantage in a change, as there is very little wood anywhere along the river. Passed Maxon’s camp. No
sign of promised boats. An express reached us however from Capt. Goff’s camp on the Umatilla, from the
officer in command, Lieut. Williams, stating that the Captain had left camp 3 days before with a
command of 60 men going in the direction of Wells Springs, and had not yet returned. Also stating that
the boats would be on the opposite side the next day.
July 4th. In order that the day might not pass wholly without celebration, Dr. Burns (Surgeon) and a few
men crossed the river to Fort Walla Walla where there was an old iron gun and fired a few rounds. An
express reached us also from the Nez Perce country, bearing a letter from Col. William Craig, Special
Indian Agent, stating that everything was quiet, and that he would be down shortly with a body of Nez
Perces to meet us. Mr. Pierson arrived in camp. He was on his way to the Upper country – stayed over
night and left. The boats arrived and were brought over. They were in charge of Lieut. Samuel Wilkes of
Goff’s company.
July 5th. Commenced our movement across the river. The boats were employed in transporting the
provisions and camp equipage across, whilst a detachment were employed in swimming the horses across.
This last proved to be no easy job. They had first to be swum to a small island in the stream and thence
forced off to swim to the opposite shore. Repeatedly when half way over they would turn around and
swim back to the main bank. By unremitting exertion a part of the horses, all the stores and camp
equipage and part of the men were got over today.
July 6th. The remainder of the horses and men crossed today and the boats sent to Major Maxon to enable
him to cross, which he accomplished in two or three days. Messrs. Hughes and Purcel, expressmen,
arrived today from Olympia. An express also came from Capt. Goff stating that he had taken 30 prisoners
in his recent expedition – that he had received an urgent request from Major Layton of the Oregon service
for assistance in an expedition against a body of Indians on the head of John Day’s River and that he had
resolved to take the greater part of his men and go with him.
July 7th. Moved camp to the Walla Walla River – only two miles – on account of grass. Lieut. Wilkes
started today for Whitman’s Valley, where he expects to find Captain Robie’s train which his company is
July 8th. Started at 8 o’clock and after a march of 25 miles reached Whitman’s Station, the scene of the
atrocious massacre of Mr. Whitman and his family by the Cayuses. Some of the land passed on the route
was splendid farming land. The deserted houses of the settlers were seen all along the route, and the wheat
was waving in the fields, with no hands to gather it. We also passed the scene of the four days battle
between the Oregon Volunteers and the Indians last winter. We camped on the scene of the massacre. On
the side, hill was the grave of the victims surrounded by a railing. On the other the ruined houses and mill,
the orchards laden with fruit with none to gather it – a sad picture. An express came to inform Col. Shaw
that Captain Robie’s train was within six miles of us. Also two Nez Perce Indians with news that Col.
Craig had arrived with about 120 Nez Perce Indians and that we would meet them tomorrow.
July 9th. Col. Craig, Special Indian Agent, paid us a visit this morning and informed us that the Nez
Perces would give us a salute as we passed according to custom. We accordingly packed up, and
commenced our march along Mill Creek. In 4 miles we perceived the Nez Perce camp and the Nez Perce
warriors, probably to the number of 100, approaching, singing, dressed in their gayest attire, splendidly
mounted and bearing aloft a large American flag which had been presented to them at the Council last
year by Governor Stevens. They formed a line on the prairie with the regularity of Dragoons, the Flag in
the center, still continuing their chant. The Battalion was then formed by the Adjutant in close columns of
twos, and moved steadily past their line. As it passed they fired a salute. The Volunteers gave three lusty
cheers for the Stars and Stripes – and drawing their revolvers returned the salute, and without halting
continued their march. Here we found Capt. Robie’s train with Indian goods and Quartermaster stores, and
the escort, consisting of parts of Captains Goff and Williams companies. This train consisted of 75 pack
horses and 50 wagons. Crossing Mill Creek, the command halted and camped along the stream, the
wagons being formed into a “corral” for the safety of the animals at night. Our Nez Perce friends had
remained behind in order to strike their camp, as they intended to come up and camp with us. In a short
time they were descried advancing in order, banner in front. The Battalion was immediately formed, and
as they passed in two divisions, they were saluted with a volley and three cheers. This cordial reception
much delighted them. Distance 6 miles.
July 10th. For the first time we mounted guard to the sound of the drum this morning. Remained in camp.
The Nez Perces gave us a war dance in the evening Maxon’s company came up and as usual camped
July 11th. Broke up our camp today and moved farther up Mill Creek, about 7 miles, where Colonel Shaw
designs building a corral and making Head Quarters, previous to an expedition against the hostile Indians,
as he is resolved that the Volunteers shall not go out of the field, without striking the enemy if they can be
found. The spot was an excellent one, where the men could have shelter and plenty of wood and water
and the animals excellent grass. Our Nez Perce friends camped above us. Most of these Nez Perces are
members of a company, raised by Governor Stevens, which accompanied him from the Blackfoot country
to the Dalles and is now used for the protection of Colonel Craig, the Indian Agent. In the evening,
Colonel Shaw met the Chiefs in Council, in which he assured them of the continued friendship of
Governor Stevens and the Americans and his determination to fight the hostiles. To this, Spotted Eagle,
the War Chief of the Nez Perces, replied that he was sorry that the Cayuses had gone to war with the
Americans, that they were his relations, and that he would never lift his gun to the Americans, that they
were his friends. Similar declarations were made by the others, and the Council dissolved, both parties
mutually satisfied. Brisk trade in horses – blankets, the current coin – many a poor fellow, to get a
worthless horse, slept very cold that night.
July 12th. Corral commenced this morning Lieut. Bennington of Maxon’s company came up this morning
with a requisition for rations, the company being entirely out. Colonel Shaw answered that he would issue
rations to no company that refused duty. Bennington returned and shortly afterwards a sergeant came up
and presented a paper stating that the company were willing to do duty. Whereupon they moved up, under
command of Lieut. Bennington, were assigned their camping place by the Adjutant, and from that time
forward did their duty and received their rations. Thus ended this unhappy affair. Major Maxon not
making any acknowledgement of wrong, still remained under arrest.
July 13th. Col. Craig, Capt. Robie and the train with goods for the Indians, started for the Nez Perce
Nation under guard of the “Nez Perce Volunteers” as the above mentioned Indians were called. The arms
of this company were inspected before leaving by the Adjutant and found generally in good order. From
information received from various sources it was certain that Kamiakin and his band were beyond our
reach. Therefore, Colonel Shaw, whose knowledge of the country is not exceeded by anyone, from his
campaigns and travels in this country, resolved to make an expedition to the Grand Ronde, a circular
valley, situated on the Emigrant Road south of our present position. He was well aware that it was the
usual resort of the hostile tribes, and it was morally certain that a body of them would be found there at
this time. A trusty guide was found among the Nez Perces, who was engaged to take us thither by a new
route, and the Captains of companies were ordered to draw ammunition and rations for several days. The
sick and other who from various causes were unable to go were left in charge of the station. The day was
accordingly passed in busy preparation.
July 14th. Orders were given this morning to select the men, clean arms, inspect horses, etc., and have
everything prepared to start at nightfall. The station was left in charge of Lieut. B. F. Ruth, Adjutant of
Central Battalion. The Battalion was mustered at sundown, fully equipped and was composed as follows:
Staff – Colonel Shaw, Captain DeLacy, Sgt. Major Gallagher; Central Battalion – Major Blankenship,
Captain Henness, Sgt. Major Boyles, Lieuts. Bishop and Goodwin, 30 officers and men; Southern
Battalion – Co. I, Capt. Miller, 29 rank and file – Co. D, Lieut. Powell, 26 rank and file – Co. N, Lieut.
Williams, 27 rank and file – Co. K, Lieuts. Waite and Wilkes, 25 rank and file; Washington Mounted
Rifles – Major Maxon, Lieuts. Bennington and Curtis, 49 rank and file. Grand aggregate 190 – and 20
packers with the train and 10 days rations. The companies being assigned their stations according to
regulations, the Battalion commenced – crossing Mill Creek and its various branches, took a southern
course for about 10 miles, on the old Nez Perce trail, then, under the guidance of “Captain John” our Nez
Perce guide, turned to the eastward on an old trail and entered a gorge of the Blue mountains. Passing
over some elevated land we came at last to the Walla Walla river at about 2 A. M. and camped. Horses
were picketed, guards set out and all lay down to rest. No fires allowed. Distance about 20 miles.
July 15th. Remained in camp pretty late to allow the animals to graze, and examine the country for fresh
signs. None found. Packed up about 10 o’clock, passed the Walla Walla and commenced ascending the
Blue Mountains between the Walla Walla and Pine Creek. The ascent was considerable and the whole
day’s march over rough ground. Our guide stated that the trail crossed the Umatilla River near its head.
On approaching that river, we descended in its valley by a series of steep descents where both men and
horses kept their feet with difficulty, the mountains being fully 1500 feet above the valley. We camped
upon the stream, and tied our horses up to the trees there being no grass for them. No Indian sign was
seen. The trail did not appear to have been used for a year at least. Course today, first southeast, then east
20 miles.
July 16th. Started early and immediately commenced ascending the mountain on the other side of the
Umatilla. This was also very steep and higher that the hill we descended the day before. Then proceeded
some distance along the spur, again descended and ascended several times, crossed the main ridge of the
Blue Mountains and having struck the waters of the opposite side, ascended a spur whence we had a
distant view of the Grand Ronde Valley. It was too distant however to see anything, tho’ some thought
that they could, while others thought not. The general impression was however that there were no Indians.
We descended the spur into a narrow valley between two spurs, striking the head of a small stream, and
after proceeding several miles camped on good grass in scattering timber. Course east and southeast.
Distance about 22 miles.
July 17th. Started early this morning in the usual order. After proceeding about 5 miles we came in sight,
of the Grand Ronde River which is timbered along its banks and immediately perceived, a great dust
extending up and down the river about, 3 miles, evidently showing a large force of Indians. Col. Shaw
had gone ahead to reconnoitre accompanied by Major Maxon and the guide and two others. He had seen
the dust and sending the others forward, to examine more closely, returned to hurry up the command,
which however having seen the enemy were coming up fast. As soon as he arrived, the Battalion was
formed in columns as follows: Captain Miller’s company in the advance supported by Maxon’s, Henness’
company, Powell’s company, and the pack train in the rear, defended by the guard of the day and Lieuts.
Waite and Williams detachments. In this order the command moved forward quickly but regularly until
within half a mile of the enemy’s village, when the warriors came forward, singing the war song, and
waving a scalp on a pole. As they halted a moment and two or three came forward indicating “Capt.
John”, the Nez Perce guide, was desired to go to them, which he did, when several of them behind cried
out “shoot him”, “shoot him”, whereupon he returned to Colonel Shaw who was some distance in
advance. The line by this time was formed in front of the enemy. The Colonel sent the Adjutant to Lieut.
Williams, in command of the rear guard with orders to keep close after the column in the rear with the
pack train, after which he returned to his place in the front. The command was given to charge which was
executed. The enemy gave way and retired towards the brush on the riverbank. It became evident that
their design was to draw us into a bush fight, while their pack train escaped down the river as we could
plainly see. Perceiving this the command was given “forms about” and the companies charged down the
river on the rear of the train. The enemy then separated, part crossing the river at the village and part
joining the pack train to defend it. These we soon overtook. They attempted to fight and individually did
fight to the last, but all in vain. Every instant they fell before the deadly rifle and revolver. The road was
strewed in every direction with – packs in many instances left on animals – and troops of horses which
they were obliged to abandon were passed. Capt. Miller was ordered to the left to cut off their passage
that way and Major Maxon to the right to cut them off there. Capt. Miller killed five on the spot on his
side but the Major was unable to cross the river there. Henness’ and Powell’s companies kept up the
charge in the center and continued to do good service. A body of warriors seem to be collected in front as
if to make a stand, but at the approach of the troops their hearts failed them and they fled at the first fire.
Packs grew thicker and thicker, and such was the impetuosity of the charge that many of their women
even were unable to escape and were overtaken in the pursuit. None that were recognized were harmed,
but were suffered to ride off free, which they gladly availed themselves of. In this manner we reached the
crossing of the river. Here, in order to delay us, the enemy had lined the opposite side with marksmen,
and when the men came up they were saluted by several shots, they hung back a little, but the Colonel
(who had led the charge the whole way with his hat off) calling on them to follow him, rushed into the
water, followed by some of the bravest officers and men and the rest followed. The stream here is about
50 feet broad and deep the banks steep and as soon as the Colonel entered the enemy fired a volley. But
one man was wounded and he but slightly and the Colonel had a ball put through his coat. They then
attempted to escape but several were overtaken and slain. We thus continued the charge for about 5 miles
more until they entered a gorge of the mountains and commenced dispersing in different directions – when
Col. Shaw finding that he had but few men with him (the horse of most having given out) stopped the
pursuit and commenced his return to the pack train. Half a dozen of the Indians then came back to watch,
one who rode around on the opposite side of the gorge uttering yells of defiance, being shot by the
Colonel, they speedily left and drawing off to a safer distance, watched our descent into the plain. One or
two fired shots which came near hitting some of the party. As we returned the ground was thickly strewed
with packs, and numbers of horses were taken. We found the pack train and guard encamped in the bend
of a creek, not far from its junction with the Grand Ronde River, a fine position for herding the numerous
stock which we had taken, in number about 300. The pack train, as a matter of course had been unable to
keep up with us in our rapid charge, and as soon as left alone, the party which had crossed the river,
returned and annoyed it by firing at long shot all the way to the river crossing, when they desisted. None
of the pack train were hurt, but several of the Indians were seen to be carried off. The guard, however,
drove up the bands of captured horses and brought them in to camp. In returning it was Colonel Shaw’s
design to pick out the best of the captured horses, mount part of his men on them and endeavor to strike
the enemy the second time. But on reaching camp, he found that Major Maxon with 16 men had crossed
the river and had not been seen since. Two squaws had been captured by the pack train and brought in to
obtain information. There was a vague rumor at camp that the Major had been fighting severally with a
large number of the enemy, and it was feared might have been overpowered. His absence gave color to
the story and the Colonel at once got a party of 30 men and sent them out under Lieut. Waite to search for
and aid him. The Lieut. returned after nightfall, unable to find the Major, but bringing in one of his men,
Burke, who stated that when he accompanied the Major, he and another, Irvine, remained behind on the
bank of the river, that the Indians surprised them and killed Irvine, that he saved himself in the brush,
crossed the stream and was making his way he knew not whither when Lieut. Waite met him. When in the
brush he heard very heavy firing, and supposed that the Major was attacked by a large party. It was
impossible to do anything further tonight and equally impossible to pursue the enemy. A very strong
guard was posted at night so as to prevent any danger of stampeding the captured animals. This guard was
posted across the chord of the arc of the bend, as the creek effectually prevented any such attempt on that
side. One or two sentries were placed on the other side of the creek, however, to prevent any surprise. It
was impossible to tell how many of the enemy were killed, but 27 were counted on the ground, and we
knew of others to the number of 34 that were killed. It was probable too that Maxon’s men had killed
many, for they are all good shots and determined men. In this charge we never drew rein for 12 miles. At
least 200 packs were scattered over this distance, containing all their winter provisions, furniture, mats
and in fact everything they possessed. In returning from the pursuit, we burnt all of these as far as camp.
July 18th. Early this morning, Captain Miller was sent out with 70 men to try and find Major Maxon. He
returned late in the day, having found some signs of him; but his trail, becoming merged in that of the
Indians, become impossible to follow. His impression was, however, that the Major had retreated back to
the post. Whilst out his men saw two Indians, and two, Holmes and Lilly, the best mounted, pursued,
when quite near dismounted and fired without effect. The Indians returned the fire, killing Holmes
instantly, and then rushed upon Lilly with their clubbed guns, who defended himself courageously with
his knife and revolver. He shot one, and stabbed him twice with his knife, but did not kill him. Some of
the men now: approaching, the Indians got on their horses and fled leaving, Lilly with his head badly cut
and left arm fractured.
July 19th. Colonel Shaw resolved today to move camp up to the Emigrant Road. There take a body of
men, and search for Major Maxon, until he either found him or become certain of his, fate. Accordingly,
the Battalion moved in the following order: Two companies in advance, then the guard pack train and two
companies, then captured horses, and two companies in the rear guard. In this order we moved back over
the battle field. A detachment was charged with the duty of burning of packs scattered on the ground
which was faithfully executed. After a march of 8 miles we came to the Indian village, where 120 lodges
were counted. It was burnt. We then crossed the river, picked up a band of horses which we found there,
and on coming to the Emigrant road, camped. After the men had had their dinners, the, Colonel took 75
men determined to make a thorough search. In camp the strictest guard was kept during the night. A party
was sent out to bury Holmes.
July 20th. The Colonel returned today. He had gone to the place where Maxon was last seen, and near
there found the body of one of his men, Tooley, who had been killed and scalped and horribly mangled.
Him they buried. Then also buried Irvine, who was literally cut to pieces, and then continuing on Maxon’s
trail, the Colonel became perfectly satisfied that no more of his men had been killed, and that he had
returned to the post.
July 21st. Commenced our return to Headquarters. Marched 25 miles on the Emigrant Road and camped
late at “Camp Lee”.
July 22nd. This morning Lieut. Hunter of Goff’s Company came up to us on his way to the post for
assistance. He brought us news that Major Layton and Captain Goff had had a battle on Burnt River on
the 14th (July) and had had two men killed and or wounded. Those killed were Lieut. Estes (Eustis) and
Private Smith, and Private Cherry wounded severally. All were Washington Volunteers. They were
entirely out or provisions, living entirely on horse meat and were now on their way by the Emigrant Road
to Walla Walla. The Colonel immediately gave all the provisions we had except one day’s rations and
such horses as he wanted, and he immediately returned. It seemed by his account (confirmed by captured
squaws) that the body which we had whipped on the Grand Ronde were just preparing to go to the
assistance of those fighting Goff and Layton, when we came so opportunely on them. Had they joined,
they would have placed these officers in a hazardous situation. Continued our march on road to Umatilla
where we camped at dark. Distance about 30 miles. Met Mr. Files (Fields), packmaster, from whom we
learned that Major Maxon was safe, that he had returned to the post, and was then near us with a pack
train going to our assistance. Colonel Shaw went over and learned that on crossing the Grand Ronde
River, Major Maxon found himself engaged with a greatly superior force, and after fighting them some
time, and having one of his men killed was compelled to retreat to the brush, whence he kept up the action
until nightfall, when the Indians left. Many of the Indians were killed. He then endeavored to find our
camp, and was once near it, but hearing a woman crying, mistook our camp for that of the Indians.
Thinking therefore that Col. Shaw had gone over to Snake River and that he was cut off he resolved to
return to the post, obtain provisions, and meet the Battalion on the way back, as he knew that we would
want them. He received orders to go on to meet Capt. Goff and relieve him. We had a very heavy hail and
rainstorm tonight.
July 23rd. Reached Head Quarters about 4 o’clock P. M. and found everything all right under the excellent
management of Lieut. Ruth, whose duties during our absence had been of the most arduous description.
The waggoners and others belonging to Captain Robie’s train had refused to stand guard; and he
consequently had only about 30 men to herd the animals during the day, stand guard at night, and defend
the position if attacked. We learned from Captain Armstrong, Quartermaster, that his vigilance was
sleepless, and he deserves the greatest credit for the able manner in which he performed his duty. We
found Capt. Robie had returned from the Nez Perce country. He reports part of the tribe unfriendly – those
chiefly who reside in the Buffalo country. Mr. Pierson, Howlish-wampoo and several Nez Perce Indians
accompanied him.
July 24th. Occupied today in writing an account of the battle, which was sent to Olympia by Mr. Pierson.
At the same time “Capt. John” our Nez Perce guide was sent with a letter to the Nez Perce Chiefs, in
which he (Col. Shaw) told them he was tired of trying to persuade people to be peaceful who would not
be that – if they wanted war they should have it – but if they wanted peace they should have it – that it
rested with them.
July 25th. Captain Robie’s wagon train started for supplies to the Dalles escorted by Company C,
commanded by Captain Henness, whose times were out. This company had distinguished itself
throughout the campaign for discipline and bravery. Major Maxon and Captain Goff’s command arrived
July 26th. Major Maxon’s company being very anxious to go and very insubordinate, as they had only 18
days to serve, were allowed to start with orders to join Capt. Henness and help escort wagons.
July 27th. It being discovered that Maxon’s men had taken with them many of the captured animals
(which had been turned over to the QM and branded), Lieut. Waite with a part of Goff’s company were
sent after them and succeeded in recovering 18 – there were doubtless others but they had sent them out of
sight. Mr. Coffee was sent express to Olympia.
July 28th. Mr. Hughes arrived in camp, express from Olympia with letters, papers, etc. A number of Capt.
Goff’s men, claim their discharges today. Part of this company were enlisted for six months, and then
filled up with recruits for three months. The times of the latter is now out. They were told by Captain Goff
that it was a mistake and were induced to stay longer.
July 29th. Nothing important.
July 30th. Nothing important.
July 31st. The grass near our present position was nearly exhausted, and the Col. had been looking for
several days around the camp where he could have better grass, and build a blockhouse to protect such
stores as might arrive. Having found an eligible situation on one of the lower branches of Mill Creek, we
packed up today and moved part of the command thither a distance of about 5 miles. An unfortunate
accident which occurred prevented two companies from moving this day. A gun went off accidently
severely wounding Mr. Stritzell, a private of Lieut. Powell’s Co. D. He had been a miner at Colville, and
had joined the company but a short time. It was impossible to move him at the time, so that his company
remained, as well as Co. N of Lieut. Williams, which latter were to guard some stores, which could not be
moved. Mr. Hughes started express for Olympia. “Capt. John” arrived from the Nez Perce Nation, with a
letter from Col. Craig in which he stated that the Chiefs professed friendliness.
Aug. 1st. The remainder of the command moved down with the wounded man. A “Corral” was built
Aug. 2nd. A scouting party was sent out.
Aug. 3rd. Scouting party returned, nothing discovered.
Aug. 4th. A Battalion Court Martial was convened to try various men and officers on written charges.
Aug. 5th. Court Martial still in session. Closed this evening.
Aug. 6th. Mr. Stritzell died of his wounds this morning. The Battalion was paraded in the evening and he
was buried with military honors – after which the findings and sentences of the Court Martial were read.
Aug. 7th. Commenced building blockhouse.
Aug. 8th. Nothing important.
Aug. 9th. “Joe” and some other Nez Perces arrived in camp with a letter from Col. Craig. Nothing new.
Aug. 10th. to 13th. Nothing important.
Aug. 14th. Expressman McIntosh arrived in camp with letter from the Governor stating that he was
coming up to hold a Council with the Indians. Col. Shaw immediately sent an express to Col. Craig
announcing the fact, enclosing a letter for “Lawyer” and the head Chiefs of the Nez Perce nation, inviting
them to attend, as to the hostiles – the latter to come and go in peace. Also Capt. Goff was ordered to send
down his 3 month recruits to Portland to be discharged.
Aug. 15th. Recruits started for the Dalles.
Aug. 16th. Co. D of Lieut. Powell whose terms expired several days ago also went down to be
discharged. This company chiefly composed of sailors had been behind none in readiness for duty and
Aug. 17-18. Nothing important.
Aug. 19th. Mr. Hughes arrived with express from the Dalles.
Aug. 20-22. Nothing important..
Aug. 23rd. Governor Stevens arrived in camp, with a small pack train of Indian goods. “Capt. John” also
arrived from the Nez Perce country with letters from Col. Craig, who states that he thinks the majority of
the Nez Perces will attend but is not certain of the hostiles.
Aug. 24th. Pack train in charge of Mr. Hans Tilton started for the Dalles.
Aug. 25th. The Battalion was paraded, the Governor, being received with the honors due his rank, made
and eloquent and appropriate speech, after which the troops gave him three hearty cheers. Thirteen rounds
were also fired from a small cannon.
Aug. 26th. An express arrived from the pack train coming up from the Dalles, under charge of Mr. John
Scott, that the Indians had stolen 14 animals from them enroute. Col. Shaw ordered Lieut. Gates of Co. N
to take 25 men, meet them and escort them up, which was done.
Aug. 27th. Nothing important
Aug. 28th. This morning a dust was seen in the direction of the road and everyone said it must be the pack
train, and a smoke, apparently the prairie on fire, as it had been seen for several days. The pack train not
appearing, however, Col. Shaw thought it must be the Indians making the dust and accordingly ordered
Capt. Goff to take 20 men after night and scout in that direction to see if he could catch any of them. He
was accompanied by Capt. Williams. They went as far as the crossing of the Walla Walla River, and then
hearing some Indian yells, retreated back for reinforcements.
Aug. 29th. Col. Shaw was awakened about 3 o’clock in the morning by Mr. Files (Fields), asst.
Packmaster, who informed him that the train had been attacked by about 60 or 70 Indians, just as they
reached the hill above the Walla Walla River – that they had unpacked and fought them all day, in
expectation of receiving assistance. Finding that none came, they abandoned the packs and pack horses at
night, and had come in. None were wounded, and they received no molestation during their retreat. Their
ammunition had given out, not having more than one or two rounds apiece. It is due to the Officer in
command, Lieut. Gates to state that, known as a brave man, he was totally inexperienced in Indian
warfare; had just been elected; and that his men were a set of raw, undisciplined recruits. Col. Shaw
immediately roused the camp, detailed a party of 30 men, and heading them himself, set out to the scene
of the disaster (8 miles from camp). He met Capts. Goff and Williams returning and ordered them back.
Here he found that the Indians had taken the packs and horses which had been left, and striking their trail
which led up the Walla Walla soon came in sight of the enemy. All his efforts to come up with them
however were in vain. They had too much start on him. Horse after horse gave out and he was soon left
with only five of the best mounted, and then was only within about four miles of the enemy. Under these
circumstances, he was compelled to return to camp. The amounts lost in the train was not much, some
flour, bacon, clothes and Indian goods.
W. W. De Lacy
Capt., Engrs., & Actg Adj, W. T .V.
September 4th, 1856
The Commander in Chief feels called upon to express his regrets that the pack train was captured
on the evening of the 28th of August, and that Captains Goff and Williams did not take the position
assigned them by Lieut. Col. Shaw, which would probably have resulted in the defeat of the enemy and in
saving the train.
The packers were not provided with rifles or guns, and the escort left without a proper supply of
ammunition, both contrary to orders heretofore given, and contrary to the usage of the service.
On a calm review of the whole matter, the Commander in Chief must express the opinion that,
under the circumstances, the pack train should never have been abandoned.
He desires to impress upon the troops the fact established by experience, especially in the present
Indian war, that bold and repeated charges upon the enemy, even when the disparity of numbers is great,
will alone lead to results. In this way only can the superiority of our race be established. In all mere
defensive, contests with Indians, whether behind breastworks, or in the brush, an Indian is as good as a
white man; few laurels can thus be won, and the result maybe discreditable.
FORT DALLES, O. T., Oct. 4, 1856
Hon. I. I. Stevens,
Gov. & Supt of Indian Affairs, W.T.
Governor: I had the honor to receive sometime since, your communication of the 19th of August making
requisition on me for the delivery of Leschi, Nelson, Quimuth and Stehi, with a view of their being sent to
the Sound, to be tried by civil authority.
I delayed action on the subject, expecting your speedy return from Walla Walla, when I was
anxious to have a personal interview with you.
You know the circumstances under which the Indians referred to were permitted to come in and
remain with the friendly Yakimas. Although I have made no promises that they should not be held to
account for their former acts, yet, in the present unsettled state of our Indian relations, I think it would be
unwise to seize them, and transport them for the trial. I would therefore, respectfully suggest that the
delivery of the Indians be suspended for the present.
I am sir, etc.
G. Wright, COL. 9th INF, COMDG
Dalles, O. T. Oct. 14th 1856
Col. G. Wright, Comdg Columbia River District,
Ft. Dalles, O. T.
Sir: I have received your letter of this date, in answer to my requisition for the delivery of Leschi, Nelson,
Quitnuth, Kitsap and Stehi, to be sent to the Sound to be tried by civil
These men are notorious murderers, and committed their acts of atrocity under circumstances of
treachery and blood thirstiness almost beyond example. All belong to bands with whom treaties have been
made, and in the case of all, except Nelson, the treaty has been sanctioned by the Senate and the execution
of the treaty has placed in my hand.
Whether a treaty has been made or not, I am of the opinion that men guilty of such acts should at
least be tried, and if convicted, punished, more especially, should this be done in cases where, by treaty
stipulations, provision is made for the punishment of such offenses.
If the condition of things is so unsettled in the Yakima that the seizing of these men, after such
arrangements as to time, etc, as necessarily comes within the direction of the force making the seizure will
lead to war, the sooner the war commences, the better. Nothing in my judgment, will be gained by a
temporizing policy.
The war commenced on our part in consequence of the attempt to arrest the murderers of Bolon,
Mattice, and others, on the requisition of the Acting Governor of Washington Territory. If this demand is
not inflexibly insisted upon, and peace is made under milder terms, it will be, it seems to me, a criminal
abandonment of the great duty of protecting our citizens will depreciate our standing with the Indians and
pave the way for wars hereafter.
I must, therefore, again respectfully make requisition for the delivery of the Indians mentioned, in
order that they may be sent to the Sound to be tried by the Civil court. The particular mode and the special
time of making the seizure rests with your discretion.
I shall send Special Agent Shaw to the Yakima to take charge of the Indians you have officially
reported to me to be friendly, and of the Indians that I propose to incorporate with them.
He will have instructions not under any circumstances to receive these Indians on the reservation.
I am, sir, etc.
Olympia, Oct. 22, 1856
Secretary of Interior, Washington, D.C.
Sir: Herewith I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of an order issued by Lieut. Col. Steptoe,
commanding in the Walla Walla Valley.
By reference to the Act of Congress, approved Sept. 27, 1850, entitled “An Act creating the office
of the Surveyor General of public lands in Oregon, etc.”, and Acts of Feb. 14, 1853, and July 17, 1854,
amendatory thereto, applicable alike to Washington Territory, all the public domain in this territory was
thrown open to settler, they being required, in order to perfect the donation thus offered to them to
perform certain acts of “residence and cultivation”. By reference to the 4th and 5th sections of the Act
first mentioned, it will be found that the words which at once vest a right in the occupant of the soil
dependent simply upon the performance of a condition subsequent, a mere act of volition on his part. By
the language of the statute referred to, it would seem that all title had passed from the general government,
and it simply remained for the settler to fulfill the conditions.
Under the provisions of this Act, some fifty to seventy five citizens had taken claims in the
territory lying east of the Cascade mountains, and affected by the enclosed order, and resided upon them
until driven off by the Indians.
By an order of a military officer of the United States they are now forbidden to return to their
homes, and impliedly threatened with expulsion should they do so.
Your early attention is called to the matter, for it certainly must be doubted whether the
commanding officer of a department or district can legally exercise an authority which abrogates a statute
of the United States, and deprives citizens of vested rights. * * * * * *.
August 20, 1856
October 22, 1856
Secretary of War. Washington City, D.C.
Sir: In my report of the 14th of August, informing you of the successful operations of the volunteers under
Lieut. Col. Shaw, and my having determined to raise no more troops, in consequence of four companies
of regulars under Lieut. Col. Steptoe being about to be sent to Walla Walla, I expressed the opinion that
the Nez Perces would probably continue friendly, and advised you that I should push forward to the Walla
Walla to meet the tribes in Council.
In this connection, I will refer you to Shaw’s report of the victory of the Grand Ronde – his
message to the Nez Perces on learning they had given evidence of hostility, and the records of three
councils held with the Nez Perces by Lieut. Col. Shaw, Capt. Robie and Lieut. Col. Craig, respectively all
going to establish the fact that the Nez Perces, much disaffected previously, preferred friendship on
meeting the volunteers on Mill Creek – exhibited hostility when Capt. Robie was in their country, and
again sent friendly messages on, learning the decisive blow struck at the Grand Ronde.
It was in view of the proceedings at the first council held with the Nez Perce by Shaw on Mill
Creek, that I expressed the opinion in my letter of 24 July, that they were friendly, and of the effect of a
decisive victory in connection with their expressions at the third council in reply to Shaw’s message, that I
believed that friendship had been confirmed, and the general combination broken up, as reported in my
communication of August 14th.
I appointed the Council when I had just learned of the battle of Grand Ronde and of Captain Robie
having been almost driven out of the Nez Perce country.
On reaching the Walla Walla valley, to which point, trains with Indian supplies were on their way
under Captain Robie, I made the necessary arrangements for sending home the volunteers to be mustered
out of service on the arrival in the valley of the regular troops under Lieut. Col. Steptoe.
On the 29th of July, one of my pack trains, mostly laden with Indian supplies was captured by the
Indians, a most unfortunate occurrence, as thereby much of the prestige of the Grand Ronde was lost.
Lieut. Col. Steptoe’s force was encamped in the valley on the 5th of Sept., some five miles below
the Council ground.
Captain Robie, with the remaining pack train and a large wagon train of Indian supplies, reached
the valley on the 7th of September, and the three following days the Nez Perces and all the hostile bands,
except the Yakimas, reached the valley and encamped near me.
On the evening of the 10th, the Indians being all in except the Yakimas, and none friendly except a
portion of the Nez Perces, and orders having been given to all volunteers to go home the next day made
requisition upon Lieut. Col. Steptoe for two companies of: his troops and his mountain howitzers, and to
my surprise, learned from his answer, that he had moved his camp to a point on Mill Creek, some seven
or eight miles above my camp, and that his orders from Gen. Wool did not allow him to comply with my
I say to my surprise, for in my interview with Col. Wright at Vancouver, referred to in my report
or the 14th of August, I understood, as I went to the interior in my capacity simply as Superintendent of
Indian Affairs, that in effecting the objects of the Council, I was to have the cooperation of the military
force he was about to send there – a cooperation which the good of the service urgently demanded. I had
already raised nearly two hundred six month’s men to strengthen the command of Lieut. Col. Shaw under
a proclamation issued immediately after the receipt of the battle or Grand Ronde and I had four month’s
supplies to subsist them. This proclamation was revoked on my arrival at Fort Vancouver, and the troops
raised under it disbanded. In interviews held afterwards with Col. Wright at the Dalles, I dwelt upon the
subjects to be gained by the Council – referred to the effect of the presence of his troops there and left
with the belief that it was arranged and agreed on thing between the Colonel and myself, that I was to
have the countenance and support of the regular force in the Walla Walla to carry into effect the
beneficent designs of the Council. Col. Wright stated that other duties would prevent his accompanying
me – and he had entire confidence in Lieut. Col. Steptoe, the officer in command, and his presence would
be unnecessary. Accordingly, previous to Lieut. Col. Steptoe reaching the valley, I sent him two letters,
each urging him to camp near me, by object being to show the Indians the strength of our people, and the
unity of our Councils; and I also wrote Captain D. A. Russell, on his way from Yakima with three
companies, to the same effect. On the arrival of Lieut.Col. Steptoe in the valley, I urged him personally to
camp near me.
The requisition was refused, and I was therefore obliged to countermand the order sending home
the volunteers whose terms of enlistment had all expired, and of which only Goff’s company, 69 rank and
file, remained, a portion of whom, too, were on their way down, and had to be called back. This force
only remained to guard my camp.
The Council opened on the 11th, and continued on the l2th and l3th, when so alarming was the
condition of affairs, that I deemed it my duty, on the morning of the l3th, to address a confidential note to
Steptoe, advising him that one half of the Nez Perces were unquestionable hostile – that all the other tribes
were hostile, with very few exceptions, and that a company of his troops was essential to the security of
my camp, and at his suggestion, I moved my party, train and supplies, with Goff’s company of volunteers,
to the vicinity of his camp.
I met Kamiakin and his followers on my way there, and it is probably owing to no one being
advised of my intention to move till the order was given an hour before I started that I was not attacked on
the road. Kamiakin had unquestionably an understanding, as subsequent events showed, with all the
Indians except the friendly Nez Perces (about one half the nation) and a small number of friendly Indians
of other tribes, to make an attack that day or evening upon my camp. He found me on the road to his great
surprize, and had no time to perfect his arrangements. I had learned in the night that Kamiakin had
encamped on the Touchet the night before, and that he would be in this day.
The Council reopened on the l6th, all the Indians camped near. Kamiakin and his band being only
separated from the Council ground by the narrow skirt of woods in the bottom of Mill Creek, and was
closed the next day, all my efforts, both to make arrangements with the hostiles, and to do away with the
disaffection of the Nez Perces having proved abortive.
On the l8th, at a separate Council with the Nez Perces, all, both hostile and friendly Nez Perces,
advised the sub-agent, Wm. Craig, not to return to the Nez Perce country, as his life would be in danger,
and they were afraid he would be killed.
At the conclusion of this Council, in a brief address to the Indians, I expressed my regrets that I
had failed in my mission – that no one said “yes” to my proposition, and had only to say “follow your own
hearts”; “those who wish to go to war, go”.
My propositions were unconditional submission to the justice and mercy of the government, and
the rendition for trial of murderers.
In the afternoon, Lieut. Col. Steptoe informed these Indians that he came here to establish a post,
not to fight them, and trusted they would get along as friends, and appointed the next day a little after
noon, for a special conference.
The Indians did not, however, come to see Steptoe at the time appointed. They previously set fire
to his grass, and following me as I set out about eleven o’clock, on my way to the Dalles, they attacked me
within three miles of Steptoe’s camp at about one o’clock in the afternoon.
So satisfied was I that the Indians would carry into effect their avowed determination in the
councils in their own camps for several nights previous, to attack me, that in starting, I formed whole
party and moved in the order of battle.
I moved on under fire one mile to water, when forming a corral of the wagons, and holding the
adjacent hills and the brush, on the stream by pickets, I made arrangements to defend my position and
fight the Indians. Our position in a low, open basin, some 500 or 600 yards across was good, and with the
aid of our corral, we could defend against a vastly superior force of the enemy.
The fight continued till late in the night. Two charges were made to disperse the Indians, the last
led by Lieut. Col. Shaw in person, with twenty four men, but, whilst driving before him some one
hundred and fifty Indians, an equal number pushed into his rear, and he was compelled to cut his way,
through them towards camp, when, drawing up his men, and, aided by the teamsters and pickets, who
gallantly sprang forward, he drove the Indians back in full charge upon the corral.
Just before the charge, the friendly Nez Perces, fifty in number, who had been assigned to holding
the ridge on the south side of the corral, were told by the enemy “they come not to fight the Nez Perces,
but the whites, go to your camp, or we wipe you out” Their camps with their women and children was on
a stream about a mile distant – upon which I directed the Nez Perce to retire, as I did not require their
assistance, and I was fearful that my men might not be able to distinguish them from the hostiles and thus
friendly Indians might be killed.
Towards night, I notified Lieut. Col. Steptoe that I was fighting the Indians; that I should move the
next morning, and expressed the opinion that a company of his troops would be of service. In his reply he
stated that the Indians had burnt up his grass and suggested that I should return to his Camp and place at
his disposal my wagons, in order that he might move his whole command and his supplies to the
Umatilla, or some other point, where sustenance could be found for his animals. To this arrangement I
assented, and Lieut.Col. Steptoe sent to my camp Lieut. Davidson, with detachments from the companies
of dragoons and artillery with a mountain howitzer. They reached my camp about 2 o’clock in the
morning, everything in order, and most of the men at the corral asleep. A picket had been driven in an
hour and a half before by the enemy; that on the hill south of the corral, but the enemy was immediately
dislodged, and all points were held, and ground pits being dug.
The howitzer having been fired on the way out, it was believed nothing would be gained by
waiting until morning, and the whole force immediately returned to Lieut. Col. Steptoe’s camp.
Soon after sunrise, the enemy attacked the camp, but were soon dislodged by the howitzer and a
charge by a detachment of Steptoe’s command.
On my arrival at the camp, I urged Lieut. Col. Steptoe to build blockhouse immediately – to leave
one company to defend it with all his supplies, then march below, and return with additional forces and
additional supplies, and by a vigorous Winter campaign, to whip the Indians into submission. I placed at
his disposal for the building, my teams and Indian employees.
The blockhouse and stockade were built in a little more than ten days. My Indian storeroom was
rebuilt at one corner of the stockade.
On the 23rd of September, we started for the Dalles, which we reached on the 2nd of October.
Nothing of interest occurred on the road.
In the action of the 19th, my whole force consisted of Goff’s company of sixty nine rank and file,
and the teamsters, herders and Indian employees, numbering about fifty men. Our train consisted of about
500 animals, none of which was captured by the enemy. We fought four hundred and fifty Indians, and
had one man mortally wounded, one dangerously and two slightly. We killed and wounded thirteen
One half of the Nez Perces, one hundred and twenty warriors, all the Yakimas and Palouses, two
hundred warriors; the great bulk of the Cayuses and Umatillas, 50 warriors; 70 of the Walla Wallas and
Indians from other bands were in the fight. The principal war chiefs were the son of Owhi; and Isle de
Pere chief, Quiltomec; the latter of whom had two horses shot under him, and who showed me a letter
from Colonel Wright, acknowledging his valuable services in bringing about the peace of the Yakimas.
I have failed, therefore, in making the desired arrangements with the Indians in the Walla Walla,
and the failure, to be attributed in part to the want of cooperation with me as Superintendent of Indian
Affairs, on the part of the regular troops, has its causes also in the whole plan of operations of the troops
since Col. Wright assumed command.
The Nez Perces, entirely friendly last December and January, became first disaffected in
consequence of the then chief of the Cayuses, Ume Howlish, and the friendly Cayuses going into the Nez
Perse country, contrary to my positive orders. I refused to allow them to go there in December last, saying
to them, “I have ordered the Nez Perces to keep hostiles out of their country. If you go there, your friends
in the war party will come, they cannot be kept out. Through them disaffection will spread among a
portion of the Nez Perces”. Ume Howlish, my prisoner, was sent into the Nez Perce country by Col.
Wright, and from the time of arrival there, all the efforts made by the agent, Craig, to prevent the spread
of disaffection, were abortive. What I apprehended and predicted already come to pass.
The Looking Glass, the prominent man, of the lower Nez Perces, endeavored to betray me on the
Spokane as I was coming in from the Blackfoot Council, and I was satisfied from the time that he was
only awaiting a favorable moment to join bands with Kamiakin in a war upon the Whites.
Col. Wright’s management of affairs in the Yakima furnished opportunity. The war commenced in
the Yakima on our part in consequence of the attempt, first to seize the murderers of the agent Boon, and
the miners who had passed through their country; and, second, to punish the tribe for making common
cause with them and driving Major Haller out of the country. It is greatly to be deplored that Col. Wright
had not first severely chastised the Indians, and insisted upon not only the rendition of the murderers, but
upon the absolute and unconditional submission of the whole tribe to the justice and mercy of the
The long delays which occurred in the Yakima, the talking and not fighting, this attempt to pacify
Indians and not reducing them to submission, thus giving safe conduct to murderers and assassins, and not
seizing them for summary and exemplary punishment, gave to Kamiakin the whole field of the interior,
and by threats, lies and promises, he has brought into the combination one half of the Nez Perce nation,
and the least thing may cause the Spokanes, Coeur d’ Alenes, Colvilles and Okinikanes to join them.
I state boldly, that the cause of the Nez Perces becoming disaffected and finally going into the
war, is the operations of Col. Wright east of the Cascades – operations so feeble, so procrastinating, so
entirely unequal to the emergency, that not only has the most severe blow been struck at the credit of the
government and the prosperity and character of this remote section of the country, but the impression has
been made upon the Indians that the people and the soldiers were a different people. I repeat to you
officially, that when the Indians attacked me, they expected Col. Steptoe would not assist me, and when
they awoke from their delusion, Kamiakin said “I will now let these people know who Kamiakin is.” One
of the good effects of the fight is, that the Indians have learned that we are one people, a fact which had
not previously been made apparent to them by the operations of the regular troops.
Is, sir, the army sent here to protect our people, and to punish Indian tribes who, without cause,
and in cold blood, and in spite of solemn treaties, murder our people, burn our houses and wipe out our
entire settlements?
Is it the duty of Gen. Wool and his officers to refuse to cooperate with me in my appropriate duties
as Supt. of Indian Affairs, and thus practically to assume these duties to themselves.
Is it the duty of Gen. Wool, in his scheme to pacifying the Indians, to trample down the laws of
Congress – to issue edicts prohibiting settlers returning to their claims, and thus for at least one county,
Walla Walla, make himself dictator of the country?
Is it simply in consequence of his ignorance of the laws of Congress, and the peculiar
circumstances under which these territories have grown up, that he has undertaken to say to people of the
whole country of the Walla Walla, having its representative in the legislature, “the Indians drove you
away, you shall not go back”? I beg leave, herewith to enclose a copy of a communication on this subject,
which I have this day addressed to the Department of the Interior.
I will respectfully call your attention to my report of this date to the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs giving an elaborate account of Indian operations east of the Cascade mountains, including the
proceedings of the Walla Walla council, and I will conclude this communication by the following extracts
from it:
“In this connection it is my duty to report to the Department the admirable conduct of the
Volunteers and the Indian employees, not only during the Council but in all the operations east of
the Cascade mountains. There was not a single instance of injury either to the person or property
of a friendly Indian, or the injury to the property or person of the hostiles during the Council”.
“The kindness and forbearance of officers and men, agents and employees, even when
treated with rudeness by the hostiles, was extraordinary. The strayed cattle and horses of the
Indians were herded and returned to them. The volunteers were well supplied, and were not
tempted to plunder for assistance. I have the permission of Lieut. Col. Steptoe to refer to him and
his officers as witnesses of what I have stated, and have the assurances from Lieut. Col. Steptoe
that he has so reported it”.
“Whilst it is my duty to acknowledge in the warmest terms the assistance rendered me by Lieut.
Col. Steptoe, when I was attacked, to Col. Wright, and of Col. Wright, that he had forwarded the report to
Gen. Wool”.
I am, sir, etc.,
Olympia, W.T., October 30th, 1856
Disbandment of the Staff and Line
1st. The Volunteers of Washington Territory of both Staff and Line are hereby disbanded.
2nd. The Adjutant General, Quartermaster General and Commissary General, with such officers
and employees that may require to protect and finish the muster rolls and accounts are retained in service
till further orders.
3rd. All officers, commanding companies, will be discharged upon rendition of their muster rolls
at the office of the Adjutant General and their settlement of accounts with the Quartermaster General.
4th. The senior officers of the late Second Regiment, Washington Territory Volunteers and the
military clerk to the Commander in Chief will be retained in service till further orders.
5th. No purchase of property or supplies, after this date, will be made by any officer or employee
without special permission from the Quartermaster General.
6th. The Commander in Chief desires me to express to the officers and men of the right wing of
the Second Regiment commanded by Lieut. Col. Shaw, the Northern Battalion, commanded by Major
Van Bokkelen, the Central command by Major Blankenship and the Southern command by Major Maxon,
his most cordial thanks for the signal gallantry, resolute confidence and excellent discipline they have
displayed and maintained during their six months arduous, faithful and efficient service.
The nature of the vast region of country traversed, the wily and resolute character of the savages
over-awed or subdued, and the privations endured by the citizen soldiery of the Second Regiment are well
known and appreciated by the inhabitants of Washington Territory, who will know how to honor for all
future time, the devoted and fearless men who have maintained the foothold of civilization upon this
remote frontier.
History will present the fact with credit and honor to the Volunteer Force – that during the six
months of active service of one thousand of the citizens of Washington Territory, not a single friendly
Indian has been harmed in a volunteer camp, or scout – no Indian has been plundered or molested and the
captured property of defeated savages has been, in every case, turned over to the proper officers and
faithfully accounted by them.
To the efficient staff, commissioned and non commissioned, both personnel and of transportation
and supply, the Commander in Chief, begs to make his hearty acknowledgement.
Devotion to the service, aided by the patriotism and generosity of the citizens has enabled a widely
scattered community of l700 American citizens to keep on foot, feed, clothe, arm and partly mount, one
thousand most efficient and serviceable troops.
With these facts for the future historian, the year 1856, although disastrous in material prosperity,
is rich in honorable achievements and will be dealt upon by the descendents of the troops now returning
to the avocation of peace, with pride and exultation.
By order of the Commander in Chief:
JAMES TILTON, Adj. Gen Wash Terr Vols
Fort Steilacoom, W.T., Nov. 6, 1856
His Excellency I. I. Stevens,
Gov. & Supt of Indian Affairs, Olympia, W.T.
Sir: Yours of the 4th inst, is just received. Neither Lieut. McKibbin or any other officer, has been
authorized by me to permit Indians to leave the reservation without authority of their agent; and if Lieut.
McKibbin has so far exceeded his authority, such orders will be given to him as will prevent its
The Indians near the outlet of the Dewamish lake, are those who were permitted by the Indian
agent, by my request, to go to that point, for the purpose of constructing a fish weir. I understand they are
catching a large number of fish, and I trust, will be permitted to stop until the run of fish has passed.
As I remarked to you, in a communication a few days since, I will again repeat, that as hostilities
had ceased in this district, I wished to be released from the responsibility of the charge of any of these
Indians, when it has been refused by your agents, and I considered it my bounden duty to do so, in order
that the peace and tranquility of the community may be preserved.
With regards to reports which your agents and others carry to you about hostile Indians, etc., I
would merely say that I find it necessary to receive all such reports with great caution.
The one which I had the honor to receive from you, a few days since, stating that more than one
hundred Indians had left the reservation for the purpose of joining Leschi, proves to have been what I
believed at the time, a baseless fabrication. With a sincere desire to do justice to all, I will say that it is my
firm belief, after weighed, I trust, with due consideration, all the circumstances connected with the matter,
that if, in dealing with the Indians on the Sound, a spirit of justice is exercised, and those who have charge
of them are actuated by an eye single to their duties, and the peace of the country, there need be no further
difficulty. If, on the contrary, undue credence is given to the many reports which are constantly being
circulated in this community (most of them false) made either from mere wantonness, the spirit of
revenge, or from interested motive, the acts of outrage on the Indians, which their belief, unreflecting
persons will investigate, may lead to retaliation and the peace of the country endangered.
Very respectfully, etc,
Silas Casey, Lieut. Col., 9th Inf, Comdg.
Olympia, Nov. 8, 1856
Lieut. Col. Silas Casey
Comdg. Ft. Steilacoom, W.T.
Sir: I have received your letters of the 2nd and 6th of November by the hands of Lieut. Nugen.
My reasons for declining to receive the Indians at your post have been already stated and remain
in full force. When the murderers and those accused of murder, are, in compliance with my requisition,
placed by you in the hands of the civil authorities, the Indians will be received. The agents have positive
orders to receive none of these Indians except by written instructions. These Indians have been, or will be
indicted by the grand jury of the several counties. As you have proclaimed hostilities have ceased, they
are in your military possession.
I enclose the report to me of my local agent, Page, in regards to the alleged interference of Lieut.
McKibbin with his Indians. I am glad to be informed of the steps you have taken in the matter.
In regard to your observations about the reports which my “agents and others carry to me”, as well
as the reiterations of former observations in reference to the exercise of the spirit of justice, and the efforts
of the persons in charge of the Indians being “actuated by an eye single to those duties and the peace of
the country”, I have simply to state that the tone of them is offensive, and comes with ill grace from the
authority that has done little, to that which has done so much. It is not my disposition to retaliate, but the
occasion makes it proper for me to state that the greatest difficulty I have had to encounter in stopping the
whiskey traffic with the Indians at Steilacoom and Bellingham Bay, has been the conduct of your own
command. It would seem to be more appropriate that you should first control and then reform the conduct
of your own people, before going out of your way to instruct and rebuke another branch of the public
service – a service too, which, both from its experience and the success which has attended its labors, is
entitled to the presumption that it is as much interested and as much devoted to the peace of the country as
yourself, and as well qualified, to say the least, to consider dispassionately and judge wisely of affairs at
the present juncture.
I have also been informed of your thanking God, in the presence of Mr. Wells, who informed you
how the Muckleshoot reservation was laid off, that the iniquity of it was not upon your hands a remark
highly presumptuous and insulting, as well from the fact the business did not concern you, as from the
fact that the reservation was laid off both in the way I arranged with the Indians a the Council on Fox
Island, and to their satisfaction on the ground.
I am also informed by Col. Simmons personally, that he did give you notice that he would receive
no more Indians. I presume you did not listen to him, being altogether too much preoccupied with your
own views, to listen to a gentleman in regard to a business which he and his superiors “are the proper
persons to judge”.
Very respectfully, etc,
Governor, and Supt. of Ind. Affairs.
NB. I will respectfully ask you to send me a copy of my letter notifying you that one hundred Indians had
left to join Leschi.
Ft. Steilacoom, W. T. Nov. 12, 1856
His Excellency I. I. Stevens
Governor W.T.
Governor: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 8th instant.
By reference to your communication of the 25th instant., I find the following: “In regard to Leschi
I will state that, from recent information in my possession, I am almost certain that he is now endeavoring
to raise a force to prosecute the war anew”.
The expressman, who brought your letter informed me, that information had been received in
Olympia that one hundred fifty Indians had left the reservation and joined Leschi. I was informed by Mr.
Ford, the next day, that he himself had conveyed to you that or similar information, and that he had since
ascertained that it was not so.
When I addressed you my communication I had not yours before me; and inadvertently
confounded my information. “It was an error on my part, and I cheerfully correct it.”
I have enclosed a copy of a communication received by me from Lieut. McKibbin with regard the
charge of your agent.
Very respectfully, etc
SILAS CASEY Lieut. Col., 9th Inf, Comdg.
Olympia, Nov. 21st, 1856
Hon Jefferson Davis,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.
Sir: Referring to my communication of the 22nd of October, giving the particulars of the Council held by
me at the Walla Walla, the previous month, and my views in reference to the operations of the regular
troops under Col. Wright, I have now to report that I learn from reliable troops under Col. Wright, though
not from Col. Wright himself, that, in his recent trip to Walla Walla, he met the Nez Perce chief who
attacked my party, and effected another quasi peace by surrendering to their demands. My informant
states that “some Chiefs, Eagle from the Light, Red Wolfe, etc., met Col. Wright in a “Talk the other
day”. “The Colonel took the ground which – I urged you to take that the treaty of Walla Walla ought not
be insisted upon”.
Now the Red Wolf and Eagle from the Light belonged to the hostile party. Red Wolf’s people
were in the attack upon me after the adjournment of the Council. The Eagle from the Light, though
hostile, brought none of his people to the Council ground.
It would seem that, to get the consent of Col. Wright to take the ground that a treaty should not be
insisted upon, it was simply necessary for the malcontents to attack the Superintendent of Indian Affairs
and his party. Now one half of the Nez Perce including the head Chief, Lawyer, wish the treaty to be
carried out. They have suffered much from their steadfast adherence to it. Are there wishes to be
It seems to me that we have, in this territory, fallen upon evil times. I hope and trust some
energetic action may be taken to stop this trifling with public interests, and to make our flag respected by
the Indians of the Interior. They scorn our people and our flag. They feel they can kill and plunder with
impunity. The denominate us a nation of old women. They did not do this when the volunteers were in the
I now make a direct issue with Col.Wright – that he has made a concession to the Indians which he
had no authority to make – that, by so doing, he has done nothing but to get the semblance of a peace, and
that by his acts he has, in a measure, weakened the influence of the service having the authority to make
treaties, and having charge of the friendly Indians.
He has, in my judgment, abandoned his own duty, which was to reduce the Indians to submission,
and has trenched upon and usurped a portion of mine. .
Very respectfully. etc,
Olympia, Nov. 21, 1856
Hon Jefferson Davis,
Secretary of War, Washington, D.C.
Sir; I have the honor to report for the information of the Department that the sales of property remaining
on hand at the disbandment of the volunteer forces of this territory have been made, and have resulted in
the cancelling of about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars of scrip. The sales in aggregate exceeded
the original cost, particularly as regards animals, which it has been alleged have been purchased at
extravagant prices. I trust that hereafter, in view of the fact that our transportation has cost us nothing –
that our people have let their animals go into service from three to nine months and have not taken them
back at a premium, the enemies of the territory will be more guarded in their speech.
All the papers have been kept with regularity, both as regards the service of, and issued to
volunteers, and purchases and sales by the Quartermasters Department.
Our whole scrip will not exceed nine hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which, deducting the
cancelled scrip, will leave not exceeding eight hundred thousand dollars to be redeemed.
But some seventy or eighty thousand of this will be charged upon the muster rolls, reducing the
scrip that amount, and the estimates for the pay of the volunteers.
I indulge the hope Congress will, at this session, authorize the payment of the war debt of both
territories. The people deserve well of the nation. They have protected their families and vindicated the
honor of the American Flag.
The war has been especially disastrous to this territory, and the people need prompt payment of
their claims.
Very respectfully, etc,
Almost all early historians have published listings of those early Washington citizens who served
as Volunteer militiamen. However, some confined their listings to particular area to coincide with the
history of that locality. Others published only partial listings. In no instance, was this writer able to find
one complete. This is due to the fact that most of these rosters, if not all, were taken from a muster roll for
a particular period. As a result everyone who served was not shown. This was due to some having been
discharged previous to the submission of the roster or others not having joined until after the roster had
been submitted to the Adjutant General. For this reason, it is believed that this Volume should be
expanded to provide for the first time a complete listing of these Volunteers. The source document is the
3rd Auditor of the Treasury vouchers which were used as a basis to finalize the claims of the Volunteers.
These vouchers also list the correct designation of the unit, which likewise has been listed in various ways
in the past. The listing will be in chronological order as shown by the number on the Audited copy of the
Voucher. This will include the rosters of the Indian Auxiliaries using their tribal name. Following the
listing of the 41 units of the two regiments, a diary depicting life in one of the Volunteer companies will
be published in its entirety. The journal covers only the first phase of the war and is the only one of its
kind found in the Indian war papers.
Served 99 days during period from Oct. 26, 1855 to Feb. 2, 1856 (Vancouver)
William Kelly, Captain. Dodd, John C. Private Phillips, Alonzo Private
John D. Biles, 1st Lieut. Durgan, Joseph do Ryan, William do
Patrick Ahern, 2nd. Lieut. French, Egbert do Seward, Orson M. do
Joseph Wright, 1st Sgt. Hart, George W. do Schroder, Jacob do
Philip Hanselman, Sgt. Hartley, Benj. do Smith, John F. do
W. S. Hatton, Sgt. Irby, Charles do Spurgeon, Matthias do
David Parker, Sgt. Linsey, John do Stice, Peter do
P. M. Buchanan, Corp. Mathews, J. L. do Strong, H. H. do
Henry Burlingame, Corp. McCarty, Edward do Tooly, John do
Reuben Riggs, Corp. McFadden, O. B. do Turner, John do
A. C. Short, Corp. Minnie, John do Wallace, Lewis do
Bateman, Nicholas Private Morrow, George W. do Vogelsandt, William do
Birch, Peter do Murphy, Elliott do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This company if such it can be called, is greatly under the minimum according to
the Army Regulations, therefore in calculating this pay they are all regarded as privates with the exception
of the Captain, he is a Corporal.
Served 182 days during the period Jan. 29, to July 29, 1856 (King County)
Edward Lander, Capt. Brown, Solomon Private Miller, Charles Private
A. A. Denny, 1st Lieut. Burlingame, J. B. do McDonnell, Michael do
D. A. Neeley, 2nd Lieut. Clark, E. A. do McNatt, Francis do
H. A. Smith, Surgeon Gilliam, W. H. do Morrison, James do
John Henning, 1st Sgt. Hanford, E. S. do Moss, John J. do
C. D. Boren, 2nd Sgt. Harvey, John do Phillips, John do
John Ross, 3rd Sgt. Hicks, Robert do Russell, Alonzo do
Jacob Wibens, 4th Sgt. Holgate, Lemuel do Russell, S. W. do
James Fieldin, 1st Corp. Hograve, August do Smith, William P. do
Graham Walker, 2nd Corp. Hooper, Benjamin do Stanley, David do
David Maurer, 3rd Corp. Johns, B. L. do Terry, Alfred G. do
Asa Fowler, 4th Corp. Johns, W. F. do Thomas, John M. do
Barrier, Eugene Private Johns, B. W. do Thompson, C. C. do
Beatty, R. H. do Lake, Joseph do Van Asselt, Henry do
Bechtelheimer, Sam’l do Landreville, Peter do Walters, Thomas do
Bowker, George do Mane, Harrison do Ward, W. W. do
Broad, James do Maple, E. B. do Williams, Henry do
Brown, William H. do Maple, S. A. do Woodbridge, William do
Served 175 days from Feb. 8 to Aug. 1, 1856 (Thurston County)
Joseph A. White, Capt. Joseph Bensor, 4th Corp. Moihee, John, Private
Urban E. Hicks, 1st Lieut. Bachelder, Charles, Private Mourey, Henry do
Benj. F. Lewis, 2nd Lieut. Bell, James H. do Neison, John do
T. McLean Chambers do Broswell, Joseph do Perkins, William O. do
William Sperwood do Campbell, George do Phillips, Sylvanus A. do
John D. Press, 1st Sgt. Campbell, William do Robinson, William do
Columbus White, 2nd Sgt. Fossett, Thomas do Roume, Thomas do
John Gearry, 2nd Sgt. Gheean, Thomas W. do Sigo, Jacob do
Henry G. Parsons, 3rd Sgt. Howe, John do Smith, James R. do
Geo. W. Downey, 3rd Sgt. Hison, Alexander do Studley, James do
Marcus McMillan, 4th Sgt. Hubbard, Daniel do Thompson, Peter do
Thomas Richardson, 4th Sgt. Larmond, George H. do Tykle, George A. do
Milton P. Clute, 1st Corp. Mahoney, Andrew do Wacklin, Charles do
James A. Lake, 2nd Corp. McMillen, James do Whitting, Benj. H. do
Wm. H. Ruddle, 3rd Corp.
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This Company only entitled to 2 Lieuts., 2 Sgts., and 2 Corps.
Served 36 days from Dec. 5, 1855 to Jan 20, 1856 (Lapwai area)
Spotted Eagle, War Chief U-oo-li Warrior Silas Warrior
Looking Glass, Warrior Tue-ee-takus do Seven-days-whiiping do
Joseph do Wees-tass-kut do How-lish-wun do
Lone Bird do Wah-wee-mash-wattus do Boy do
Three Feathers do Red Eagle do Him-in-ill-pilp do
Real Grizzly do Tow-ish-pells do Lodge do
Red Crow do Young-tow-hist do Hat-tun-bun do
Ou-tashen do Fish-tone do Koos-hoots-u do
Wet-yalome-went do Ess-scoh-tum do Ip-ni-pal-pun do
James do We-ass-kuss do Naph-for do
Wetter-a-hi-pun do Tim-mish-lah-poo do U-shay-ky-ik do
Nats-en-pow do Peep-home-kun do Broken Arm do
Pall-a-hen do Will-lee-apmun do Bears Claw do
Has-hen-ka-kin do Sloop-toop-min do Hump Back do
Nosep-ta-kelsa do Duck do Koo-wanche do
Wanes-at-wates do Ack-ack-ton-hun do The Old Bear do
Nay-ap-an-ack do Wee-at-say-kun-att do Hote-Hose do
Billey do Red Bird do How-lish-toh-ky-ee-tut do
Talking Tobacco do Talla-home-mish do Timothy do
Wahp-shee-li do Att-matt-sone-poo-un do Ume-u-il-pilp do
George do Ay-mop-ti-um-ipputs do Al-wee-see-is-kum do
Tu-ki-en-lik-it do Tee-pahee-lis-kut do U-me-ah do
Jason do Jessie do
Captain John do Moh-see-chah do
NOTE: This award was: made by the Secretary of the Interior based upon a claim approved by congress
in August, 1875.
Served 49 days from Dec. 2, 1855 to Jan. 20, 1856 (From Spokane Valley)
Benjamin F. Yantis, Capt. Edward S. Ultre, 1st Corp. McLucas, William Private
John Crawford, 1st Lieut. Samuel K. Renwick, 2nd Corp. Sanshoes, Asa do
Aaron Webster, 2nd Lieut. Jeremiah D. Farnham, 3rd Corp. Swartz, Jacob do
Amasa S. Miller, 3rd Lieut. Henry G. Barrett, 4th Corp. Taylor, George do
Thomas Pettigrew, lst Sgt. Andrews, Laomi Private Weiss, Frederick do
William G. Prall, 2nd Sgt. Galderwood, John do Wilson, James do
William Scott, 3rd Sgt. Geil, Simon do
Johnathon S. Jaquith, 4th Sgt. Hall, John do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This company only entitled to one Sgt. and one Corp.
Served 80 days from Nov. 5, 1855 to Jan. 24, 1856 (Lewis County)
Henry N. Peers, Capt. Cattman, George Private McLeod, Allen Private
Marcel Chappellier, lst Lieut. Cattman, Xavier do Pike, Jonas do
F. Daulue, 2nd Lieut. Dauphine, Joseph do Plomondon, Moses do
John Cantwell, 1st Sgt. Desnoyers, Francis do Provost, John B. do
S. Plomondon, Jr. 2nd Sgt. Faron, Dominique, Jr. do Rail, John B. do
Jos. St. Germaine, 3rd Sgt. Gobin, Antoine do Saurault, Eli do
John B. Bouchard, 4th Sgt. Jovial, Etienne do St. Germain, Peter do
Edward Cottonoire, 1st Corp. LaPlante, Peter do St. Martin, Isadore do
Andrew St. Martin, 2nd Corp. LaPoterne, John B. do St. Martin, Peter do
Narcisse Faron, 3rd Corp. Laramie, Benj. do Thibault, Michael do
Dominique Faron, 4th Corp. LeDoux, Louis do Thibault, Joachim do
Bercier, Basile Private Losier, Ignace do
Bercier, Peter do McDonald, Alex do
Blanchette, Lewis do McDonald, Wiscom do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This company allowed 2 Lieuts., 2 Sgts, and 2 Corps.
Served 30 days from Jan 11 to Feb. 10, 1856 (Walla Walla County)
Sidney S. Ford, Jr. Capt. Barnaby, Joseph Private McKay, Donald Private
Green McAfferty, lst Lieut. Beauchemin, Edward do Morrisette, Toussaint do
L. T. Andrews, 2nd Lieut. Brunchall, Thomas do Newatil, Pierre do
N. Raymond, 3rd Lieut. Chartier, Frank do Pairer, Joseph do
William McBean, lst Sgt. Danney, Lewis do Pacquette, John do
William Scott, 2nd Sgt. Ignace, Baptiste do Pacquette, Pascal do
Batiste Piquette, 3rd Sgt. LaForce, Amabel do Plassie, Antqine do
Charles Baker, 1st Corp. LaRocque, Joseph do Tellier, Lewis do
Oliver Brisbais, 2nd Corp. Martin, France do Thibault, Michel do
Etienne Burness, 3rd Corp. McBean, John do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This Company allowed 1 Lieut., 2 Sgts., and 1 Corp.
Served 90 days from Oct. 20, 1855 to Jan. 21, 1856 (Thurston County)
Charles H. Eaton, Capt.* Davenport, S. Private O’Bryant, H. P. Private
James McAllister, lst Lieut.** Drewry, David F. do Parsons, William F. do
James Tullis, 2nd Lieut. Dunfield, Parry do Shaw, Joseph do
A.M. Poe, 3rd Lieut. Dyer, J. do Shazer, George do
S. A. Phillips, 1st Sgt. Dyer, Joseph do Shazer, Joseph do
Charles E. Weed, 2nd Sgt. Ensign, Shirley do Shead, Oliver do
Wm. W. Miller, 3rd Sgt. Furste, Edward do Slater, Thos. W. do
S. D. Rhinehart, 4th Sgt. Girty, George do Swan, John M do
John Harold, lst Corp. Kinkead, D. do Thallhamer, N. G. do
Thomas Bracken, 2nd Corp. Laws, Andrew do Tykle, George do
Stephen Hodgen, 3rd Corp. Lemon, George do Wallace, C. A. do
James Hughes, 4th Corp. Longmire, James do Wallace. E. P. do
Allen, Alfred Private Lysle, William do White, William do
Allen, E. S. do McAllister, George do White, William M. do
Baldwin, A. J. do Mingle, William do Willard, Rufus do
Barnes, Ellis do Mitchell, William do Wylie, Adam do
Cushman, Joseph do Musser, A. H. do Wylie, J. W. do
Colvin, Ignatius do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This Company being under the minimum, it is only allowed 2 Lieuts., 2 Sgts., and 2
* Horse equipment and arms lost in action not allowed on this roll. Allowed Cavalry pay for 8 days,
Infantry pay thereafter. Allowed $31.33 as pay of 1st Lieut., and as Acting Quartermaster and
Commissary; $10 per month for commanding Company.
** Killed in action.
Served 49 days from Dec. 2, 1855 to Jan. 20, 1856 (Walla Walla and Olympia areas)
Christopher P. Higgins, Capt. Paul Eubanks, 1st Corp. Lerongy, Lawrence Private
William H. Pearson, 1st Lieut. William Simpson, 2nd Corp. Lisott, John do
A. Hugh Robie, 2nd Lieut. John Dunn, 3rd Corp. McGarry, Owen do
Sidney S. Ford, Jr. 3rd Lieut. Antoine Piller, 4th Corp. O’Neal, Patrick do
Green McAfferty, 1st Sgt. Actor, Charles Private Osaugh, Lewis do
Charles Hughes, 2nd Sgt. Canning, John do Short, Maxey B. do
Joseph Lamere, 3rd Sgt. Dupree, Norby do Stevens, Hazard do
Francis Gennett, 4th Sgt. Fouche, Lewis do Capt. John (Nez Perce) do
LaFontaine, Peter do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This cannot be recognized as a Military Company in any sense. The roll states it was
called out to protect U. S. Commissioner in making Treaty with Indians and that all the horses, except
two, on which the Company was mounted were owned by the U. S. Government. The fact is that the
Captain, three Lieutenants, four Sergeants, four Corporals and seven of the thirteen Privates, one of whom
was an Indian, were in the service of the Indian Department at the time as Packers, Expressmen, etc, from
$60 to $100 per month each. The whole Roll is therefore disallowed.
Served 92 days from Oct. 23, 1855 to Jan. 24, 1856 (Thurston County area)
George B. Goudy, Capt Cornelius, Bernard Private Morrow, Van D. P. Private
Wm. B. Affleck, lst Lieut. Dobbins, W. C. do Packwood, William do
James K. Hurd, 2nd Lieut. Donk, William F. do Scott, H. W. do
Samuel W. Percival, lst Sgt. Drew, Clark do Scott, John L. do
Andrew J. Baldwin, 2nd Sgt. Eckler, Jacob O. do Sentor, Stephen H. do
Frederick W. Seely, 3rd Sgt. Eckler, Joseph P. do Shelton, David do
James Roberts, 4th Sgt. Evans, Elwood do Shelton, L. D. W. do
Silas Gallaher, 1st Corp. Forbes, David C. do Simmons, D. K. do
Edward W. Austin, 2nd Corp. Forbes, John B. do Simmons, Francis M. do
John J. Hardy, 3rd Corp. Gallagher, George do Simmons, George W. do
Joseph Deaves, 4th Corp. Giddings, Edward, do Smith, Albert do
George Agnew, Musician Gilmore, John do Swindal, Calvin W. do
Effinger Burbaker do Granger, Charles do Swindal, John do
Anderson, Henry Private Hancock, Lee do Sylvester, Edmond do
Ayers, William N. do Kennedy, Franklin do Thompson, Gideon do
Bracken, George C. do Krise, William do Townsend, Peter do
Brady, Edward do Lewis, B. F. do Vaughn, Edward do
Brann, William F. do Little, Joseph do Walker, John do
Brown, Isaac M. do McCarty, F. A. do Walter, William do
Buntrager, D. E. do Miles, Henry do Wells, William P. do
Bynen, David do Miles, Joel do Westbrook, S. D. do
Code, Nicholas do Morrow, Felix G. do Wiley, James W. do
Collins, Aaron M. do Morrow, Jackson L. do Williams, Henry do
Connelly, William S. do Morrow, James H. do Woodruff, S. N. do
Served 93 days from Oct. 30, 1855 to Jan. 31, 1856 (Pierce County area)
William H. Wallace, Capt. Cawley, James Private Neissen, John Private
Samuel McCaw, lst Lieut. Clute, Milton do Orr, Nathaniel do
Robert S. More, lst Lieut. Cushman, Charles do Press, John D. do
John Q. Cole, 2nd Lieut. DeLacy, Walter W. do Price, E. G. do
Henry W. John, 1st Sgt. Downey, William do Purden, Thomas do
Andrew Byrd, 2nd Sgt. Emery. Paul do Purdy, Frank C. do
Henry E. Bradley, 3rd Sgt. Fowler, Patrick do Rapjohn, Frederick do
William Campbell, 4th Sgt. Garry, John do Richardson, Thomas do
Moses Ward, 1st Corp. Gess, Mason do Reilly, James do
W. D. Van Buren, 2nd Corp. Hall, David do Rome, Thomas do
Adolphus Senecal, 3rd Corp. Harridan, James do Schroter, Ernest do
Julian Clarendont, 4th Corp. Heissen, Alexander do Sherwood, William do
Cyrus Douglas, 4th Corp. Howe, John do Smith, Peter do
Bell, Charles Private Johann, A. K. do Webb, Thomas do
Bell, John do Lane, William do Whelen, John do
Bradley, John do Larmond, George do Wright, Byrd do
Broswell, Joseph do Mahoney, Andrew do Bigelow, R. M. Surgeon
Brown, George do Malie, Joseph do
Byrd, John Preston do Minson, Henry do
Carrol, Thomas do Morton, Hugh do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This purports to be a mounted company, but it only contains 14 horses, whereas the
company all told amounted to 56 men. Their pay is calculated at the Infantry rates, allowing them that had
horses 40 cents per day for their “use and risk”.
Served 91 days from Nov. 1, 1855 to Jan. 31, 1856 (Thurston County area)
Isaac Hays, Captain Burns, James Private Pattison, Charles Private
William White, lst Lieut. Chambers, Thomas I. do Pattison, James do
Joseph H. Conner, 2nd Lieut. Guthrie, Christopher do Pattison, John do
William J. Yeager, lst Sgt. Guthrie, Stephen do Pattison, Nathan do
Stephen D. Ruddell, 2nd Sgt. Haynes, Tyrrus do Pattison, Robert do
Samuel Wilson, 2nd Sgt. Johnson, Henry do Pattison, William, Sr. do
David Chambers, 3rd Sgt. Mayhard, William do Pattison, William, Jr. do
Samuel Klady, 3rd Sgt. McAllister, George do Prince, Jonathon do
Sanford Guthrie, 4th Sgt. McAllister, John W. do Prince, Levi E. do
Henry G. Parson, lst Corp. McMillan, Archibald do Spurgeon, George do
John P. Hays, 2nd Corp. McMillan, Marcus do Stewart, Abraham W. do
William E. Klady, 3rd Corp. O’Neal, Abijah do Ruddell, Wm. H. do
Joseph Brunton, 4th Corp. Parsons, William S. do Tyrrell, Freeman W. do
White, John M. do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This Company being under the minimum strength is allowed only two Lieuts., 2
Sgts., and 2 Corps.
Served 92 days from Nov. 1, 1855 to Feb. 1, 1856 (Grand Mound Prairie area)
Benj. L. Henness, Capt. Chandler, LeGrand R. Private Mills, William Private
Elisha N. Sargent, lst Lieut. Frain, James F. do Mize, William do
Samuel Coulter, 2nd Lieut. Frost, Gilbert H. do Morgan, Richard F. do
Francis N. Sargent, lst Sgt. Goodell, Johnathon W. do Newman, William D. do
Daniel F. Byles, 2nd Sgt. Goodell, Nathan E. do Pulliam, Thomas do
Wm. B. Goodell, 3rd Sgt. Hale, Henry J. do Pullin, William H. do
Ezra K. Sears, 4th Sgt. Hogan, Charles do Remly, John. do
Augustus Gangloff, lst Corp. James, Samuel Jr. do Remly, Joseph do
Austin E. Young, 2nd Corp. James, Thomas do Roundtree, James H. do
Jacob Crall, 3rd Sgt. James, William F. do Saylor, Conrad G. do
Philip D. Northcraft, 4th corp. King, Walter do Scammon, J. L. do
Axtell, Joseph Private Kirtley, James do Simmons, William T. do
Axtell, Thomas J. do Kirtley, Milton do Smith, James do
Baker, Caleb B. do Laws, John do Tichnor, Joel T. do
Biles, Charles do Laws, Thomas do Tilley, Abram do
Biles, George W. do Leavitt, Andrew J. do Waddell, Robert do
Biles, James do Lum, James K. do Wallace, Milton B. do
Borst, Joseph do McCormick, Andrew do Washburn, Francis M. do
Canby, James do Metcalf, William do Williams, Samual H. do
Canby, Russell D. do Mills, John R. do Yantis, Alexander S. do
Case, William do Mills, Nathaniel do Yantis, William N. do
Served 99 days from Oct. 24, 1855 to Jan. 31, 1856 (Monticello (Longview) area)
W. A. L. McCorkle, Capt. Atkins, F. H. Private Ott, Jacob Private
John Catlin, lst Lieut. Burbee, Norman do Smith, L. P. do
Charles Bishop, 2nd Lieut. Gray, George P. do Towner, Hiram do
E. C. Mayhew, lst Sgt. Hastings, Henry do Washburn, Samuel do
James Redpath, 2nd. Sgt Irwin, William do Westgate, Thomas do
J. S. Powell, 3rd. Sgt. Jackson, William do Foster, R. R. Musician
Arnbrose Patton, lst Corp. Moore, Peter do Caples, Joseph Fifer
Tiba S. Miller, 2nd Corp.
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This company being under the minimum, is only allowed 1 Sgt, and 1 Corp.
Served 92 days from Oct. 25, 1855 to Jan. 25, 1856 (King County area)
C. C. Hewitt, Capt. Forman, Robert Private Mathias, Franklin Private
William H. Gilliam, lst Lieut. Foster, Stephen do Maurer, David do
H. H. Peexotto, 2nd Lieut. Fowler, A. do McDonald, Michael do
Charles Plummer, lst Sgt. Frost, Osmine do McLane, Charles do
Henry Fee, 2nd Sgt. Fry, George do McNatt, Francis do
James Lane, 3rd Sgt. Gardner, J. R. do Miller, Charles do
Thomas Gallagher, 4th Sgt. Geear, F. W. do Morrison, James do
Jacob Wibbins, lst Corp. Grow, T. G. do Nalle, J. H. do
Edmond Carr, 2nd Corp. Hanford, E. S. do Neeley, D. A. do
Charles Stuart, 3rd Corp. Hanford, Edward do Oliver, Robert do
Walter Graham, 4th Corp. Harvey, John do Phillips, John do
Avery, J. H. Private Henning, John do Ross, John do
Beatty, R. H. do Holgate, J. G. do Russell, Alonzo do
Bell, W. A. do Holgate, L. J. do Russell, Robert do
Boardwell, F. S. do Holt, George do Russell, S. W. do
Bowker, George do Johns, B. L do Russell, Thomas S. do
Broad, James do Johns, B. W. do Smith, W. P. do
Brown, W. H. do Johns, W. F. do Stanley, David do
Burlinghame, Ira H. do Kirkland, Moses do Stewart, James do
Cassand, Thomas do Kirkland, William do Stewart, J. S. do
Chevalier, John do Lake, Joseph do Stewart, Samuel do
Clark, E. A. do Lewis, C. C. do Thompson, C. C. do
Cox, William A. do Maine, Harrison do Van Asselt, Henry do
Denny, D. T. do Mapel, E. B. do
Fielding, Thomas do Mapel, S. A. do
Served 100 days from Nov. 3, 1855 to Feb. 11, 1856 (Jefferson-Island Counties)
Isaac N. Ebey, Captain Donald, J. W. Private Miller, Caleb N. Private
Samuel D. Howe, 1st Lieut. Doughty, James do Miller, Charles, H. do
James Keymes, 2nd Lieut. Ebey, Winfield S. do Mountz, James H. do
J. J. H. Van Bokkelen, lst Sgt. Eldridge, William do Mountz, Milton L. do
H. H. McNear, 2nd Sgt. Ewan, Thomas do Nicholson, John do
Henry Webber, 3rd Sgt. Flint, John do Newton, William do
H. Hill, 4th Sgt. Friend, Ulrick do Olney, Oscar W. do
George W. Ebey, 1st Corp. Gerrish, Newell do Osgood, William F. do
George W. Beame, 2nd Corp. Gibbs, Benjamin do Ramsdale, Hezekiah do
Elliott Clive, 3rd Corp. Green, John do Rodgers, Jacob do
F. W. James, 4th Corp. Grubb, Edward N. do Ross, William do
Alexander, John. S. Private Harris, John do Shull, Jackson do
Almore, William do Howell, Daniel do Smalley, Daniel do
Allen, James H. do Hubbs, P. K. do Smallman, Robert do
Atkin, John do Hustie, Thomas do Smith, John do
Bond, Charles do Irwin, Samuel S. do Stevens, R. S. do
Boury, Lewis do Jackson, Henry do Thompson, Charles do
Bradshaw, C. M. do Jones, George B. do Thornton, John do
Brownfield, Daniel F. do Jones, J. D. do Tripp, Alfred do
Brunn, R. do Kirwan, Michael do Tucker, Franklin do
Buffington, A. S. do Lambert, Samuel do Tucker, James do
Bynum, Philip do Laury, Josiah do Tuckey, J. F. do
Conat, Eliphalet do Lill, Edward do Turner, J. T. do
Condra, John do Maddox, Joseph do Underwood, Alexander do
Cowan, George do Maylor, Thomas do Walker, Thomas do
Crockett, Hugh do McAlmond, E. H. do Walters, Thomas do
Crosbie, W. T. do McDonald, Alexander do Wheeler, Charles do
Davidson, G. W. do McKissack, Joseph do McCurdy, Samuel, Surgeon
Davis, John do and Acting Commissary
Served 85 days from Nov. 16, 1855 to Feb. 9, 1856 (Port Townsend)
Alfred A. Plummer, Capt. Briggs, Albert Private Price, John Private
Thos. M. Hammond, 1st Lieut. Briggs, Ansel do Ross, Benjamin do
J. G. Clinger, 2nd Lieut. Briggs, William C. do Ross, Ruel do
H. W. Watkins, 1st Sgt. Fowler, E. S. do Sebert, Charles do
Chas. S. Gallagher, 2nd Sgt. Frinzen, F. do Smith, Thomas do
Francis Crawley, 3rd Sgt. Hanna, Thomas J. do Thomas, Samuel do
James B. Murphy, 1st Corp. Nelson, Christopher do Tooze, John do
Christopher Streamer, 2nd Corp. New, James do Vincent, Alexander do
Baston, Thomas Private Pettigrew, F. W. do Woodman, Samuel do
Bishop, William do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This company being in the minimum, it is only allowed 1 Lieut., 1 Sgt., and 1 Corp.
Served 92 days from Nov. 6, 1855 to Feb. 6, 1856 (Lewis County area)
John R. Jackson, Capt. Davis, Thomas Private Pierson, Thomas M. Private
Jackson Barton, 1st Lieut. Layton, Charles do Price, Alfred do
Andrew Roundtree, 2nd Lieut. Manning, James P. do Roberts, George R. do
Chris. C. Pagett, 1st Sgt. McCormick, John do Roundtree, Perry O. do
Thomas J. Carter, 2nd Sgt. McDonald, John do Saunders, Schuyler do
Bush, David W. Private McLeod, Allen do Stark, James B. do
Busey, Lander B. do Mitchell, Joseph do Sutherland, John do
Birnie, Marcelle do Mitchell, Oliver P. do
Coonse, Henry do Moore, John do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This company being under the minimum, is allowed 1 Sgt. & 1 Corp.
Brevet Major G. J. Rains, Brigadier General from Oct. 30, 1855 to Jan. 31, 1856
Surveyor General James Tilton, Brigadier General from October 14, 1855. Served as Adjutant General.
E. C. Fitzhugh, Lieut. Col. and Aid to Commander in Chief from Oct. 14, 1855.
H. R. Crosbie, Lieut. Col. and Aid to Commander in Chief from Oct. 14, 1855.
Edward Lander, Lieut. Col. and Aid to Commander in Chief from Nov. 13, 1855.
William Craig, Lieut. Col. and Aid to Commander in Chief from Dec. 31, 1855.
James Doty, Lieut. Col. and Aid to Commander in Chief from Dec. 2, 1855.
Benjamin F. Shaw, Lieut. Col. and Assistant Adjutant General from Dec. 31, 1855.
A. B. Stuart, Captain and Commissary from Nov. 13 to Jan 30, 1856.
W. H. Tappan, Captain and Commissary from Dec. 2, 1855 to Jan. 20, 1856.
G. K. Willard, Major and Surgeon of Regiment from Nov. 1, 1855 to Jan. 31, 1856.
M. P. Burns, Captain and Asst. Surgeon of Regiment from Oct. 14, 1855 to Jan 31, 1856.
R. M. Bigelow, Captain and Asst. Surgeon of Regiment from Nov. 13 to Jan. 31, 1856.
Samuel McCurdy, Captain and Asst. Surgeon of Regiment from Nov. 3, 1855 to Jan 31, 1856.
H. A. Smith, Captain and Asst. Surgeon of Regt. from Nov. 6, 1855 to Jan. 25, 1856.
H. J. G. Maxon, Capt. Campbell, William Private Lindsay, John B. Private
Irvin J. Taylor, 1st Lieut. Coffee, Alexander L. do Martin, Harvey do
Wm. S. Bennington, 1st Lieut. Collins, Henry S. do Martin, Terry do
Silas B. Curtis, 2nd Lieut. Como, Thomas do Maxon, Silas D. do
Alex. McAndrew, 1st Sgt. Davis, George G. do McArd, James do
Ambrose S. Cummings, 2nd Sgt. Defflerny, William do McDonald, Stephen P. do
Archibald Taylor, 3rd Sgt. DeShaw, John do Michel, Andrew do
George Dean, 4th Sgt. Dick, Richard do Miller, Ziba S. do
Walter McKenzie, 1st Corp. Doud, Phenis do Osterland, Francis do
Michel Marchino, 2nd Corp. Duparry, Joseph do Oyhee, Andrew do
Peter J. Stice, 3rd Corp. Durgan, John H. do Sharpe, William A. do
Robert Weldon, 4th Corp. Duston, Charles S. do Sims, Nathan do
Allen Turner, Musician Edwards, George do Stanley, Joseph do
Allen, Benjamin Private Frazer, Thomas do Taylor, Jordan O. do
Anderson, John S. do Frisbie, Henry M. do Taylor, Mortimer W. do
Andrews, Chester do Frisbie, James A. do Tooley, William do
Assure, Antoine do Gee, William do Torby, William B. do
Auger, Paul do Goddard, William do Totten, James E. do
Bartlett, James P. do Gravelle, Francis do Turner, Hiram do
Barton, Jonathon do Hoguet, Mario do VanBuskirk, Andrew do
Bates, Tyler do Howard, John do VanBuskirk, Daniel do
Bell, Charles do Howe, John do Varzier, Lesim do
Brezee, Almond D. do Hulbert, Jacob do Weffler, John do
Brezee, Francis M. do Hull, William do Williams, George do
Burgy, John do Ingalls, James do Williams, John do
Burke, James A. do Irvin, James do Wilson, Daniel do
Burns, Adam do Kane, Andrew J. do Wilson, William do
Burns, George do Lakin, William do Andy Indian
Buston, John do Leclaire, Lewis do Frank do
Butler, William do Legard, Joseph do Wallas do
Bynan, David do Legg, William do
William Packwood, Sgt. McCarthy, Fayette Private Wilson, Samuel C. Private
Bunten, Thomas. Private Miles, Joel do Woodruff, S. N. do
McAllister, John do Owens, Thomas do Yeager, W. J. do
McAllister, G. W. do Spurgeon, George F. do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: The whole Roll is disallowed. All the men save one, were discharged by the
Territorial authorities for refusing to do military duty or to qualify themselves for the performance of such
duties. Packwood was mustered as a Sergeant 9 days before a single man of his command was enlisted
and his men, with the above exception must be held as deserters consequently there was no military
organization at all and the Squad are entitled to nothing as such. Packwood owned and kept the Nisqually
Ferry and all this time he was attending to his private interests and business as his accounts for Ferriage,
meals, etc, show.
Served 111 days from Mar. 29, 1856 to Jul. 18, 1856
John A. Packard, Sgt. McAllister, John W. Private Parsons, William F. Private
Joel Myers, Corp. McAllister, George W. do Spurgeon, George J. do
Bunting, Joseph Private Melvin, George do Thomas, Owen do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: This was no more than a Corporal’s command and Packard’s pay is calculated
accordingly. Six of the eight men, comprising this squad belonged to William Packwood’s Nesqually
Ferry Squad and were discharged therefrom for refusing to do military duty and to qualify themselves as
soldiers by taking the prescribed oath. The muster roll is not signed by Packard, as it should have been,
Governor Stevens certifying that it was “impossible” without stating why. The whole roll is suspended
until it is satisfactorily proven that this was a military command, and actually performed military duty and
was not the ordinary boat crew or the Nesqually Ferry, doing duty as such in the pay of their employer.
Served 101 days from April 6 to July 16, 1856
William Kelly, Capt. Fletcher, William H. Private Napp, Henry M. Private
John D. Biles, 1st Lieut. French, William P. do Nerton, Thomas do
Amos C. Short, 1st Lieut. Gentis, Abraham do Overman, J. A. do
Patrick Ahern, 2nd Lieut. Gibbons, Edmond do Parker, D. C. do
George W. Hart, 1st Sgt. Gibbons, Jacob do Parker, J. M. do
H. S. Burlingame, 2nd Sgt. Gibbons, Joseph do Potter, Benjamin do
Phillip Hanselman, 3rd Sgt. Goddard, Joseph do Proebstel, George W. do
Richard Covington, 4th Sgt. Green, Norman do Proebstel, Jacob do
J. E. C. Durgin, 1st Corp. Haber, Frederick do Proebstel, John do
Alonzo Phillips, 2nd Corp. Haber, Peter do Proebstel, Valentine do
Walter P. Mabry, 3rd Corp. Hinckley, Brown do Puelea, Moses do
Bell, Isaac E. Private Houston, Albert A. do Rabbi, Abraham do
Bennett, J. A. do Irby, Charles S. do Riggs, Reuben do
Birch, Peter do Isbister, John do St. Andrews, Peter, Sr. do
Bird, John do Lafrombois, Francis do St. Andrews, Peter, Jr. do
Bird, Nickolas G. do, Lee, Josiah do Schuh, Epperhart do
Brunner, John S. do Marble, Butler E. do Shockley, Jacob do
Buchanan, Phillip do Matthew, Samuel do Smith, John F. do
Campbell, John do McCallister, Alexander do Sturgis, David do
Campbell, William B. do McCallister, James do Sturgis, O. D. do
Chambree, Edward do McCarry, Richard do Tamer, B. F. do
Davis, Alexander do McCumber, I. B. do Tooley, G. F. do
DeRash, Charles do McFadden, O. B. do Tooley, John do
Dodd, John C. do McFaddon, William H. do Tooley, John S. do
Farr, Morgan do Messenger, John E. do Wiggle, Daniel do
Fletcher, John M. do Moffit, William F. do Wright, Joseph do
Fletcher, Thomas J. do Morse, Henry C. do
Served 182 days from Jan. 23, 1856 to July 23, 1856 (Thurston County)
Gilmore Hays, Capt. Chapman, Isaac N. Private Moses, A. J. Private
Antonio B. Rabbeson, Capt. Chambers, Matthew T. do Nerton, Robert do
David E. Burntrager, Capt. Code, Nickolas do Ogle, Van do
William Martin, 2nd Lieut. Cooper, William, H. do Porter, Corodan F. do
Benjamin F. Ruth, 1st Lieut. Dodge, Marion do Prince, Jonathan D. do
Melonthon B. Goodell, 2nd Sgt. Eaton, John D. do Prince, Levi do
David Martin, 3rd Sgt. Hack, Truman do Roundtree, James H. do
Joseph Brannon, 4th Sgt. Harsel, Henry do Scott, Samuel do
Nebuzaraden Coffee, 1st Corp. Hayes, John P. do Smith, Albert do
Jacob L. Myers, 2nd Corp. Herald, John do Snyder, Joseph do
John C. Axtel, 3rd Corp. Horton, Hector do Temple, William R. do
Henry M. Hills, 4th Corp. Little, Joseph M. do VanWormer, Franklin do
Anderson, Henry Private McFaddon, James do Ward, Josiah do
Axtel, Thomas J. do Morgan, Richard F. do Wilson, James do
Bracken, George C. do Miller, Charles do Wood, James R. do
Brady, John do Miller, William do Yistis, William N. do
Brown, Freeman do Miller, Ziba S. do
Buchanan, George R. do Moore, John do
Served 201 days from Feb.1 to Aug. 20, 1856 (Grand Mound)
Benjamin L. Henness, Capt. Bullard, Mark W. Private Klady, William E. Private
George C. Blankenship, 1st Lieut. Bullard, Seth do Leal, Herbert do
Francis T. Goodwin, 2nd Lieut. Bush, Daniel W. do Lennon, George do
Charles Bishop, 1st Lieut. Burns, James do Lyle, William do
David L. Phillips, 1st Sgt. Byles, David F. do Martin, David do
Daniel C. Beatty, 2nd Sgt. Camby, James J. do McAllister, George W. do
Andrew Laws, 3rd Sgt. Cameron, Harvey J. do Mehard, William do
James T. Phillips, 4th. Sgt. Cooper, Thomas do Mills, Nathaniel do
James F. Fraim, 1st Corp. Crall, Jacob do Mills, William do
Thomas B. Hicks, 2nd Corp. Cushman, Joseph do Mize, William do
Sylvanus A. Phillips, 3rd Corp. Dunlap, Samual do Ott, Jacob do
Henry Johnson, 4th Corp. Ensign, Shirley do Platter, Oliver P. do
Anthony, Solomon P. Private Foster, Reuben R. do Plumb, William W. do
Axtell, John O. do Gibson, Joseph do Roundtree, Andrew J. do
Axtell, Thomas J. do Goodell, M. Z. B. do Scott, James D. do
Barnes, Hill do Guess, Wilson do Scott, Samuel do
Biles, George W. do Guthrie, Sandford do Smith, James do
Bishop, Charles do Hale, Henry I. do Stark, James V. do
Brannon, Joseph do Hart, Enoch do Thallhamer, Nath. G. do
Brezee, James V. do Hays, Isaac do Wallace, Milton B. do
Buchanan, George R. do Head, John L. do Westgate, Thomas H. do
Buchanan, Michael do Hildreth, William do White, William N. do
Buchanan, Samuel do Hills, Alfred do Whittaker, Lemuel do
Served 203 days from Feb.11 to Sep. 1, 1856 (Lewis County)
Shubal C. Achilles, Capt. Cromby, James Private Mitchell, James Private
Jeptha S. Powell, 1st Lieut. Cunningham, Philander do Monroe, John do
C. H. Armstrong, 2nd Lieut. Davis, James do Myers, John do
Richard Lane, 1st Sgt. Downie, William N. do Nedrow, Christian do
William Irvin, 2nd Sgt. Garnett, Edward do Robertson, William do
William Miller, 3rd Sgt. Gilbreath, John E. do Smith, James P. do
John H. Trimmings, 4th Sgt. Hunt, Robert do Stritzel, Joseph do
Joseph Eaton, 1st Corp. Jones, Barney do Strong, William do
John Springer, 2nd Corp. Jones, William do Talcourt, John do
David R. R. Powers, 3rd Corp. Lawley, Lewis do Thompson, George do
Robert Nerton, 4th Corp. Logan, Thomas R. do Thompson, James do
Joseph Caples, Musician Lyttle, Thomas R. do Tykes, Nathan do
Aikins, Francis H. Private McDonald, Charles do West, George do
Benson, John U. do Miles, Spencer D do Williams, John do
Bird, Andrew F. do Miller, James S. do
Bird, Thomas do Miller, Robert do
Served 159 days from Feb. 18 to July 26, 1856 (Pierce County)
Charles W. Riley, Capt. Crombie, James Private Regan, John Private
John D. Cole, 1st Lieut. Downey, William N. do Robinson, William do
Albert Eggers, 1st Sgt. Dunlop, Jesse do Seal, Theophilus do
Baird, Chauncey Private Emory, Paul do Swan, John do
Barr, George do Gorick, Carl L. do Be-an-der Native Guide
Bills, Lemuel do Green, John do Se-alth do do
Bynen, David do Horn, Thomas N. do Quil-com-coot do do
Chelton, James do Jones, George do Was-sell do do
Clute, Milton P. do
Served 171 days from Feb.1 to July 31, 1856 (Sawamish County)
C. W. Swindal, Capt. Guthrie, Sanford Private Shelton, David, Jr. Private
David Shelton, Sr., 1st Lieut. Hancock, Lee do Shelton, John do
Jackson L. Morrell, 2nd Lieut. Herbert, Jeal do Shelton, Levi do
William Walter, 1st Sgt. Horton, Hector do Shelton, Lewis D. W. do
John Swindal, 2nd Sgt. Kennedy, Franklin do Simmons, David K. do
Affleck, William B. Private Kennedy, William F. do Simmons, Francis M. do
Buchanan, Michael do Krise, William do Simmons, George W. do
Buchanan, Samuel do Morrow, Felix G. do Vaughn, Edward do
Burnes, James do Morrow, William M. do Walker, Thomas do
Butler, William do Morton, L. B. do Welch, John M. do
Camby, James do Perkins, Fletcher K. do Wheeler, Charles do
Collins, Aaron M. do Plum, William W. do Wilson, J. B. do
Connelly, Wm. S. do Scott,; Harvey W. do
Graham, Charles do Scott, John T. do
Served 187 days from Feb. 11 to Aug: 16, 1856 (Jefferson-Island)
J. J. H. VanBokkelen, Capt. Cowen, George Private Price, John Private
Daniel Smalley, Capt. Crosbie, W. T. do Ramsdale, Hezekiah do
Milton L. Mountz, 1st Lieut. Davidson, George do Robinson, Thomas do
George W. Ebey, 1st Sgt. Dolan, Francis do Sewell, John Y. do
Humphrey Hill, 2nd Sgt. Eldridge, William do Siebert, Charles do
James H. Allen, 3rd Sgt. Francen, Ferdinand do Smallman, Robert do
Thomas, Ewen, 3rd Sgt. Green, John do Smith, John do
Thomas, Rusty, 4th Sgt. Grubb, Edward M. do Smith, Thomas do
James Doughty, 1st Corp. Jones, George B. do Strand, Edward do
Paul K. Hubbs, 2nd Corp. Kerwan, Michael do Thompson, Charles do
William Ross, 3rd Corp. Laury, Josiah do Underwood, Alexander do
Charles H. Bond, 4th Corp. Logan, Thomas do Vincent, Alexander do
Aiken, John Private Lyttle, Thomas R. do Wheeler, Charles do
Allmore, William do Maddox, Joseph L. do Woodman, James do
Boston, Thomas do Mountz, James do “Charley” Northern Indian
Bradshaw, Charles M. do Nelson, Christian do “Jim” do do
Brunn, R. do New, James do “Johnston” do do
Cornish, John do Osgood, William F. do
Served 182 days from Feb. 12 to Aug. 12, 1856 (Whatcom County)
R. V. Peabody, Capt. Frazier, James Private Taylor, James H. Private
Charles C. Vail, 1st Lieut. Grant, James do Utter, William do
Edward Eldridge, 2nd Lieut. Hedge, James G. do Whitbread, John do
Frank Mahoney, 1st Sgt. Howe, S. D. do Wilson, Andrew do
Charles E. Roberts, 2nd Sgt. Hughes, William do Ank Stout Northern Indian
Enoch Compton, 3rd Sgt. Jewett, Joseph E. do Joseph Snubb do do
George Richardson, 1st Corp Losher, Lewis do John Short do do
R. Williams, 2nd Corp. O’Conner, Maurice do John Long do do
Chandler, Edward Private Page, Henry C. do Jim Williams do do
Clark, John do Roberts, William do Dick Wilson do do
Cogley, Peter do Roeder, Henry do David Snow do do
Cooty, Francis do Stanhope, George do Sam Brown do do
Dealand, Henry do Stewart, William R. do Bob Johnson do do
Follingsby, Charles do Tamboree, do Jack Spencer do do
Served 181 days from Feb. 16 to Aug. 16, 1856 (Island County)
Samuel D. Howe, Capt. Coudrie, John Private Sinnott, Thomas P. Private
George W. Beam, 1st Lieut. DeBow, John do Smith, Joseph S. do
John Y. Sewell, 2nd Lieut. Doyle, Patrick do Stott, Wallace do
J. T. Turner, 1st Sgt. Ebey, Isaac N. do Tucker, Frank do
Robert G. Hill, 2nd Sgt. Ebey, Jacob do Watkins, H. W. do
Charles H. Miller, 3rd Sgt. Ebey, Winfield S. do Welsher, Benjamin do
Ulrick Friend, 4th Sgt. Foster, George do Williams, William do
Samuel Libbey, 1st Corp. Hampton, John do Thomas Yankee North Indian
Archibald McLane, 2nd Corp. Kellogg, J. C. do Samuel Barney do do
Charles Conner, 3rd Corp. Maylor, Thomas do John Blane do do
Robert Travers, 4th Corp. McLurg, Henry do William Blake do do
Alexander, William Private Nicholas, John do George Jones do do
Allegar, Peter do Plummer, A. A. do Edward Babcock do do
Brady, Edward do Riley, Peter do James Babcock do do
Clinger, J. G. do
Served 223 days from Mar. 8 to Oct. 17, 1856 (Marion County, O.T.)
Bluford Miller, Capt. Allen, Ira Private Rains, Joseph Private
Anthony W. Presley, 1st Lieut. Elliott, William do Shaw, John M. do
Andrew Shepherd, 2nd Lieut. Glisson, Albert do Short, Merrill do
John A. Kemp, 2nd Lieut. Grimes, George W. do Siefarth, Andrew do
George W. Dolan, 1st Sgt. Haynes, Charles H, do Stanton, John A. do
Bluford Stanton, 2nd Sgt. Higginbotham, Nelson do Stanton, John do
Samuel Hedrick, 3rd Sgt. Hutton, John P. do Stratton, Thomas do
Wm. H. Hamilton, 3rd Sgt. Lilly, Silas M. do Taylor, John N. do
James M. Fuller, 4th Sgt. Marlett, William do Trask, John B. do
Lewis J. Wolford, 4th Sgt. Neal, Lewis do Walker, John do
Newton S. Todd, 1st Corp. Parsons, Henry G. do Watkins, William do
John Q. Adams, 2nd Corp. Presley, Elias do White, Columbus do
Jacob Westerfelter, 3rd Corp. Price, William do White, Joseph do
Lawrence Eisenhart, 4th Corp. Purcel, Thomas L. do
Served 223 days from Mar. 8 to Oct. l7, 1856 (Salem-Dalles, O.T.)
Francis M. P. Goff, Capt. Doughty, Preston E. Private Orr, John B. Private
Israel Hedges, 1st Lieut. Drumhaller, Jesse do Osgood, William F. do
Wm. H. Hunter, 1st Lieut. Eaton, David do Parkhill, John do
Thos. B. Waite, 2nd Lieut. Emerick, Charles T. do Provost, Narcisse do
Samuel Wilkes, 2nd Lieut. Enyart, Marquis L. do Raburn, John W. do
Francis M. Daniel, 1st Sgt. Faith, John do Richards, John A. do
Cyrus K. Riggs, 1st Sgt. Ferris, Nicholas S. do Richards, N. J. do
John Keese, 2nd Sgt. Fisk, William do Richardson, J. Q. A. do
A. F. Johnson, 2nd Sgt. Gentry, James B. do Ringo, Hamilton H. do
Henry C. Githers, 3rd Sgt. Griffen, Squire do Sachsy, Lewis do
Peter H. Haggy, 3rd Sgt. Haddix, George W. do Sarnish, Daniel do
David H. Bowles, 4th Sgt. Hansel, John do Scott, Thomas do
David G. Frazer, 4th Sgt. Hastings, Arch L. do Shasgreen, James J. do
John M. Crowley, 1st Corp. Hastings, John C. do Silsel, George do
Joseph P. Jones, 1st Corp. Haynes, Francis A. do Simmonds, Edward M. do
Richard A. Eddy, 2nd Corp. Hays, John, do Simpson, Marshall W. do
Eli Hedges, 3rd Corp. Hengee, Lawrence do Smiley, Sylvester do
George Rogers, 2nd Corp. Hill, Elijah H. do Smith, Abner J. do
Andrew J. Lovelady, 3rd Corp. Hill, James M. do Smith, Charles do
William G. W. Orr, 4th Corp. Holmes, William do Smith, Daniel do
David Vanderhoof, 4th Corp. Holt, James M. do Smith, Samuel do
Allen, Thomas Private Hutton, John P. do Somerville, Henry B. do
Arbogast, Jacob do Hyde, Samuel do Townsend, Jesse B. do
Baker, William do Jamison, Ephraim do Trimble, John do
Barnes, John M. do Jewitt, John do Vance, Thomas do
Blevins, Eli do Johnson, John L. do Vanderhoof, Lewis do
Blodgett, Henry do Johnson, William do Vanderpool, C. M. do
Bolton, George do Jones, James T. do Vanderpool, James do
Bounds, John A. do Kellium, William do Walker, Samuel do
Busten, John do Kelly, Patrick do Ward, William W. do
Butler, Newton H. do Kinsella, Arthur do Washam, Sampson do
Cave, Bartlett do Lacy, Lewis do Watts, Even do
Cherry, James do Lilly, David do Welch, Edwin do
Christner, Abner C. do Lingenfelter, Wm. E. do Welch, George do
Crane, C. G. W. do McBride, Henry C. do Whitcomb, James do
Crockett, Thomas do McCarty, William do Whittaker, David J. do
Davin, Anthony do McConnell, Jones do Whittaker, Joseph do
Dole, Irwin L. do McCracken, Charles C. do Wilkes, James do
Done, Peter A. do Meek, Courtney W. do Williams, James do
Dougherty, Horace do Moore, Francis M. do Williams, Nathaniel do
Dougherty, James do Morgan, George W. do Woods, Samuel do
Dougherty, Walter M. do Naught, Francis M. do Wright, William do
Served 105 days from Apr. 2 to July 17, 1856 (Lewis County)
Edward D. Warbass, Capt. Drew, George Private Pike, Jonas Private
John W. Anderson, 1st Lieut. Farron, Dominick, Sr. do Pinto, H. H. do
John B. Bourchard, 2nd Lieut. Farron, Dominick, Jr. do Pinto, Henry do
Charles L. Reed, 1st Sgt. Flinn, James do Plomondon, Moses do
George Palmer, 2nd Sgt. French, Eugene L. do Plomondon, Simon Jr. do
William Pumphrey, 3rd Sgt. Gardner, James C. do Prevost, John B. do
Joseph P. Mannen, 4th Sgt. Gobar, Antoine do Raell, John B. do
Narcisse Farron, 1st Corp. Hudson, Samuel T. do Roberts, George B. do
John Cantwell, 2nd Corp. Hughes, Robert do St. Germain, Joseph do
Charles Layton, 3rd Corp. Johnston, Lewis do St. Germain, Peter do
Simon Gill, 4th Corp. Kagle, William do St. Martin, Andrew do
Barton, Jackson Private Kretzer, Noah do St. Martin, Isadore do
Bedellion, William do Lapatree, John B. do St. Martin, Peter do
Bercier, Basil do LaPlante, Pierre do Senault, Eli do
Bercier, Peter do Laramie, Benjamin do Southerland, John do
Bernier, Julian do Layton, Francis do Stillman, Henry R. do
Bernier, Marcella do Layton, Samuel do Tevisand, Peter do
Blanchette, Lewis do Ledieu, Lewis do Thibault, Joshua do
Brouillet, John B. do Lemmon, William do Thibault, Michelle do
Brouillet, Joseph T. do Lyon, Ezekiel W. do Urquehart, James do
Cathman, George do McCormick, John do Van Wormer, Charles do
Cathman, Xavier do McDonald, Alexander do Whittle, Franklin do
Catnoir, David do McDonald, John M. do Whittle, Henry do
Catnoir, Edward do McDonald, Wiscom do Whittle, William do
Clark, Frederick A. do McLeod, Allen do Windle, Joseph do
Clark, George D. do McLeod, Hugh do Pierre, Charles, Guide
Davis, Thomas do Mills, Henry do LaHash, Indian Guide
Davis, Johnathan C. do Moore, Commodore do Frazer do do
Davis, William W. do Moore, John do John do do
Desnoyier, Francis do Morgan, James S. do
Served 123 days from Mar. 11 to July 12, 1856 (Walla Walla County)
Henri M. Chase, Capt. Pip-hom-kun Ind. Private Ea-kake-tam-otsut, Ind.Private
P. M. LaFontaine, lst Lieut. Pouen-in-il-pilps do Jesse do
Louis Raboine, 2nd Lieut. We-shin-me-shus-tim-timim do Quish-keesh do
W. A. Tallman, 1st Sgt. Tain-lik-ish do Wap-tash do
D. G. Leonard, 2nd Sgt. Hiram do George do
Silas W. Lilly, 3rd Sgt. Ta-kash-mish do Til-til-kos-tsut do
George W. Grimes, 4th Sgt. Sim-i-pello do In-skulta do
Thomas Stratton, 1st Corp. Wat-yat-mus-wat-so-kown do Wat-yat-mus-waset do
Craig, J. W. Private Ip-ma-tam-owe-yet-wa do Was-ku-na-tu-tamcosut do
Hall, Samuel do Ko-ko-il-pilp do In-ma-tu-walsa do
Samuel Ind. Private Takin-kulst do Hote-hose do
Spotted Eagle do Whe-tsme-ta-kal-si do Wo-wo-kea-il-pilp do
Ko-ko-wy-e-he-nicht do Wow-inesh-ash-watish do Pierre do
Kulo-wohike do Tamsh-tle-wat do Tlil-kun-kine do
Wat-i-wat-i-wohike do Nick-eas-tsutlem do Umea-il-pilp do
Weas-kishen do Waptash-tamana do Red Eagle do
Tsun-is-tle-poos do In-ma-tune-pun do
Timothy do Im-otus-tin-tin-im do
(Served 115 days from Jun. 2 to Sep. 25, 1856 (Oregon City, O.T. area)
John A. Richards, Capt. Chappel, P. Private McBride, Henry Private
James Williams, Capt Clarke, Bethnel do McClure, Lindsay do
James A. Clarke, 2nd Lieut. Cleaver, James F. do McPhillips, James do
John Estis, 2nd Lieut. Darnes, Samuel E. do McQuestion, V. B. do
Albert Gates, 2nd Lieut. Dole, Irvin L. do Nelson, Cornelius G. do
George M. Abell, 1st Sgt. Engle, Joseph do Orr, John P. do
Albert Orchard, 2nd Sgt. Enyart, James do Osgood, William F. do
Wm. G. W. Orr, 2nd Sgt. Fields, William do Peircy, Edmond do
A. J. Lovelady, 3rd Sgt. Fitzgibbons, Thomas do Peterson, W. A. do
Marcellus Lucas, 3rd Sgt. Fryer, William W. do Pettigrew, Thomas do
N. S. Ferris, 4th Sgt. Griffen, Benjamin L. do Rice, Julius do
Richard T. Johnson, 4th Sgt. Haptonstall, J. B. do Riddle, Alfred E. do
John M. Lauderback, 1st Corp. Hastings, A. L. do Riggs, Francis M. do
D. A. McKee, 2nd Corp. Hastings, John do Riggs, Greenbury do
N. J. Richards, 2nd Corp. Hays, Andrew A. do Robinson, John S. do
Geo. W. Beauford, 3rd Corp. Hill, Elijah H. do Smith, George H. do
Samuel Wood, 3rd Corp. Hubbard, G. C. do Smith, Jennings do
Jacob Coxe, 4th Corp. Jewitt, John do Smith, William H. do
Allen, John W. Private Johnson, W. do Simpson, M. W. do
Bell, James C. do Keenan, Terence do Stephans, Thomas do
Bischell, Henry do Kelly, Patrick do Taylor, John F. do
Bohnesick, Henry F. do Kelly, Peter do Thornsbury, John W. do
Bounds, John A. do Kinney, James M. do Vanderpool, C. M. do
Burden, William do Lamson, Roswell H. do Vanderpool, James do
Butler, Newton K, do McGhee, John W. do Wichsor, Melchoir do
Served 146 days from Feb. 22 to July 17, 1856 (Thurston County area)
Oliver Shead, Capt. Dyer, Joseph Private Newman, William B. B. Private
Humphrey P. O’Brien, 1st Lieut. Eckler, Jacob O. do Nix, Konomon do
John Remly, 2nd Lieut. Forbes, David I. do Ogle, Van do
G. W. French, 1st Sgt. Guthrie, Stephen do O’Neil, Abijah do
Conrad S. Allen, 2nd Sgt. Hawk, Albert R. do Prather, Thomas do
Edward Miller, 3rd Sgt. Headley, Thomas do Pullen, Thomas do
John B. Forbes, 4th Sgt. Kennedy, William F. do Richardson, John do
George Tykle, 1st Corp. King, Walter do Simmons, William do
David T. Drury, 2nd Corp. Kirkley, Milton do Stewart, A. W. do
Edward P. Wallace, 3rd Corp. Klady, Samuel do Van Buren, William P. do
Henry G. Willard, 4th Corp. Lewis, Benjamin F. do Vaughn, William D. do
Baldwin, Andrew J. Private McDonald, James H. do Webb, Thomas do
Barnard, Lewis D. do Montgomery, Eli do Williamson, James E. do
Clark, Isaac H. do Morrison, Abial do Wright, Benjamin F. do
Cook, George do Morrow, V. P. do Wright, Bird do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: 33 of the members of this company, including the Captain and 1st Lieut. have
claims for service as wagon masters, teamsters, etc. Allowed by the Commissioners for the same period
for which they are reported for pay on this Roll. See W. W. Miller’s accounts.
Served 91 days from Nov. 1, 1855 to Jan. 31, 1856
William Bratton, Capt. Caples, Hezikiah Private Nedron, Christian Private
Schubel C. Achilles, 1st Lieut. Caples, Joseph do Nitles, Spencer D. do
John Davenport, 2nd Lieut. Eaton, Jeremiah do Pollock, John do
Thomas R. Little, 1st. Sgt. Eaton, Joseph do Poppleton, Edgar do
Christ C. Bozarth, 2nd Sgt. Galbraith, John do Poppleton, Edwin do
John H. Timmons, 3rd Sgt. Gardner, Daniel W. do Powell, Jackson do
Benjamin D. Stivers, 4th Sgt. Huff, Jefferson do Powell, Jeptha do
William Miller, 1st Corp. Irwin, William do Powell, William do
Lewis Powell, 2nd Corp. Kraft, Henry C. do Powers, David R. R. do
John U. Benzer, 3rd Corp. Laffer, Phillip do Springer, John do
Squire J. Bozarth, 4th Corp. Lancaster, Columbia do Whitaker, Isaac do
John S. Bozarth, Musician Lane, Richard do Williams, John do
Blockader, Joseph Private Limberson, Timothy do Lucas an Indian
Bozarth, Owen W. do McIntyre, Andrew do Auisity an Indian
Bratton, William Jr. do Meaner, Daniel do
Name Rank Position Period Served
James Tilton Brigadier General Adjutant General Oct. 14, 1855 to Jun. 30, 1857
Benj. F. Shaw Lieut. Colonel Asst. Adj. Gen. Dec. 31, 1855 to Apr. 30, 1857
Comdr, Right Wing
Edward C. Fitzhugh Lieut. Col. Aid to C in C Oct. 14, 1855 to Feb. 28, 1857
Henry R. Crosbie Lieut. Col. Aid to C in C Feb. 23, 1856 to Oct. 13, 1856
Jared S. Hurd Lieut. Col. Aid to C in C Feb. 16, 1856 to May 25, 1856
William Craig Lieut. Col. Aid to C in C Dec. 3, 1855 to Oct. 30, 1856
Edward Lander Lieut. Col. Aid to C in C Nov. 9, 1855 to May 24, 1856
Sidney S. Ford, Sr. Lieut. Col. Aid to C in C May 15, 1856 to Oct. 30, 1856
James Doty Lieut. Col. Aid to C in C Dec. 2, 1855 to Apr. 15, 1856
Edward Gibson 1st Lieut. Aid to C in C Apr. 3, 1856 to Jul. 22, 1856
Walter W. DeLacy Captain Actg Adj., Rt. Wing Feb. 20, 1856 to Apr. 1, 1857
& Engineer Officer
William W. Miller Brig. Gen. Quartermaster and Jan 20, 1856 to Apr. 1, 1857
Commissary General
James K. Hurd Lieut. Col. Asst. QM General Jan 17, 1856 to Mar.1, 1857
Charles E. Weed Captain Asst. QM Olympia Feb. 1, 1856 to Sep. 1, 1856
Warren Gove Captain Asst. QM Steilacoom Feb. 1, 1856 to Sep. 1, 1856
Franklin Matthias Captain Asst. QM Seattle Jan 29, 1856 to Aug. 15, 1856
Reuben S. Robinson Captain Asst. QM Pt. Townsend Feb. 2, 1856 to Aug. 15, 1856
A. Hugh Robie Captain Asst. QM Dalles, OT Feb. 18, 1856 to Apr. 1, 1856
Marshall R. Hatheway Captain Asst. QM Vancouver Feb. 18, 1856 to Jun. 10, 1856
M. B. Millard Captain QM Vancouver Jun. 11, 1856 to Feb.20, 1857
Christopher C. Pagett Captain Asst. QM Cowlitz Apr. 3, 1856 to Jul. 17, 1856
C. H. Armstrong Captain Asst. QM Rt. Wing May 3, 1856 to Nov. 30, 1856
Robert Hunt Sergeant QM Sergeant Apr. 16, 1856 to Jun. 12, 1856
G. K. Willard Major Regtl. Surgeon Feb. 1, 1856 to Oct. 30, 1856
M. P. Burns Major Surgeon Oct. l4, 1855 to Oct. 17, 1856
R. M. Bigelow Major Surgeon Feb. 5, 1856 to Jun. 25, 1856
Samuel McCurdy Major Surgeon Feb. 18, 1856 to Aug. 16, 1856
Henry P. Smith Major Surgeon Feb. 7, 1856 to Jul. 29, 1856
Justin Millard Major Surgeon Mar. 1, 1856 to Oct. 30, 1856
W. D. Warbass Captain Asst. Surgeon Apr. 3, 1856 to Jul. 17, 1856
Daniel Kiser Captain Asst. Surgeon Apr. 30, 1856 to Jul. 22, 1856
Henry Tuzo Captain Asst. Surgeon May 1, 1856 to Jul. 16, 1856
Albert Eggers Captain Asst. Surgeon Mar. 26, 1856 to Apr. 30, 1856
J. J. H. VanBokkelen Major Comd. North. Bn Mar. 16, 1856 to Oct. 17, 1856
Gilmore Hays Major Comd. Cent. Bn Feb. 22, 1856 to Apr. 10, 1856
George C. Blankenship Major Comd. Cent. Bn May 31, 1856 to Oct. 30, 1856
H. J. G. Maxon Major Comd. South. Bn Apr. 15, 1856 to Oct. 30, 1856
Eustis Huger 1st Lieut. Adj. Right Wing Feb. 21, 1856 to Jun. 29, 1856
A. J. Kane 1st Lieut. Adj. Right Wing Apr. 26, 1856 to Jun. 6, 1856
Humphrey Hill 1st Lieut. Adj. North Bn. Mar. 16, 1856 to Sep. 20, 1856
B. F. Ruth 1st Lieut. Adj. Cent. Bn. Jun. 29, 1856 to Oct. 30, 1856
George Gallagher 1st Lieut. Adj. South Bn. May 11, 1856 to Jul. 28, 1856
Henry Gallagher Sergeant Sgt. Major Apr. 9, 1856 to Oct. 17, 1856
Served from Oct. 27, 1855 to Dec. 29, 1855 (63 days) (Clarke County)
William Strong, Capt. Coffee, Tirrell M. Private Morgan, David D. Private
H. J. G. Maxon, 1st Lieut. Cummings, Ambrose S. do Owyhee, Alexander do
Henry C. Morse, 2nd Lieut. Davies, Alexander do Owyhee, James K. do
M. R. Hathaway, 1st Sgt. Dick, Richard do Pickens, Brittain W. do
William Goldbeck, 2nd Sgt. Farr, Morgan do Pickett, David do
Wm. S. Bennington, 3rd Sgt. Fisher, Adam do Riggs, Reuben do
Adam Burns, 4th Sgt. Foster, James W. do Roberts, Humphrey do
Moses E. Goodwin, 1st Corp. Frazer, Thomas do Sharp, William A. do
Jordan O. Taylor, 2nd Corp. Gee, William do Smith, Erastus do
Russell Burt, 3rd Corp. Gehr, Joseph G. do Stanley, Joseph do
Silas B. Curtis, 4th Corp. Haber, Peter do Strowbridge, John W. do
John Pritchett, Musician Hamm, George do Taylor, Ervine J. do
Henry Young do Hunsaker, Bradford do Tooley, William B. do
Bartlett, James P. Private Jamison, James do Totten, James E. do
Bouser, Clinton do Lakin, William do Turner, Allen do
Bouser, James H. do MaCard, James do Van Vleet, Lewis do
Bowman, Warren J. do Martin, Francis D. do Whitaker, Isaac do
Brinn, Jackson do Martin, Terry do Wilson, Daniel do
Burgy, John do Michelle, Andrew do Wyhelah, John do
Burk, James A. do Millard, Levi do
Coffee, Alexander L. do Moore, Edward do
NOTE: This Company was mustered into Federal Service at the request of Major G. J. Rains,
Commanding Fort Vancouver. The Auditors stated: This Company, like Captain Hays, was mustered out
of the service of the United States, as per Muster Roll and was also supplied with subsistence, forage,
clothing, etc, by the United States. The Company appears to have performed active and efficient service
and the amounts herein reported have been due for nearly four years and ought to be promptly paid.
3rd Auditor of the Treasury, Oct. 31, 1859
Served 92 days from Oct. 14, 1855 to Jan 14, 1856 (Thurston County)
Glimore Hays, Captain Day, Joseph H. Private Martin, David Private
Jared S. Hurd, 1st Lieut. Davis, Verian do Mayers, Jacob L. do
William Martin, 2nd Lieut. Davis, W. W. do Miles, Joseph do
Joseph Gibson, 1st Sgt. Dodge, Francis M. do Miller, Charles do
Henry D. Cock, 2nd Sgt. Faucett, Franklin do Morgan, James F. do
Thomas Prather, 3rd Sgt. Finch, Henry C. do Mountz, Daniel M. do
Joseph A. White, 4th Sgt. Frost, Andrew J. do Northcroft, William S. do
James S. Taylor, 1st Corp. Gallagher, Henry do Offutt, Milford do
Robert A. Finnell, 2nd Corp. Gates, Levi L. do Ogle, Van do
Whitfield Kirtley, 3rd Corp. Gibson, Edward do Palmer, George do
Darius F. Wheelock, 3rd Corp. Gleason, Aaron B. do Perkins, Thomas I. do
John Scott, 4th Corp. Goodell, Melancton do Rabbeson, Antonio B. do
Anderson, Henry Private Goodwin, F. F. do Rhodes, Francis M. do
Anthony, Solomon P. do Goudy, James H. do Ruth, Benjamin F. do
Augery, Paul do Guess, William do Sargeant, A. W. do
Axtel, John C. do Gwinness, John do Scott, James D. do
Billings, William do Haggerty, Alfred do Scott, Samuel do
Bounds, Henry do Harrington, Richard D. do Simmons, Andrew J. do
Brannon, Joseph do Hassel, Henry W. do Stewart, John T. do
Bright, George R. do Hector, Horton do Temple, William R. do
Bush, Joseph T. do Hicks, Thomas B. do Thibault, Joseph do
Butler, William do Hills, Henry M. do Tilley, Moses R. do
Cameron, H. D. do Holmes, William do Tilton, Hanson do
Campbell, W. T. do Huger, Eustis do White, Columbus do
Chambers, M. T. do Hughes, Thomas do Whittaker, Samuel C. do
Clinton, Wesley T do Jones, Morris do Wilson, James do
Coffee, Nebuzaraden do Lake, James A. do Wood, James R. do
Cooper, Thomas do LeClaire, Lewis do Wood, Rollin R. do
Cooper, W. H. do Littlejohn, William do Woodward, John W. do
Crowder, Reuben do Lodge, James Irwin do Wright, B. D. do
AUDITOR’S NOTE: Same as for Captain Strong’s Company.
RECAPITULATION: Total number serving in 1st Regiment – 776
Total number serving in 2nd Regiment -1348
Losses – both regiments: Killed or died 16
Discharged disability 19
Deserted 29
Disobedience of orders,
dishonorable and refusal
to take oath 24
total 88
Officers resigned – 20
Aggregate 108
NOTE: The Vouchers from which these rolls were taken could provide a lengthy story themselves. From
a study made, it is apparent that each private or Indian auxiliary was to receive $2.00 per day and noncommissioned
and commissioned officers proportionately more. The rolls thus show the amount claimed
by the individual for pay, use and risk of horses, horses or arms lost on the debit side of the voucher. On
the credit side is shown the amounts allowed by the auditor for pay, use and risk of horses, total amount
due claimant, less stoppages for lost clothing, arms, etc and less the 3rd Auditor’s commission. A typical
example is shown on the Voucher for the Nez Perce Auxiliaries. Spotted Eagle, the Chief claimed $72.00
pay and $72 for use and risk of horses for a total of $144.00. The Auditor allowed him $95.33 for both,
less the commission of $8.00. The balance of his warriors claimed the same amount and all were allowed
$33.4l which represented the pay of a private of the regular army for a like period. Captain Ford of the
Walla Walla Mounted Militia claimed pay and allowances in the amount of $349.65 for 111 day’s service.
He was allowed a claim in the amount of $73.33 which was calculated on the prevailing army rate for a
2nd Lieut for a period of 30 days. He was paid by the Indian Department for the other 81 days.
Apparently the Auditor based his findings on the actual worth of the individual during his service. In case
of actual combat with the Indians, in which the individual had performed efficient service, he was more
liberal. Major Maxon’s claim was for $790.46 of which the auditor allowed $466.10. It is also quite
evident as the result of exhaustive research that none of the volunteers, except the Nez Perce Auxiliaries,
was ever paid anything by the United States Government. If such pay was made it was done on an
individual claim basis, as no territorial records could be found to verify any payments. In 1909 the State
Legislature enacted a law, providing $2.00 per day to Indian War survivors, less any previous payments
made by the United States Government. $20,000 was appropriated by the Legislature for this purpose.
This was followed by another appropriation of $10,000 at a special session in l909 and still another
$5,000 in 1911. In his report to the Governor in 1912, the Adjutant General reported that there remained
only $1,526.17 of these appropriations, with little likelihood that there would be any further claims.
Saturday Nov. 3rd – According to the Proclamation of the Acting Governor Mason of the Washington
territory, the inhabitants of Island, Jefferson and Clallam Counties assembled at Col. I. N. Ebey’s,
Whitby’s Island at l0 o’clock A. M. . The meeting was called to order Col. Ebey who was appointed
Chairman and G. W. Ebey, Secretary. Col. I. N. Ebey read the Proclamation to the meeting after which he
made a few remarks to the Assembly stating for what purpose they had met and as to what he thought the
duty of all citizens in times like the present after which the Muster Roll was opened the Volunteers when
the following came forward:
Island County Jefferson County Clallam County
Col. I. N. Ebey Samuel McCurdy James Keymes
S. D. Howe Jacob J. H. VanBokkelen William Newton
H. Hill H. H. McNear George W. Ebey
Hugh Crockett F. W. James George W. Beam
J. T. Turner Phillip Bynum James H. Allen
Thomas Maylor Wm. F. Osgood John Flint
J. H. Mountz Wm. Ross Joseph McKissack
Milton L. Mountz J. F. Tuckey
Edward M. Grubb Watcombe County James Tucker
Joseph Maddox Henry Webber Benjamin Gibbs
Caleb N. Miller
Thomas Walker
John S. Alexander
William Allmore
Thomas Hastie
John Condra
Ullrick Friend
After the above mentioned signing the Muster Roll, the Company was called to order to elect officers
when the following officers was elected:
For Captain – I. N. Ebey
For 1st Lieut – S. D. Howe
For 2nd Lieut – James Keymes
For 1st Sgt. – J. T. Turner
For 2nd Sgt. – H. H. McNear
After which the Captain addressed the Company thanking them for the honor conferred upon him in
appointing him to an office of responsibility – after which he ordered the Company to muster at Port
Townsend immediately – Leave of absence was granted to the members of the Company for two days to
repair to their respective homes to arrange their affairs after which time they were to report to Head
Quarters for duty, the company was dismissed. After the Company was dismissed a portion of the
Company returned to Port Townsend in the “R. B. Potter” when the muster roll was again opened and the
following enrolled –
George Cowan John Davis George B. Jones Charles Bond
S. W. Doughty Newell Gerrish Hezekiah Ramsdell
George W. Ebey, Sec.
per J. J. H. Van Bokkelen
Sunday, November 4th, 1855. Captain I. N. Ebey came over from Whitby’s Island and reported that
having heard there was some difficulty with the Indians at the upper end of the Island, that Lieut. Howe
had taken the members of the Company residing on the Island to the scene of reported difficulties to
examine into the same. Enrolled the following men this day – R. Brunn, Oscar W. Olney, Thomas Ewen,
Alfred Tripp, Michael Kirwin and Charles Thompson.
Monday, November 5th, 1855 – This morning Captain I. N. Ebey proceeded to make arrangements to
prepare the Company for active service by providing provisions and arms for the Company. The
following gentlemen came forward and volunteerly offered to furnish such as they had for the use of the
Company. Mr. Crockett of Whitby’s Island, Captain E. S. Fowler and Dr. S. McCurdy of Port Townsend.
Enrolled the following man this day – Josiah Laury. Captain I. N. Ebey chartered Schr. R. B. Potter for
U. S. to be employed in transporting the Company and for the defense of the lower part of the Sound.
Dispatched the R. B. Potter with Private H. Webber on Board to proceed to San Juan Island to procure
two 6 pounders that was laying below low water mark at said island. They were buoyed and had been left
thereby a vessel late last summer.
Tuesday, 6th. Boys all in quarters and supplied with rations and ready for duty. The boys from Port
Discovery and Dungeness came up and reported for duty. Captain Ebey detailed a detachment to proceed
to Nesquim to obtain sundry articles from Mr. Gerrish who at the call was ready to supply such articles as
he had on hand that the Company required. Enrolled the following men today – Eliphlat Conat, John
Harris, Henry Jackson and John Aiken. The detachment returned from Nesquim about 12 P. M. with the
articles required. Today the Captain chartered Schr. A. Y. Trask for U.S. to be used by the Company to
procure lumber from Brig Brontez for Fort.
Wednesday, 7th. Schr R. B. Potter with H. Webber returned last night and reported their inability to
procure the guns in consequence of the gale blowing all the time so hard that they lost H. Webber’s boat in
attempting to obtain the guns. Last night in the storm Capt. H. H. McNear’s scow that had been employed
to bring the lumber ashore from Brontes when it broke from her moorings and came ashore doing herself
some damage. Steamer “Traveler” arrived today from Victoria with arms and ammunition for U.S.
Captain Ebey left by the Steamer for Steilacoom and Olympia to procure arms, ammunition and
provisions for the Company and to offer the Company to Acting Governor Mason to be enrolled in the
regiment of Washington Territory Volunteers. A detachment detailed to proceed to Whitby’s Island to
procure from Captain Robinson a 12 pounder. Lieut. Keymes was left in charge to get everything ready
for the Company to proceed to the Snohomish River. This afternoon the Company was called out to
receive a Flag that the Ladies of Port Townsend had made to present to the Company. Lieut. Keymes after
forming the Company marched them down to Mr. Hanna’s dwelling, where Mrs. Hanna in behalf of the
Ladies presented the Flag to the Company with a few remarks. Dr. Samuel McCurdy replied in behalf of
the Company when the Company marched to Head Quarters and were dismissed.
Thursday, 8th. Boys getting ready for their departure for the Snohomish River. Drilled today. The R. B.
Potter left for Seattle to meet the Captain.
Friday, 9th. Nothing worthy of note occurred today. The boys still busy preparing for their departure.
Saturday, 10th. Proceeded to place, provisions and other articles on board Schr. A. Y. Trask. The
Company ordered to be on board by sundown. The Company being on board, the Schr. got under way.
The wind being light, was compelled about 10 P. M. to anchor at Foul Weather Bluff.
Sunday, 11th. Got under way this morning and proceeded as far as Point Elliott where she anchored to
await the arrival of Capt. Ebey from up-Sound.
Monday, Nov. 12th. At 1 o’clock P. M. , Captain Ebey arrived along side in Steamer “Traveler”. The
Steamer fastened on to the Schr. and proceeded up the Snohomish River. Captain Fay, Indian Agent,
came along side, and by the request of Captain Ebey proceeded up the river with us. Pat Canaan, the Chief
of the Snohomish and Snoqualmie Tribes was on board the Steamer and objected to us proceeding up the
river with an armed force. After proceeding up the river about six miles, we came to anchor, the night
being too dark to proceed any further.
Tuesday, 13th. Started at daylight and proceeded up river some four miles where finding a suitable place,
the steamer unfastened and proceeded up the river a mile or two for wood. The Captain proceeded to land
the Company and commenced clearing off a place for building a Fort. The men worked till late at night,
stationed a Guard, etc. Before closing the Minutes of today must mention the gentlemanly officers of the
Steamer “Traveler”, Messers. Parker and Slater, who left for Olympia about 11 o’clock A. M.
Wednesday, 14th. This morning commenced getting logs for the Fort, making clap boards, etc, Capt. Fay
left us yesterday in Company of Mr. Barrington of Whitby’s Island. Laid two logs in the Fort. Nothing of
interest transpired today with the exception of valuing the arms furnished by the members of the
Company and distribution of the arms obtained from the Territory by the Captain, which Captain Ebey
done as he thought best.
Thursday, 15th. This morning Captain detailed a party of six men to proceed to Teelalup and get
provisions cooking stove that Mr. Hull volunteered to furnish the Company. Succeeded today in getting
up two more rounds of logs up which makes it begin to look like a house to live in. During the day, two
Indian canoes arrived, both bearing a flag of truce, one bound up the river and the other down to this
place. The former, the Captain had examined, and found very little ammunition and three guns which the
Captain not considering an unusual number and they having a paper from the Governor, was allowed to
pass up. The latter came from Pat Canaan, but brought no news of importance.
Friday, 16th, Morning, bright and pleasant. Went to work lively on the House. Finished putting up the
logs, ready for the rafters. The party returned from Teelalup, bringing beef, cook stove, potatoes and other
items. One of the men, S. Flint, met with an accident. While lighting his pipe, the powder in his flask
caught fire slightly injuring him and burning the face and eyes of an Indian, who set next to him in the
canoe, severely. Another messenger arrived from Pat Canaan today with word to the Captain saying that
they were ready as soon as the Indian Agent came to take them down to their winter quarters. The day
closed beautiful as it commenced. Watch stationed at night.
Saturday, 17th. Today we tried hard to finish the Fort or rather get it ready for the shingles and succeeded.
Nothing worthy of note transpired today.
Sunday, 18th. At 10 o’clock A. M. a fleet of canoes laden with Snohomish Indians and their effects came
down the river and stopped at the Fort. Whilst the Captain was conversing with them a boat came in sight
which proved to be Mr. Barrington having as passengers Mr. Hill, sub-agent and Lieut. Howe with men
from Whitby’s Island. Finished covering Fort today. Considering it a work of necessity for it commenced
raining in the night and continued till about 2 o’clock P. M. When we having the house covered the rain
ceased. One thing is to be noticed in the removal of the Snohomish Indians is that there are but few young
and middle aged men coming down in proportion to the number of old men, women and children – in fact
as yet there has not been half a dozen able bodied men (in other words Warriors) come down.
Monday, 19th. This morning after detailing six men under the charge of 2nd Lieut. Keymes to go on
board the Schr. R. B. Potter to sail for Port Gamble and Port Townsend for articles required – and a party
of six on board Schr. A. Y. Trask to proceed to the Potter at Tulaylup to take from on board of her lumber
and provisions, the Company commenced to build a kitchen.
Tuesday, 20th. Finished building kitchen. Men employed in clearing the ground.
Wednesday, 21st. Company employed in cleaning up ground and cutting fire wood.
Thursday, 22nd. Company employed the same as yesterday.
Friday, 23rd. 1st Sgt. J. T. Turner arrived today with 14 members of the Company who all took the oath
and was entered on the Descriptive Roll. Company employed as yesterday.
Saturday, 24th. The Schr. A. Y. Trask arrived this morning at 4 A. M. with lumber and supplies. Laid
down the floor and got our beds out of the sand. More comfortable this evening. Col. Simmons, Indian
Agent and Mr. Fuller arrived here this evening on duty. Dr. Hill, sub agent, up the river.
Sunday, 25th. Day of rest no work.
Monday, 26th. Day rainy. Laid down part of the upper floor. In the evening Lieut. Keymes returned from
his cruise. He brought supplies from Port Gamble. Also 10 recruits.
Tuesday, 27th. This morning our Company numbered over seventy men and it was thought best to hold a
new election for officers. The Company was called out when the officers elected on the 3rd instant
resigned. On going into election the following was elected: For Captain I. N. Ebey; reelected for 1st Lieut.
S. D. Howe; reelected 2nd Lieut. S. Keymes; reelected 3rd Lieut. Wm. Newton; reelected for 1st Sgt. J. J.
H. VanBokkelen; for 2nd Ditto, H. H. McNear; reelected for 3rd Sgt. – H. Webber; 4th Sgt. – H. Hill; For
1st Corp. – George W. Ebey; for 2nd Corp. – George W. Beam; for 3rd Corp. – E. Cline; 4th Corp. – F. W.
James; For Surgeon – Dr. Samuel McCurdy. The Fort was called “Fort Ebey” in respect to the Captain by
an unanimous vote. The Captain thanked them for the honor – but stated that he would rather had it named
after some distinguished statesman. Lieut. Newton was dispatched with Sgt. Webber and 15 men to take a
cruise to Port Discovery, New Dungeness and Port Townsend to await further orders at Port Townsend.
Pat Canaan and people came down the river today accompanied by Dr. Hill. A good many women,
children and old men were among the crowd. Pat looked dejected and acknowledged his inability to
control his people, a portion of whom he says are evil disposed. He does not wish to return up the river,
he fears his own people. The Indians passed on down – Col. Simmons and Mr. Fuller also departed for
Whitby’s Island today. Through the hands of Col. Simmons, Mrs. Maynard presented to the Company an
American Ensign made by her own hands. The flag was received by the Company with three cheers and
instructed the Captain to address a letter of thanks for the same. Dr. Hill, sub agent and Pat Canaan
remained with us for more of his tribe to come down tomorrow. Dispatched the Schr. A. Y. Trask to the
mouth of the river for supplies from the Potter. Guard arranged this evening. Watch Word – “Take a
drink”. Weather: Clear.
Wednesday, Nov. 28th. At 4 o’clock this morning had a heavy squall from the North with some rain. The
morning Watch employed in laying upper floor of Fort and the floor in the kitchen with other work
conducive to the comfort of the Company. Yesterday at a meeting of the Company it was concluded to
receive bids for the cooking for the Company. Sgt. Webber, Corp. Ebey and Private Jones was appointed
on the Committee to receive bids for the same. Messrs Jackson and Ramsdell put in a bid of 100 dollars
per month. Messrs Brunn and McDonald, put in a bid of 90 dollars per month. The Committee reported in
favor of giving contract to Brunn and McDonald, theirs being the lowest bid. The Committee was
discharged. Furnished ammunition to Messrs Lambert, Mountz and Walters. Pat Canaan still with us. The
messenger he sent up the river to his people yesterday has returned and states that there is still a portion of
his people up the river that are friendly and would come down but Quesam, the Chief next in command to
himself, threatens if they attempt to start and will stop them. John Kunan and three of his tribe came up
from the mouth of the river with a request from Col. Simmons, Indian Agent, that he might be allowed to
pass up the river as he was going up the river for his family. Capt. Ebey granted him permission.
Furnished Col. Simmons and party with the following provisions; 15 lbs hard bread; 20 lbs of fresh beef,
and 2 bushels of potatoes. This afternoon finished laying up the floors and chinked a portion of the Fort.
U. T. Crosbie and Lewis Boury was detailed to attend on the table. At last we have got things arranged so
that we live as civilized people should as we all eat together and have our meals spread in regular hotel
style. In fact we cannot avoid being comfortable if we are willing. The weather still rainy and windy. The
boys all in high spirits – the violin playing – some dancing – some reading – the remainder taken a quite
game of card. Watch word for the night: “Goliah”.
Thursday, 29th. The weather still rainy. The morning “Watch” employed in commencing a shed in front
of Fort and cutting wood for Kitchen and Fort. At 10 o’clock Quesan and other disaffected Chiefs spoken
of in yesterday’s minutes came down the river with about 70 canoes containing about 250 men, women
and children. John Kanan who returned with them stated that they was all down except three families who
were at the falls and had no canoes to move down with. Patrick Henry, one of the Chiefs stated they was
all down that was on the river, excepting the three families but that 150 of the men had gone back in the
country to join the Klickitats. If it is so, they have been in the field sometime. The Indians at present are
camped right below us. Dr. Hill, sub agent, will proceed to Holmes Harbour with them in the course of a
day or two. It appears that after Pat Canaan leaving them, on their reconsidering matters, they thought it
was folly for them to attempt anything as they felt assured from a message sent the (after Pat arrived at
Fort), by Capt. Ebey to this effect, that from want of a little employment at the Fort we would go up the
river if they did not come down and try our hand in forcing them into such measures as we wished.
Immediately on the arrival of the Indians from up the river, Capt. Ebey proceeded to arrange dispatches to
forward to General Tilton as one of the greatest objects in establishing this Post had been obtained. That is
in making them show their colors either for peace or war. For the particulars of dispatch refer to file
copies of dispatches. 1st Lieut. Howe was detailed to proceed to Olympia with the dispatches. He takes
with him Pat Canaan and some others of his tribe. Dr. Hill, sub agent for the tribe on this river forwarded
by Lieut. Howe his report relative to the movement of the Indians by same hands to the Hon. C. H.
Mason. Copy of roll forwarded to General Tilton. Private S. D. Jones had leave of absence granted him
for 30 days to attend meeting of the Legislature of which he is a member. But little work done this day in
consequence of the weather continuing bad. Before leaving, Lt., Howe arranged a permanent guard roll
for duty which commenced at 4 o’clock P. M. The evening was passed the same way as last evening.
Watch word for the night: “David”.
Friday, Nov. 30th. Weather still rainy. The morning guard employed in finishing shed and performing the
regular duty of the day. This morning Lt. Howe and Private Jones left for Olympia. Mr. Barrington
arrived with his boat to take Dr. Hill, sub-agent, down river and reported Schr. A. Y. Trask ready to come
up but waiting for a change of wind. Everything being arranged for the defense and comfort of the
Company. Capt. Ebey left this morning on a short tour of observation to Whitby’s Island and Port
Townsend as in his instructions given to Lt. Newton, he was requested to report to him at Port Townsend
for further orders. Capt. Ebey will also during his absence make arrangements for the further supply of
provisions for the Company. He took with him Privates Maylor and Friend. Dr. Hill, sub agent, left this
morning. 2nd Lieut. Keymes being the oldest officer at the Fort was left in command. Afternoon very
rainy and but little work done. Evening spent as usual all hands enjoying themselves. Watch word for the
night: “Come”.
Saturday, Dec. 1st. Weather clear. The morning guard employed at general work around the camp.
General Orders issued to take effect from tomorrow as follows: The Watch from 4 to 8 A. M. – sweep out
Fort – wash down platform and fill water barrel. The Watch from 8 to 12 M. – to do such work as the
officers of the day deem necessary for the comfort and defense of the Company. The Watch from 12 M to
4 P. M. – to do such work as the officers may direct. All hands will be called at 6 o’clock A. M. Roll Call
1/4 to 7 o’clock, A. M. Breakfast served at 7 o’clock A. M. Dinner at 12 M. Supper at 6 o’clock P. M. The
Members of the various Guards will sleep near together as possible so as to be enabled to turn out with
dispatch. General Drill at 9 o’clock A. M. and 2 P. M. The afternoon Guard was employed the same as
the forenoon Guard. Weather still pleasant and with prospects of a clear evening. Delivered to F. W.
James one box of caps – S. W. Allen ditto. Watch Word for the night: “Go”.
Sunday, Dec. 2nd. Weather clear. The Company was called out on parade at 10 o’clock A. M. – on calling
the roll, 34 answered to their names – 2 on sick list -18 in Lieut. Newton’s party -10 on Schr Trask – 4 in
Captain’s party – and two at the Legislature. The Company was then divided into three squads under the
charge of Sgt. Hill, Privates M. L. Mountz and J. T. Turner for the purpose of drilling. After drilling for
1/2 hour and having their arms inspected by Lt. Keymes, they were called out to fire at the target at l00
yards. They fired two rounds making 60 shots, placing 40 shots out of the 60 in the target. The shots were
fired off hand at the word of command. The Company was dismissed at 12 o’clock M with instructions to
call upon the Orderly Sergeant for ammunition. The following were supplied: M. L. Mountz, cartridge
belt and 20 cartridges; J. W. McDonald, 10 cartridges; J. Thornton ditto; S. U. Allen ditto; H. Hill ditto; S.
U. Mountz 10 cartridges and caps; E. W. Davis caps – John Condra ditto; C. W. Miller ditto; F. W.
Osgood powder and caps; H. H. McNear powder; F. W. James ditto; S. W. Lambert ditto; S. Aiken
powder and ball. Schr. Trask arrived at 12 M with Surgeon S. McCurdy and party with the various articles
brought from Tulaylup per Schr. R. B. Potter. No report to be handed in till tomorrow as it is Sunday.
Afternoon passed in quite recreation. Everything going on pleasant. Peter, one of the Snohomish Chiefs,
came up today and in the absence of Capt. Ebey offered the services of himself and men to clear the
lumber from the opposite banks so that nothing could approach the Island within gun shot without being
seen. Lt. Keymes thanked him for the offer but told him that the Bostons would look out for it and do it
themselves. Patrick Henry, another of the Snoqualmia Chiefs, was also up on a visit. Both returned to
their camp at the mouth of the river. The evening pleasant. Watch arranged on board Schr. Watch word
for the night: “Violet”.
Monday, Dec. 3rd. Weather clear. Roll called at 1/4 to 7 A. M. 23 absent and 2 sick, Lieut. Newlin’s and
Lieut. Howe’s parties. At 7-1/2 A. M. , Sgt. Hill and Corp. Ebey with Privates Crockett, Miller, Allmore,
Turner and I. Mountz left for Whitby’s Island with instructions to report to Capt. Ebey for further orders.
Copy of instructions filed. Sgt. Hill carried a dispatch to Captain Ebey. Copy filed. Furnished Sgt. Hill’s
party with 30 cartridges and l00 caps. Morning guard employed in general work and discharging Schr.
Trask. Oscar W. Olney in charge of Schr. Trask reported. Filed. Those not in the morning guard drilled at
9 A. M. under Privates M. L. Mountz and I. W. Doughty. Afternoon guard employed in general duty. M.
L. Mountz and I. W. Doughty drilled the morning guard. Evening passed as usual Surgeon reported
Thomas Walker with slight fever and I. W. McDonald with rupture. Both not for duty. Pass Word:
Tuesday, Dec. 4th. Weather rainy. Roll called at 1/4 to 7 A. M. 30 absent – Lt. Newlin’s party – Captain’s
party – Lt. Howe’s party and Sgt. Hill’s party. Morning guard employed in general work. Placed a set of
steps from platform to low water mark. Finished chinking Fort and Kitchen. General drill at 10 o’clock
A. M. by M. L. Mountz. Fired at Target rather poor shooting as the wind was blowing heavy down
stream. Furnished S. Thule with double-barrel gun and 1/2 lb of powder, 20 balls and 100 caps; I. Smith
ditto; Jos. Maddix, 10 cartridges; Phillip Bynum 10 ditto and extra caps; Charles Wheeler, Double barrel
gun, 20 balls and 1/4 lb powder and caps. Afternoon guard employed the same as forenoon guard.
Weather still rainy. Those employed in the morning guard was drilled this afternoon by I. W. Doughty.
After drill fired at target. Two canoes with four young men came up the river today and asked permission
to go up stream to catch salmon – again they told others that they was sent up by Pat Kanaan to bring
down the three families that they left (which was a lie) as they had two of the smallest size canoes. Lieut.
Keymes refused them permission and made them return down river. Lieut. Keymes instructed the Guard
on Schr. to keep a good lookout for them tonite – and if they attempted to pass to hail them and if they did
not stop to fire into them. A fair chance for a rainy night. Watch word for the night: “Mary”. Surgeon’s
report same as the 3rd.
Wednesday, Dec. 5th. Weather rainy. Roll called at 114 to 7 A. M. – 30 absent in four parties. Morning
guard employed in general work. General drill held at 10 A. M. Afternoon rainy. Afternoon guard
employed same as morning guard. Morning guards drilled at 2 P. M. Nothing worthy of note occurred
today. All the boys happy and continue to get along without quarreling. Afternoon rainy and good
prospects of a rainy night. Surgeon’s Report same as the 3rd. Watch Word for the night: “Why”.
Thursday, Dec. 6th. Weather rainy. Roll called at 1/4 to 7 A. M. – Same parties still absent. Morning
guard employed in general work. General drill at 9 A. M. Fired at target, rather fair shooting, every other
hit the target (the target was 6 ft high and about 12 inches in width at 100 yards). Afternoon rainy.
Supplied Surgeon McCurdy with 10 cartridges – Pvt. Rodgers ditto and caps. Afternoon guard employed
in putting up the front door to Fort and clearing ground for drilling. Morning guard did not drill in
consequence of rain. During last night heard several guns – thought they proceeded from our boys
returning – but was disappointed as no one come up the river. Had quite a heavy wind squall from the
southeast about 11 A. M. Everything continues pleasant. No change in Surgeon’s report. Watch word for
the night: “Cold”.
Friday, Dec. 7th. Weather clear- Roll called at l/4 to 7 A. M. Same parties still absent. Morning guard
employed at general work clearing ground and leveling for drill purposes. General drill from 9 to 10 A.
M. At 12 M Pat Kanaan arrived from Olympia with dispatches from Adjutant General Tilton. Captain
Ebey being absent on business of the Company, the orderly opened said dispatch and thinking from the
tenor of such dispatch that it was necessary for Captain Ebey to receive same immediately (as the tenor of
said dispatch would alter the course of his action) he detailed Phillip Bynum to proceed with three Indians
immediately to Captain Ebey with the dispatches. By same hand Dr. McCurdy received his commission
as Surgeon of the Volunteers. Pat Kanaan stated that on his arrival amongst his people last evening that he
found them discontent in consequence of reports made to them by white men and from neglect of the
agents in furnishing them with provisions. For all particulars refer to file. Furnished Pat Kanaan with 8
bushels of potatoes by his request as his family had nothing to eat. Everything going on pleasant and
happy – the boys dancing – evening pleasant. Furnished P. Bynum with 10 cartridges. No change in
Surgeon’s report. Pass Word for the night: “Time”.
Saturday, Dec. 8th. Weather clear. Roll called at 1/4 to 7 A. M. No change in absentees. Morning guard
employed at general work clearing ground. General drill, at 9 A. M. – Fired at target. Afternoon rainy.
Supplied I. Doughty with 10 cartridges. Afternoon guard employed at general work. Again heard some
large guns, Must be from Cutter – a sloop of War, the Decatur. Cleaned out Fort. Inspected arms this
afternoon. Everything moves on quiet and pleasant. No change in Surgeon’s report. Watch Word for the
night: “All Right”.
Sunday, Dec. 9th. Weather rainy. Roll called at usual time. 31 absent. No drill in consequence of rain.
Afternoon rainy. Everything moves along as usual. No change in Surgeon’s report. Walker and McDonald
still not fit for duty. Watchword for the night: “Doughnuts”.
Monday, Dec. 10th. Roll called at 1/4 to 7 A. M. 31 Absent. Morning guard employed in general work.
General drill at 9 A. M. Fired at Target. Afternoon rainy, the river rising rapidly – large quantities of drift
logs passing by. Afternoon watch employed at General work. At 2 P. M. a canoe and yaul boat hove in
sight which proved to be the Captain with a portion of the absentees and some of the company who had
not yet been to the Fort. Received them with a salute from the Schr. They report that they arrived at
Tulaylup yesterday on the Potter. Evening passed as usual. Surgeon reported Charles Wheeler with slight
cold in addition to Walker and McDonald who are still not fit for duty. Furnished 8 men with cartridges,
caps and powder. Watch word for the night: “Pink”.
Dec. 11th. Weather Clear. Roll called at usual time, 23 absent. Morning guard employed at general work.
Lt. Keymes left this morning for the R. B. Potter with Private Gerrish and Private James to fetch up the
freight from on board her. D. F. Brownfield, S. S. Irwin and Charles Bond sworn in this morning. Sgt.
Webber with three privates was detailed to examine a slough that runs up inland in the rear of the Fort to
see it there was any signs of Indians passing up and down it and if there was any canoes secreted at the
head of it. Sgt. Webber and party returned at 11 A. M. reporting no signs of Indians and no canoes at the
head of the slough. General drill at 9 A. M. Afternoon guard employed at general work. General
inspection of arms this afternoon. Capt. Ebey furnished Snohomish Indians with 50 bushels of potatoes as
they made great complaints to him of their agent not looking out for them and they were suffering for
something to eat (which is a fact). The weather has been such that it has been impossible for Dr. Hill,
Indian Agent, to transport provisions to them. No change in Surgeon’s report of 3 men still unfit for duty.
Dec. 12th. Weather clear. Roll Called at 1/4 to 7 A. M. 26 absent. At 8 A. M. Lieut. Keymes hove in
sight coming from the Schr. R. B. Potter with the provisions and other articles purchased by the Captain
during his absence, from the Puget Mill Co. and others, for the use of the company. He brought with him
Edward Lill a member of the Company who had been on the Potter since he joined. The provisions was
brought up by Indians in three canoes. The morning watch employed in general work and discharging and
stowing away articles brought up. They also fell a large tree from our Island on to the Island below to
make a gangway as it is the intention of Capt. Ebey to have it cleared. At 11 A. M. the Company was
called out and after being drawn up in order, the Captain stated to them as follows: That in his last
dispatches from the Commander-in-Chief of the Volunteer Forces in this Territory that he had been
instructed to make Port Townsend his Head Quarters and to station 30 of his men at this Fort removing
the remainder with him to Head Quarters. He told the Company that he did not wish to detail the number
to remain but would leave it to them to volunteer, when the following volunteered to remain: H. H.
McNear, 2nd Sgt., George W. Beam, 2nd Corp., Elbert Cline, 3rd Corp., F. W. James, 4th Corp., Privates
Charles Bond, I. Alexander, S. W. Allen, R. Ramsdell, U. T. Crosbie, S. Aiken, Thomas Ewen, R. Brunn,
G. W. Davidson, Phillip Bynum, S. W. Doughty, M. L. Mountz, S. Smith, Edward W. Grubb, S. Davis,
Samuel Lambert, S. L. Maddox, M. Kirwan, W. Rop, A. Tripp, George Cowan, Daniel Smalley,
S. Condra, I. Shull, Charles Thompson, Thomas Hastie, James McKissick, D. Howell, Joshua Lowery,
S. Shull, Surgeon McCurdy with the sick namely Charles Wheeler, Thomas Walker and I. W. McDonald.
Sgt. McNear, being the highest officer in rank left, was put in charge of Fort Ebey by the Capt. with
instructions, copy of which will be found amongst the papers filed. Afternoon guard employed in general
work. Called a general muster of those volunteering to remain to examine arms. Found 6 without arms.
Supplied them with proper arms draw – in the same from those going to Head Quarters. Some of the
Company, not having their arms valued, when the following handed in their arms and had them valued.
Refer to copy filed. Some Indians arrived this afternoon bringing with them M. Maylor and 4 barrels of
Pork averaging 140 lbs each. The evening past pleasant – for a change we had the violin going and
dancing so to pass the last night that we were together happy, for there is no telling whether the same
crowd will ever assemble together again, as in the natural course of events, some of us may lose the
number of our mess before we can get together again. No change in Surgeon’s report. Lieut. Keymes
reports that he camped last night with the Snoqualmie Indians and left with them 342 lbs of hard bread
and 20 bushels of potatoes. The Indians complained bitterly of their treatment and some of them refused
to receive the bread and potatoes – in fact they are afraid that the Agent is not going to act towards them as
agreed upon before they moved down. At 8 P. M, Phillip Bynum and Thomas Ewen came up from the R.
B. Potter with an express for surgeon McCurdy as Lieut. Newton was dangerously sick. Watch-Word for
the night: “Washington”.
Thursday, Dec. 13th. Weather rainy. Roll called at usual time. 22 Absent. Furnished ammunition to the
following: Brownfield -1/4 lb powder and 50 caps; McAlmond 1 box caps; I. W. McDonald 5 cartridges;
E. W. Grubb -1/4 lb powder and 10 balls; I. Shull – 50 caps; T. Aiken – 10 balls; Edward W. Grubb – l pair
blankets. Samuel Lambert transferred his cartridge box to E. Cline. At 8 A. M. , Lt. Keymes left with a
portion of the detachment for Head Quarters, say 18 in number. He will proceed to the Potter at Tulaylup
and await the arrival of Capt. Ebey who will start tomorrow with the remainder. Issued to 5 Indians due
bills for $2 each and due bill for use of canoes for $2 for fetching pork from Mr. Maylor making in all
$12. But little done this day as the time was employed in regulating matters for our leaving the Fort and
placing the Detachment remaining in charge. Weather rainy all day with a little snow – good prospect for
a cold night. Had application from Snohomish Indians for more potatoes. Capt. Ebey refused as he
thought that he had furnished them with enough for the present. No change in sick list. Watch word for
the night: “Adams”.
Friday, Dec. 14th. Still at Fort. Weather bad to start down. Time employed in arranging accounts with
arranging accounts with Mr. Hall and others. Sgt. McNear in charge of the Fort. Cpl. G. W. Beam, Acting
Orderly. For general minutes refer to minutes of the Fort. Fort Minutes: Weather cloudy. Roll called at
usual time. Drill at 9 o’clock A. M. Supplied S. Condra with 1/4 lb of powder. S Smith ditto. Thomas
Walker with 1 US Musket. S. McCurdy, Privates Howell, Davis and Ewen accompanied by Mr. Hull of
Teelalup arrived at 11 A. M. Wheeler and McDonald still on sick list. Watch Word for the night: “King”.
Saturday, Dec. 15th. This morning the Captain, Orderly and 4 privates started for the Schr. R. B. Potter.
Leave of absence granted to M. L. Mountz, S. Alexander and S. Condra for two weeks. Capt. Ebey
dispatched by M. L. Mountz instructions to Pvt. Maylor, Corp. Ebey and Sgt. Hill, copies of which are
filed. Arrived at the Potter at 12 M – as soon as we got dinner, started for Port Gamble. About 3 P. M. a
canoe hove in sight – we ran down to her and she proved to be Col. Simmons, Indian Agent and Mr.
Fuller with crews of Indians. Received from them a package of papers and dispatches from Headquarters.
Arrived at Port Gamble at 11 P. M. and anchored.
Fort Minutes: Roll called at 7 A. M. At 8 A. M. the Capt. and 1st Sgt. left for Head Quarters at Port
Townsend. Privates M. Mountz, Condra and Alexander detailed to Whitby’s Island. Privates Lambert,
Thompson, Hastie and Shull detailed to the mouth of the river. Returned at 6 P. M. General drill at 9 A.
M. Supplied Howell with 1 U S Musket. I. Lambert 1 oil cloth coat. I. Doughty with 25 caps and W. Rop
with 4 cartridges. Afternoon rainy. Guard employed at General work. General inspection of arms this
afternoon. Lill, Kirwin, Wheeler, McDonald and Newton on Surgeon’s sick list. Watch Word: “Queen”.
Sunday, Dec. 16th. In the morning went ashore, Capt. made arrangements with Capt. Keeler for the
members of the Company to obtain necessary articles of clothing as they was in want of, together with a
supply of provisions for Company at Port Townsend. Found the two Northern canoes at this place that
had been giving trouble up Sound. They attempted to leave after we ordered them to remain – made them
return but before they would we had to point our swivel and give them their choice. After returning to the
shore, the Captain had them examined – found nothing – he then told them the Governor’s instructions and
notified them to leave the American side, and if they was found on this side afterwards we would consider
them as enemies. About 1 P. M. got underway and left for Port Townsend where we arrived at 7 P. M.
and came to anchor.
Fort Minutes: Weather cloudy. Roll called at 8 o’clock A. M. No drill on account of sickness. Afternoon
rainy. Sick, McDonald, Wheeler, Doughty and Kirwan. Watch word: “Cane”.
Monday, Dec. 17th. Weather squally with rain. All hands busy in moving ashore. Capt. Ebey busy in
making arrangements relative to putting up barracks for the Company. Robert Smallman enrolled and
sworn into Company. Dispatched Schr. R. B. Potter for Port Gamble for lumber, etc. B. Gibbs, S. Flint,
R. Smallman and W.F. Osgood were detailed to go on the Potter. Boys all contented but not as pleasantly
fixed as they were at Fort Ebey – but were in hopes to have the same comfort in a short time. Shall make a
start on the barracks tomorrow. Watch placed. Watch word: Decatur
Fort Ebey Minutes: Weather clear. Roll called at usual time. Morning watch employed making chimney.
No drill today. Furnished Wm. Ross 6 lbs of powder for large gun and 2 lbs for small gun aboard Schr. A.
Y. Trask. 4th Corp. James and three privates detailed to proceed up the river and flush woods for Indians
and if they found any to bring them prisoners to the Fort. The party returned at 6 P. M. and reported no
Indian signs. Afternoon rainy. Guard employed at fatigue duty. 4 men still under Surgeon’s care. Watch
word: “George”.
Tuesday, Dec. 18th. Weather squally with rain. All hands employed in getting timber for Fort since we
have been here the Captain has been striving to make some kind of arrangements with the Proprietors of
the Town for a lot on the hill for barracks. But their demands being so great that the Captain could not
bring his mind to meet them – so having a lot on the beach himself he came to the conclusion to place the
barracks on it. Afternoon rainy. Nothing done this afternoon in consequence of rain. Detailed G. Jones,
H. Jackson and O. W. Olney to accompany Mr. W. S. Ebey to Whitby’s Island to procure a bullock for the
Company. Watch-Word: “Perry”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Weather cloudy with some rain. Roll called at usual time. Supplied James H. Allen
with 1 US rifle. 4th Corp. James and Private Tripp appointed to appraise the boat belonging to Charles
Thompson. Boat and tackling appraised at $150. Furnished D. Smalley with 50 gun caps; S. McKissick
with 15 ditto. S. Maddox 12-do, G. W. Davidson with 1/4lb powder. Afternoon rainy. No change in sick
list. Watch word: “Jackson”.
Wednesday, Dec. 19th. Weather still unsettled. The boys employed in getting timbers. Afternoon rainy –
compelled to stop work. Some dissatisfaction arose among the men today – those dissatisfied made their
grievances known to the Captain in writing to which he replied, copies of which may be found in file.
Their principal complaint is that the Commander in Chief exacted too much of them in removing them
from place to place and at everyplace being compelled to erect quarters. Guard stationed. Watch word:
Fort Ebey minutes: Weather still continues rainy. Roll called. None absent except those on detail.
Furnished E. Grubb with 1/4lb powder. H. Ramsdell ditto. Surg. reports McDonald, Doughty, Wheeler,
Kirwan, S. H. Allen, John Aiken and Charles Bond “not fit for duty”. Watch word: “Mason”.
Addition to minutes at Port Townsend: About 7 P. M., Captain E. S. Fowler called the attention of the
Guard (J. Condra and N. Gerrish) to 2 canoes that left the beach for the Schr. “Eclipse” lying in the
harbor. The canoes was watched and the Capt. ordered them to be examined on their landing by Lieut.
Keymes. On examining the canoes, Lieut. Keymes found a bottle in each. The Captain immediately
ordered Lt. Keymes to proceed with three men on board the Schr. and take possession of all liquor he
could find on board. On examining the Schr. Lieut. Keymes found a barrel about 2/3 full, say 25 gallons,
which he brought ashore and placed in charge of the Captain. Capt. Ebey read the men in charge of the
Schr. a lecture in violating the Laws, particularly at this time, when we were at war with the Indians and
told them they might go on their voyage but that he would hold them and the vessel responsible for
violating the Laws. At 8 P. M. Mr. W. S. Ebey with the party that left with him returned bringing 2
quarters of the beef as it was too rough for the boat to bring more.
Thursday, Dec. 20th. Weather clear and windy. Dispatched Sgt. Webber, with S. Tucker and S. F. Luckey
to Whitby’s Island to bring over the remainder of the beef and some of our boys that is on the island. Boys
to work on the logs for the building. Messrs. Brownfield, Irwin, Lill and Bradshawafter receiving their
answer to their complaint of yesterday became satisfied like men and went to work feeling satisfied that
Capt. Ebey would do everything in his power to make things right. S. Nichols sworn in. He enrolled on
Nov. 3rd. Evening showery. Watch Word for the night: “Delaware”. Sgt. Webber and party returned from
the Island at 9 P. M. with beef.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Weather cloudy. Roll called at usual time. Furnished Charles Bond 1 gun tube; H.
Hill with 70 large gun caps and James Doughty with 1 oil cloth coat. At 1 P. M. Corp. George W. Ebey
and five privates arrived from Whitby’s Island. No change in sick report. Watch Word: “Monroe”.
Friday, Dec. 21st. Sometime during the night it commenced snowing and has snowed off and on through
the day. No work done in consequence of weather. By sloop “Sarah Stone” forwarded to Adj. Gen. Tilton
the monthly report for November – also dispatches from Capt. Ebey. Capt. Ebey granted leave of absence
to Messrs. Newlin (Newton) Olney and Tucker to visit their homes and look after their stock and
provisions – time 4 days. At 3 P. M. the R. B. Potter arrived from Teekalet with lumber, etc., from Puget
Mill Co. 6 P. M. – Weather still unsettled. Watch Word for the night: “Chauncey”. Capt. Ebey granted Lt.
Newlin (Newton) an extension of his leave as he was still unwell. Time extended to 10 days.
Fort Ebey minutes: Roll called at usual time. R. Brunn supplied with l0 rounds of cartridges, Geo. Cowan
with 10 rounds musket cartridges and 1/4lb of powder, F. W. James 1/4 lb powder, Charles Bond ditto, G.
W. Davis with l/2 lb powder for small bullets and C. H. Miller with 10 rifle balls. 2nd Corp. Beam with
Privates Maddox, Brunn and Cowan was detailed to proceed to Whitby’s Island and await orders of
Captain Ebey. 4th Corp. James detailed to proceed to the mouth of the river to see if any Indians have
arrived there from up the river or Sound lately. Furnished G. W. Ebey with 10 rounds of rifle cartridges.
Both watches performing general duty. Weather very clear and cold. Charles H. Wheeler volunteered and
took the oath. Watch Word: “Ranger”. Negative report from Surgeon.
Saturday, Dec. 22nd. Weather windy and some snow. Boys done a little at the timber today for the
barracks. Brought part of the lumber from on board the Schr. R. B. Potter. Capt. Ebey granted leave of
absence to all the Boys to go home to keep Christmas – as from the appearances of the weather it was
going to be cold and stormy to do much. All hands to report themselves at Quarters on Wednesday next.
Last night some of the boys thinking that the Whiskey the Captain had seized a few nights since had
remained long enough in Quarters, crawled under the house and first boring a hole through the floor and
then one into the Cask, drew off about 2/3 of the same for Christmas. This morning Capt. Ebey finding
the barrel on tap, had it rolled out and the balance emptied on the Beach. Nothing done this afternoon.
Watch word for the night: “Boston”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Morning very cold. Roll called at the usual time. 2 officers and five privates absent on
detail. General drill from 10 to 11 A. M. with orders to keep arms in good order. Morning watch
employed chopping wood. Surgeon reports 6 men not available for duty. Watch Word: “Alice”.
Sunday, Dec. 23rd. Weather very cold and stormy. The Boys left this morning for their various homes.
The Captain with the Boys belonging to the Island left today. What Boys remains in Quarters are rather
lively from the effects of the Whiskey. We now muster 12 men in quarters. Watch word for the night:
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at the usual time. About 3 o’clock this morning, 4th Corp. James and party
arrived and reported no signs of Indians below. General drill at 10 A. M. The Commander gave notice
that all persons firing their guns without permission would be reported to Head Quarters. No change in
sick list. Watch Word: “Nancy”.
Monday, Dec. 24th. Weather very cold and stormy. This morning mustered all hands and brought what
lumber remained on the Potter ashore. Balance of the day spent in loafing and thinking about Christmas.
Watch word for the night: “Atlantic”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at usual time. None absent except those detailed to Whitby’s Island.
Morning watch at general duty. Furnished G. H. Miller with 1/4 lb of powder. G. W. Ebey and four
privates received leave of absence for one day to go on a shooting party. River almost frozen over.
Weather very cold. Ice running in considerable quantities all day. Surgeon’s report same as yesterday.
Corp. Ebey and party returned at 5 P. M. and reported no signs of Indians. Watch Word: “Johnson”.
Tuesday, Dec. 25th. Weather still cold, but clear. Last night, fearing a blow this morning employed the
Indians to discharge lumber from the scow. Also dispatched the Potter for Port Gamble for balance of
lumber. Detailed H. Jackson, W. F. Osgood, and T. Walters on board of her. Christmas came in this
morning with the firing of guns. Boys passed a pleasant time of it. Mr. F. Hanna fired a salute furnishing
powder at his own expense – also giving the Boys Christmas with a bowl of Egg Nog which made all the
Boys happy and glorious. In the afternoon we attempted to return the salute and after we had fired twice,
Mr. Hanna came forward and took the cannon from us stating that he didn’t wish his property abused. So
we had to give up the idea of returning Mr. Hanna’s salute. Nothing of importance occurred today. We
was lucky enough to get through the day without any disturbance amongst the boys. Watch word for the
night: “Pacific”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at 7 A. M. Weather very cold. A small party volunteered to drill this
morning. Morning watch on guard. Dinner at 1 P. M. Great quantities of ice in river. Afternoon cloudy
and signs of snow. Furnished John Aiken 10 balls. No change in Surgeon’s report. Privates Brunn and
Cowan of Corp. Beam’s party arrived this evening at 9 o’clock. Watch Word: “Finley”.
Wednesday, Dec. 26th. Morning clear and cold. Boys all straight and ready for operations. About 12 M
the Captain with a number from the Island returned. Weather still continues too cold to operate. At
7 P. M. the steamer “Active” arrived from above bringing us but little news and no arms or ammunition.
Watch word for the night: “Active”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at 7 o’clock A. M. None absent. Morning watch on general duty.
Furnished W. Tripp with 1/4 lb of powder and 25 gun caps. River blocked up with ice. Morning very cold
and clear. Afternoon clear and more pleasant than forenoon. The officer in command gave notice that all
persons firing guns without permission would be reported. Also all persons who were not up to answer to
their names at roll call would be marked as delinquent. No report from the Surgeon. Watchword: “Caleb”.
Thursday, Dec. 27th. Morning clear and cold. Nothing done in consequence of the severity of the weather.
Boys all quiet. The “Active” left this morning for Victoria. Afternoon cold and with fair prospects for a
cold night. Watch word for the night: “Wine”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at usual time. Morning clear and cold. Watch employed chopping wood,
standing guard, etc. At 10 A. M. Capt. Burns of the Schr. A. Y. Trask started for Port Townsend taking
with him the three Indians that came up with Brunn and Cowan and one from Port Discovery. They
proceeded to the mouth of the river on the ice, there intending to procure a conveyance to Port Townsend
via Whidby’s Island. By him sent a letter to Capt. Ebey acquainting him with our condition here, etc.
Furnished him 1/4 lb of powder by order of the 2nd Sgt. Weather moderating. No report from the
Surgeon. Watch word: “Webster”.
Friday, Dec. 28th. Weather still cold and freezing. Nothing doing, the Boys all in quarters. The Schr. R.
B. Potter arrived about 2 P. M. from Port Gamble with lumber. Swore in John Green, Winfield S. Ebey,
and W. S. Buffington. The evening cold but clear. Watch word for the night: “Brandy”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at the usual time. Morning very cold. Men complaining of the severe cold.
A party of three got leave of absence to go on an excursion up the river. Afternoon weather becoming
mere mild. No Surgeon’s report. Watch word: “Wool”.
Saturday, Dec. 29th. Weather moderating. Boys busy bringing in lumber from R. B. Potter. Last night
Capt. Burns of the A. Y. Trask came down from Fort Ebey with dispatches from Sgt. McNear. He reports
the river entirely frozen up sufficient to bear a man as Capt. Burns had to come to the mouth of the river
on ice. Everything going on pleasant. Only trouble they have is that the river will not open in time to get a
new supply of provisions. Evening pleasant. Watch Word: “Cedar”. An opportunity offering, the Captain
thought he would start for Olympia this evening taking with him the reports for the month to
Headquarters up to this date.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at the usual time. Weather pleasant. General drill at 9 A. M. with target
firing. Furnished C. Thompson l0 balls, George Cowan 10 do and powder. A party of three received
permission to examine the country opposite the Fort. Returned at 3 P. M. and reported no late Indian
signs. surgeon reports I. Shull added to the list of those sick. Watch word: “You Know”.
Sunday, Dec. 30th. Weather cold and clear. The Captain left last night on the Steamer “Beaver” for Head
Quarters at Olympia relative to the future operations of the Company. This being Sunday, nothing done,
everything quiet. The Schr. R. B. Potter left this morning for Olympia. Watch word for the night:
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at usual time. Weather quite pleasant. 4 privates received leave of absence
to examine the country up the river. Returned in the evening and reported having discovered a large trail
running down but no signs of it having been traveled lately. Furnished Charles Bond 25 gun caps and S.
Lambert 10 rounds of ammunition. Surgeon reports Wheeler able to do duty. Watch word: “Scott”.
Monday, Dec. 31st. Weather unsettled with snow. The boys employed in getting fire wood. Afternoon
stormy. Boys all quiet and talking about New Year. Nothing worthy of noting occurred today. Watch
word: “Amelia”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Weather warm and cloudy. Commenced snowing at 7 A. M. Furnished Geo. W. Ebey
50 caps and I. Shull 10 balls. Ceased snowing at 10 A. M. Still continues cloudy. River still frozen over,
men skating all over it. Surgeon reports Donald (McDonald) Allen and Kirwin still sick. Watch Word:
Tuesday, Jan 1st, 1856. The morning opened clear but cold. Last night the Boys seen the old year out and
the New Year in with great glee and a little Whiskey. At 12 Midnite we fired a salute welcoming the New
Year in which soon brought all the Inhabitants out of their beds. The Boys first visited Capt. Fowler who
rather against his will had to stand neat after which Messrs. Hanna and Plummer stepped up and done the
needful. They then marched round serenading every house with a fife and tin pan (the drum being absent).
Towards morning the Boys were how come you so when Mr. Hanna invited them in house where he had
some hot coffee and cakes for them. After pertaken off, they returned to Quarters. The balance of the day
was passed in peace and quiet. Watch word: “New Year”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at the usual time. Weather very cloudy and signs of snow. Commenced
snowing at 8 A. M. The sentinel on guard last night from 10 to 12 reported several large guns fired.
Furnished C. Wheeler, 10 balls; W. Rop, 10 rds; I. McKissick 10 ditto; U. Friend, 10 ditto. Still snowing
at 3 P. M. No change in Surgeon’s report. Watch word: “Cuss”.
Wednesday, Jan. 2nd. Weather cloudy and moderating. The Boys all to work on the timber for the house.
Commenced hauling down today. Dispatched Sgt. Hill with Privates Crockett and Turner to Whitby’s
Island for provisions. The evening rather foggy in consequence of the thaw. Watch word for the night:
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at the usual time. Weather warm and cloudy with signs of rain. Made 60
rounds of cartridges today. Slight rain set in at 3 P. M. Still no change in Surgeon’s report. Watch Word:
Thursday, Jan. 3rd. Weather clear and moderating. All hands employed on the Bar racks. Layed
foundation and raised it 5 logs high. Boys returned from the Island and only brought over some
vegetables: as it was too rough to bring the pork. The Cutter “Jefferson Davis” came down today about
2 P. M. from Seattle. Brought no news from the Captain in fact no news from anywhere. She brought
down 20 stand of arms for the Company and 28 stand for the County. As soon as the weather breaks she
will leave for San Francisco, Col. Fitzhugh came as a passenger. Enrolled Wm. Eldridge, who was sworn
in. Watch word for the night: “Rain”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at the usual time. Weather warm and cloudy. Looks like rain. The Cook
reports no meat left but Salt Horse. Afternoon watch on fatigue duty. Rained some this afternoon. C. N.
Miller added to Surgeon’s list of sick. “Watch word: “Peirce”.
Friday, Jan. 4th. Weather stormy. Nothing done this morning in consequence of weather. In the afternoon
the weather moderating the Boys turned to work on the barracks. The Cutter still with us. Nothing worthy
of note occurred today. Watch word for the night: “Ice”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at usual time. Weather cloudy and warm. Ice breaking up. Strong wind
from the South. Forenoon watch employed in cutting brush from the banks of the slough opposite the
Fort. Afternoon watch employed standing guard and making cartridges. Made 80 rounds. No change in
sick list. Watch word: “Corwin”.
Saturday, Jan. 5th. Weather clear and moderate. The Boys employed on the Barracks. Dispatched a party
to Whitby’s Island for fresh beef. Nothing worthy of note occurred today. Pass word for the night:
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at the usual time. Weather warm and windy. Forenoon watch at general
duty. Ice in river broken and floating down in large masses. Afternoon guard at general duty. No change
in sick list. Watch word: “All Right”.
Sunday, Jan. 6th. Weather clear and mild. Received of Capt. Pease of the Cutter 20 muskets. The Boys
returned this morning from the Island bringing with them a beef, cabbages and onions. The Cutter left this
morning for Frisco. The members of the Company held a meeting relative to proceeding with the building
as they was dissatisfied and a portion of them was unwilling to work without they was sure of additional
pay for the same as they did not consider it the duty of a soldier to build barracks. The officers left it
entirely to the men. They appointed their own chairman and the assembly was addressed by Mr.
Brownfield and the Chairman, J. T. Turner. Both speakers pretended to be acquainted with military
matters and was very free on censoring the Captain for the manner he has performed his duties and was
also very much incensed because the correspondence of the Captain with Head Quarters had not been left
open for their perusal. They proposed to stop the building where it was and to use the lumber that the
Captain had purchased on U. S. account in erecting temporary barracks. The proposition was immediately
stopped by the 2nd Lieut. S. Keymes and Orderly Sergeant, who told them that no such proposition could
be entertained as the lumber could not be used for any other purpose than such as the Captain had
instructed. They then adjourned. After the meeting, Lieut. Keymes told them that those that were willing
to go ahead and finish the building according to the captain’s plan and risk getting extra pay for the same
to step up to the Orderly’s desk and give in their names when the following came forward: John Conat,
Benjamin Gibbs, H. Hill, Oscar W. Olney, George Jones, R. S. Stevens, S. S. Irwin, J. Flint, H. Webber,
Wm. Eldridge, Bob Smallman, Lewis Boury, Lieut. Keymes and J. J. H. Van Bokkelen. Enrolled P. K.
Hubbs and he was sworn in. Nothing occurred during the afternoon worthy of note. Watch word for the
night: “Clalom”.
Fort Ebey Minutes: Roll called at usual time. Weather warm and cloudy. At 8 A. M. the guard reported a
canoe coming up which proved to be H. McClung bringing beef to the Fort with a letter from Capt. Ebey
to officer in charge to foreword him a copy of the minutes.
NOTE: This was apparently the last minutes kept by Fort Ebey. If not, they are not among the Indian War
correspondence at this Headquarters
Monday, Jan. 7th. Morning rainy. Nothing done this morning in consequence of the weather. Some more
thieving of provisions last night. In fact some of the men has been regularly stealing provisions ever since
we have been down here – as – we have been all huddled together in the Custom’s House and compelled to
leave everything open as the men had to sleep in the same room where the provisions was stored.
They have been constantly carrying things off and either disposing of the same for Whiskey or giving
them to the Squaws. We are in hopes that we can discover the parties but the men hate to tell on one
another for if the parties are discovered they have got to walk. Nothing doing this afternoon. Watch word:
Tuesday, Jan. 8th. Morning rainy and squally. Worked on the building this forenoon. At last succeeded in
establishing the thieving on one Alex McDonald. He was brought up for examination and it was proven
on him that he had been trading soap, candles, etc with the Indians for sometime. He was notified to
leave. That if he was found anywhere within reach he would be drummed out so he showed good sense
and left on board a Brig bound to Frisco. There is still some others in the Company that has been pilfering
as we have had stolen over $50 worth of provisions since we came to this place. Afternoon rainy – nothing
doing. Watch word: “River”.
Wednesday, Jan. 9th. Morning pleasant but windy. Sgt. Hill left for Fort Ebey with dispatches and to
relieve Sgt. McNear. He goes by way of Whitby’s Island. He takes with him P. K. Hubbs, S. Alexander
and T. Hastie who has been stationed at Whitby’s Island. Worked on building today. Moved into Dr.
McCurdy’s house. Somewhat more comfortable than we was in the Custom House. Things begin to get
rather dull for want of news as we have not heard from up Sound for sometime. In hopes we get word
from the Captain soon. Watch word for the night: “Mountain”.
Thursday, Jan 10th. Weather clear, wind light from the South. Worked on building today. Opened case of
arms and cleaned the same. Commence tomorrow to have our regular drills once more. Boys all contented
in new Quarters excepting a few who the devil himself could not satisfy. One blessing, money and credit
is about out and the Whiskey has to stop. Boat returned from Whitby’s Island this morning. Watch word
for the night: “Clalom”.
Friday, Jan. 11th. Weather clear. Boys to work on building in hopes to get all the logs up tomorrow. It is
heavy work and we have no convenience to raise our logs – as Uncle Sam’s credit is not good in this place
of meanness. Nothing new today. S. Tucker and Thomas Walker absented themselves without leave.
Company drilled this afternoon. S. T. Turner, acting drill master. The Steamer “Beaver” arrived from
above. No news from the Captain. Watch word for the night: “Jefferson”.
Saturday, Jan 12th. Weather clear. Boys to work on the building today. The R. B. Potter came down from
above with lumber from Port Gamble but no flour. Captain Keeler sent word that he had been
disappointed in receiving flour from below but if we could purchase wheat on his account to do so and he
would have it ground and furnish same to Company. By the Potter we received a letter from Lt. Howe
with 10 “Yaugers” for the Company. Issued Yaugers to Stevens and Irwin. The Orderly started for the
Island to see what arrangements he could make for either wheat or flour. Tucker and Walters still absent
without leave. Pass Word for the Night: “Adams”.
Sunday, Jan. 13th. Weather clear. Being Sunday, nothing doing. In the evening the Orderly returned from
Whitby’s Island. He could procure no flour but most of the settlers were willing to furnish the same as
soon as they could get the wheat ground. Made arrangements with Mr. Alexander to supply us in the
course of three weeks with 25 barrels. Everything quiet today. Watch word for the night: “Whatcombe”.
Tucker and Walters absent without leave for the 3rd day.
Monday, Jan. 14th. Weather clear. Boys to work on building. This morning heard considerable growling
amongst some not to work. They are trying to make those that were at work dissatisfied. Came to the
conclusion that it was folly to go ahead with the building when there was so much dissatisfaction. So at
12 M stopped all hands and will do no more till the Captain returned. After dinner the A. Y. Trask hove in
sight coming from Fort Ebey, with Sgt. McNear and party, namely H. H. McNear, Dr. McCurdy, Corp.
Cline, James, Bynum, John Davis, Daniel Howell and H. Ramsdell. Boys all well at the Fort for
particulars refer to file of minutes filed with sundry papers. Lieut. Keymes learning from Sgt. McNear
that on the evening of the 12th, three Northern canoes had landed on Whitby’s Island just below Skagit
Head and attempted to plunder a house, he thought it adviseable to send the Potter on a cruise amongst the
Islands to look for Northern canoes under the charge of Sgt. Webber – with instructions if he should meet
any to make them turn back and notify them that if they come up the Sound they would be treated as
enemies. Detailed in Sgt. Webber’s party – J. T. Turner, Wm. Eldridge, H. Crockett, Edward Lill, Dr.
McCurdy and John Conat. Watch word for the night: “Rain”. Tucker and Wheeler absent without leave
for 4th day.
Tuesday, Jan. 15th. Weather clear. Schr. R. B. Potter started this morning. Nothing doing around quarters.
Came to the conclusion to dispatch the A. Y. Trask to Fort Ebey tomorrow with provisions for the Boys
and to relieve some of them that had been up there ever since the Fort was built. Sent dispatch to the
Captain at Olympia also to Lieut. Howe. Tucker and Walters still absent (5th day). Watch word for the
night: “Snow”.
Wednesday, Jan. 16th. Weather clear. The A. Y. Trask left this morning for Fort Ebey with provisions.
Enrolled and swore in Alex Underwood today. Several of the Boys got leave of absence for a few days to
visit home. Nothing occurred today worthy of note. Watch word for the night: “Rain”. Tucker and Walters
returned today at 4 P. M., action being deferred in their case until the Captain returned. By requisition
from Captain Plummer, furnished the Guards (Co. J) with 150 lbs or beef.
Thursday, Jan. 17th. Weather clear. This morning a canoe with two Northern Indians and three squaws
arrived from Victoria. Lieut. Keymes notified them that they must leave immediately as they would not be
allowed to remain or proceed up Sound. They appeared quite dissatisfied. By them sent a letter to
Governor Douglass stating to him the Instructions we had received relative to stopping Northern Indians
and requesting him to make known to such as might be at Victoria or visit that place hereafter. Everything
quiet on the Beach. Watch word: “Hi-ac”.
Friday, Jan. 18th. Weather clear. Nothing doing. This afternoon a boat came down from the Fort with
McKissick, Tripp and Miller bringing a letter from Sgt. Hill stating that their beef was out and that, there
was great dissatisfaction amongst the Boys because they were not relieved. The great trouble has been
that ever since the Company has been formed there has been a few disappointed ones in not getting an
office and they have been moving heaven and earth to make the Company dissatisfied and break up.
Which they have nearly succeeded in – looking anxiously for the Captain to come to do one thing or the
other either disband the crowd or turn adrift those that are causing the trouble. The party coming down
met some Northern Indians who stated they were bound to Nisqually. They pretended to be friendly.
Tucker and Walters absented themselves without leave. Watch word: “Here They Come”.
Saturday, Jan. 19th. Weather clear. Nothing doing today. Dispatched boat to the Island for beef to send to
the Fort. Boat returned at 5 P. M. bringing the beef. They report that the Northern Indians the Boys met
yesterday had come down last night and had stopped at Capt. Robinson’s, where they had robbed. They
then robbed Crockett’s warehouse, from there they came down to Captain Ebey’s where they plundered
again. The inhabitants assembled and persued them and over took them between Smith’s Island and the
Island. Some of the Boys wanted to fire upon them, others objected, so they pulled up to them and the
Indians prepared for a fight and told them not to attempt to take them as they might as well be killed as to
be taken and shot. They acknowledged that they had been up the Sound and had plundered. But gave for
an excuse that one of their party had been taken prisoner and tried for stealing and everything taken from
him and they had only plundered in return. They gave up a few of the articles they had stolen and went on
their way. Watch word for the night: “Northern Indians”. Tucker and Walker absent without leave for the
2nd day.
Sunday, Jan. 20th. Weather clear. Everything being Sunday. Boat started this evening for the Fort with the
beef. Private Tripp in charge taking with him C. M. Bradshaw, Alex Underwood and M. Mountz. Tucker
and Walker absent without leave for 3rd day. Watch word for the night: “Port Townsend”.
Monday, Jan. 21st. Weather clear. Everything quiet, nothing doing. Some of the Clalom Indians returned
this afternoon from the talk they had at Port Discovery. There appears to be great dissatisfaction amongst
them. They have appointed some of the Ties (tyhees) to visit Olympia to have a talk with Gov. Mason.
Things in this neighborhood looks rather gloomy for peace this summer as there is no doubt that some of
the Indians at war are amongst them endeavoring to get them to join this summer in the war against the
Whites. Made out dispatch to forward to Head Quarters relative to matters in these parts. Watch word for
the night: “No You Don’t”. Tucker and Walker absent without leave for 4th day.
Tuesday, Jan. 22nd. Weather very windy from southeast. Nothing worthy of note today. Received mail
from Olympia up to the 11th instant. Nothing new relative to the war. Dispatched the dispatches to Head
Quarters this evening by the hands of Capt. Slater who left for Seattle this evening. Watch word for the
night: “Here They Come”. Tucker and Walker booked as deserters.
Wednesday, Jan. 23rd. Weather windy with rain. Everything quiet. Boys getting tired of remaining at
Quarters. Looking anxiously for the Captain and 1st Lieut. Watch Word for the night: “Sim-si-am”.
Thursday, Jan. 24th. Weather clear. Everything quiet this morning. The Boys laying in their oars waiting
for orders from above. This afternoon the A. Y. Trask arrived from Fort Ebey bringing a detachment of 6
men. Everything quiet at the Fort. The Boys getting tired and desirous of being relieved. The Trask
reports that C. Thompson started with his boat at the same time for beef as they was out of it at the Fort.
Dispatched boat to the Island for beef. Watch word: “Clalom”.
Friday, Jan. 25th. Weather clear. Nothing doing in Quarters. The Potter returned today from her cruise.
She visited most of the Islands and seen nothing worthy of reporting except that at Bellingham Bay both
the Indians and Whites are expecting a dayly attack from the Northern Indians. Watch word: “Hydra”.
Saturday, Jan. 26th. Weather rainy, wind southeast. Two vessels in harbour this morning from Frisco.
They bring but little news of importance. The only good news we have is that General Scott had ordered
the Ninth regiment of Infantry to this Territory to prosecute the war. By the vessel, Fowler received a
fresh lot of Whiskey and in course there is a drunken crowd. The devil take such a place for we have a
crowd that if the Whiskey is to be had they will get drunk. It is a bad move in having our Quarters at this
place. This afternoon the weather cleared off and it has the appearance of a clear spell again. Watch
Word: “Sea Serpent”. 8 P. M. The absentees Walters and Tucker returned. Lieut. Keymes notified them
that he had marked them down as deserters and that he would not admit them into Quarters till the
Captain returned, but hold them as prisoners.
Sunday, Jan. 27th. Weather clear. This morning at 9 A. M. a Steamer hove in sight which proved to be
the Active with Governor Stevens aboard and his aide Judge Landers. On their landing the Governor
circulated his Proclamation calling upon the people of this Territory to raise six Companies for the
carrying on the War this summer to a victorious close. The Governor ordered the Company to be
mustered out of Service on the 3rd of February and use all diligence in forming the new Company as he
was desirous of having them in the field by the middle of next month. The Governor made a short and
appropriate speech to the company then he left for Olympia. Watch word for the night: “Stevens”.
Monday, Jan. 28th. Weather clear. Everything in a hub bub all the Boys are unsettled. Don’t know what to
do whether to enlist again or not. In a day or two will settle down and come to some conclusion. I have
but little doubt there will be enough to join to form the Company. Watch word: “Recruit”.
Tuesday, Jan. 29th. Weather clear. Everything about the same as yesterday. The crowd still unsettled what
to do in relation to enrolling again. Watch word: “They Come”.
Wednesday, Jan. 30th. Weather damp and foggy. This morning the Steamer Republic passed up Sound
with troops for Steilacoom. The Potter left Fort Ebey this afternoon to bring the Boys down that intends
enrolling in the new Company. The Orderly Sergeant commenced today to arrange things in general so
that the Company can be disbanded on the 3rd of February. Watch word: “Republic”.
Jan. 31, 1856. Weather clear. Recruiting for new Company slow business and making but little headway.
This evening the Boys from Port Discovery returned, their leave of absence being out. Watch word for the
night: “Klickitat”.
Feb. 1st, 1856. Weather clear. Last night we heard that the Indians had attacked Seattle, and destroyed
considerable property. The report created quite an excitement but don’t make enlisting any better as a
large portion of the Company has property in these parts to protect and they are in doubt what to do.
The Brigantine Jenny Ford came in from Port Gamble this afternoon. She confirms the news. It now
begins to look like we had something ahead to do and not quite so small a job as some has insisted upon.
Begin to feel uneasy about the Boys at the Fort as there is but 12 there as the rest is on their way down to
be discharged. Shull starts the Trask up tomorrow for all hands. Watch word for the night: “Knife”.
Feb. 2nd. 1856. Weather clear. This morning called the Company together when Dr. S. McCurdy was
elected Chairman and J. J. H. Van Bokkelen, Secretary .The Chairman stated to the meeting that they had
been called together for the purpose of enquiring who of the present Company was willing to enroll in
accordance with the Proclamation of the Governor as the present Company had to be disbanded and a new
one formed. He therefore offered the following resolution. “Resolved that a person be appointed to draw
up a paper for those that were willing to enroll in the new Company to sign”. Seconded and carried. S. T.
Turner proposed J. J. H. Van Bokkelen. Seconded by N. Gerrish and carried. A roll was then opened and
forty signed. S. H. Allen offered the following resolution “That a Captain, pro tem be appointed to act for
the new Company and make arrangements for supplies for the new Company as soon as the present
Company shall be discharged. Seconded and carried. J. J. H. Van Bokkelen was elected Captain, pro tem.
No further business offering, the Chairman adjourned the meeting. Watch word for the night: “Valley”.
Feb. 3rd, 1856. Weather clear. Nothing worthy of note occurred today. Boys scattered and awaiting
orders. Anxious to hear from the Fort and Seattle. Watch word for the night: “Hi-i-ac”.
Feb. 4, 1856. Weather clear. Nothing new. Looking for the Captain to disband the Company. Watch
word: “They Come”.
Feb. 5, 1856. Weather clear. The Orderly Sergeant started this morning on the Potter with a detachment of
fourteen men for Seattle and Olympia to hear some news and get ammunition and arms. Everything quiet.
Watch word: “Olympia”.
Feb. 6, 1856. Weather clear. Things same as yesterday. Watch word: “Adams”.
Feb. 7, 1856. Nothing new,
Feb. 8, 1856. Weather clear. The Potter returned today bringing the Captain (I. N. Ebey and his wife).
They report everything quiet up Sound but a good chance for a fight with the Indians. The Captain brings
with him blank discharges and instructions to disband the Company. Considerable electioneering amongst
the Boys relative to the officers of new Company. Watch word: “George”.
Feb. 9, 1856. Weather clear. Arranging everything to disband the Company on the 11th instant. Watch
word: “Beware”.
Feb. 10, 1856. Nothing worthy of note occurred today, excepting the operations of some politicians that
has been disappointed at Olympia and seem desirous to stop the formation of the new Company, from
what cause I can’t tell. I am afraid they will succeed but I shall try to head them off, god willing. Watch
word: “They Come”.
Feb. 11, 1856. Company disbanded this day and new Company formed.
(Signed) J. J. H. Van Bokke1en, Orderly Sergeant.
NOTE: No minutes or the new Company were around for the 2nd Phase or Indian Wars.
On December 3, 1856, Governor I. I. Stevens gave a comprehensive report on the Indian Wars to
the Legislative Assembly at its Fourth Annual Session. Due to the fact that the important features of this
report have already been published in Governor Steven’s letters to Jefferson Davis, The Secretary of War,
in chronological order in this volume, it has been omitted to avoid repetition. However, it is believed that
the Quartermaster and Commissary General’s report, and the Ordnance Officer’s and Engineer Officer’s
reports are of sufficient interest to warrant their inclusion in this volume. These reports are as follows:
Office QM and Comm. General November 29, 1856
Gov. I. I. Stevens:
Sir: In answer to your note of the 26th inst., I beg leave to submit the following report of the operations of
the Quartermaster and Commissary Department, W.T.V. As several of the Assistant Quartermasters and
Commissaries have not had time to send in their accounts, I will not be able to give in a full and complete
report until almost two months.
Since the organization of the Quartermaster and Commissary Department on the 21st of January of
the current year, there has been issued $960,268.32 worth of scrip to carry on operations. Of this amount
$132,721.09 has been redeemed by sales of public property leaving $827,547.23 outstanding.
I estimate that it will require at least $35,500.00 in addition, to pay unadjusted accounts against
this department. In accordance with your order, the accounts of the 1st Regiment, W.T.V., called out by
proclamation of Acting Governor Mason, have been examined, and scrip issued for the amount of the
indebtedness. This regiment was without Quartermasters or Commissaries. Each officer in command was
empowered to procure whatever his men might need, and give receipt for the same, and it affords me
pleasure to testify that this authority was never abused.
The amount of debt thus created, as per receipts and other vouchers, is $58,821.92 for which script
approved by the Commander-in-Chief has been issued, and I estimate that $5,000.00 more of the scrip
will be required to cover the total indebtedness ($63,82l.92) of 1st Regiment, W.T.V. under Acting
Governor Mason.
Scrip issued on account of expenses 1st Regt.,
W.T.V. under proclamation of Actg Gov Mason $58,821.92
Scrip to issue for outstanding accounts
against said regiment 5,000.00
Scrip issued on account of expenses of Vol.
organization since Jan. 21, 1856 $960,268.32
Scrip to be issued for outstanding accounts
against said organization $35,500.00
The amount scrip cancelled of public $1,059,590.25
property $132,721.09
Total amount of indebtedness $926,869.16
The operations of the department under my charge have been carried on under very discouraging
circumstances. There was no ready money with which to meet daily expenses. There were no large cities
or wealthy communities where supplies could be purchased for the immediate need of the troops.
Everything had to be obtained if, possible, for scrip, from either this or Oregon Territory, both sparsely
populated, already impoverished by Indian hostilities, and of which a large number of the in habitants
were in arms against a common enemy. In this territory, especially, many of the farmer had been driven
from their claims others, with every disposition to help the common cause, could not do so without
depriving their families of bread. Notwithstanding this the conduct of the citizens has been worthy of all
praise. Without their zealous cooperation the volunteers would have starved.
The officers of this department consisted of one Assistant-Quartermaster and Commissary general
and eight Assistant Quartermasters and Commissaries, stationed as follows:
Lieut. Col. James K. Hurd, Asst. QM and Comm. General, superintendent of all business
on the Columbia River.
R. S. Robinson; Asst. QM and Comm, Port Townsend, and supply of the Northern
Frank in Matthias, Asst. QM and Comm. General at Seattle
Warren Grove do at Steilacoom
Charles E. Weed do at Olympia
C. C. Pagett do at Lewis County
M. B. Millard do at Vancouver
A. H. Robie do at Dalles, and field
Operations of the Southern Battalion.
C. H. Armstrong, Regimental. QM and Comm. in the field with the Right Wing of the
2nd Regiment W.T.V.
These gentlemen were mostly unacquainted with the duties of the stations on first appointment,
but their zeal and activity soon made amends for deficiencies, and I am under the highest obligations to
them all for their most active and efficient cooperation, and the admirable manner in which the accounts
have been presented.
About February 10th, a wagon train was organized, consisting of thirty wagons and forty five
teamsters and guards, commanded by Captain Oliver Shead and Lieuts. O’Brien and Remley. The danger
and difficulty of the duties performed by this train, can only be appreciated by one acquainted with the
state of the country and of the roads at the time. As soon as organized the train was dispatched from Fort
Stevens (Yelm prairie) to Fort Hays (Connell’s prairie) via Camp Montgomery, with supplies for the
troops then in the field remaining: until a blockhouse was built on the Puyallup River, it moved again to
Connell’s Prairie, and thence returned to Olympia, about March 10th. From this time to June it was busily
engaged in transporting stores to the different posts scattered over the country. Again assembled at Camp
Montgomery, it transported the stores intended for Col. Shaw’s command at Fort Hays and thence part of
the wagons returned, bringing the stores not turned over to the regular troops with the post, The remainder
(five or six wagons) were sent to South Prairie whence they returned with the public property when that
post was abandoned. A portion of this train was retained until the latter part of September. It is necessary
to remark here, that the men of the train were its only escort, and that during several month’s service not
an animal was lost or captured.
A pack train, consisting of 109 animals laden with provisions and ammunition, and 27 men, under
charge of Captain Armstrong, accompanied the Right wing of the 2nd Regiment in its march from Puget
Sound to the Walla Walla, under the command of Col. Shaw. With almost unprecedented good fortune it
reached the latter place with the lose of only one horse and pack caused by the animal stepping from the
trail, at a dangerous pass, into the Nachess River beneath. Without other incident, on July 9th the
command was joined by Captain Robie’s Assistant Quartermaster’s train, from whom a fresh supply of
provisions was drawn, those being brought over the mountains being nearly exhausted.
The good fortune of the train did not continue throughout the campaign. Having been dispatched
July 26th, from the camp on Mill Creek to the Dalles, 0. T. for supplies, the train, with a small escort of
twenty five men, was attacked on its return by a body of Indians near the Walla Walla River. After
fighting from 10 A. M. until about 11 P. M., their ammunition being exhausted, the escorts and packers
were compelled to leave the packs, and happily made good their retreat to Fort Mason, distant about 10
The duties at Port Townsend were peculiar and were ably performed by Capt. R. S. Robinson,
Quartermaster at that post. Fort Ebey, on the Snohomish and Forts Tilton and Alden on the Snoqualmie,
were garrisoned by the Northern Battalion.
Vessels were chartered to ply between Victoria (Vancouver Island) where most of the supplies
were purchased, and the posts on the upper part of the Sound.
From Port Townsend the provisions were sent to the different posts, by way of the rivers, in
canoes manned by friendly Indians, but under charge of white men, a distance of twenty five miles. The
manner in which this duty was performed is most creditable to Captain Robinson.
Captain Robie, Quartermaster at the Dalles, started in June from that place with a train of 45
wagons and thirty five pack animals, escorted by the command of Captain Goff. Depositing its load at
Walla Walla, the train then returned to the Dalles for a fresh supply, and by the 24th of August was again
on the road to Walla Walla Valley. In consequence of such promptness and activity, Col. Shaw’s
command was never in want of supplies.
The success of the operation in the Quartermaster and Commissary department on the Columbia,
is mainly due, however, to the energy and ability with which Lt. Col. Hurd and Capt. Millard effected
purchases, and pushed forward the supplies to the Dalles.
In addition to the above, this department has furnished supplies to detachments and companies in
almost every part of the territory, and blockhouses, roads and ferries, have been constructed under its
In obedience to orders, the public property has been disposed of as soon as possible, and all haste
is being made to bring the affairs of the department to a close. I am gratified to be able to state that much
of it sold at a high advance on the original prices, which was regarded as extravagant at the
commencement of the war. Yet horses, which cost from $250 to $400 brought from $200 to $600;
wagons, costing $200, were readily sold for $300, and oxen were disposed of at 30% above cost. This,
too, after the property had been of course deteriorated by six month’s active service.
As an evidence of the fidelity with which the public interest has been protected, it is sufficient to
state that, whilst 571 horses were purchased for the service, 600 have been turned in and sold. When it is
remembered that many of the animals have died in service, and that many have been captured by the
enemy, it will be seen how faithfully the animals purchased and those captured at Grand Ronde have been
accounted for.
I am much indebted to all, both officers and employees, for their zealous and intelligent
cooperation. My thanks are Especially due to the gentlemen in this office for their constant and untiring
devotion to their duties. The accounts are being rapidly brought to a close, and I hope soon to be able to
present them for final adjustment.
I have the honor, etc,
WILLIAM W. MILLER, AM & Comm. Gen., W.T.V.
Ordnance Dept., W.T.V. Service
Olympia, Dec. 1, l856
His Excellency Isaac I. Stevens
Governor and C in C, W.T.V. Forces
In obedience to orders, I have the honor to submit the following brief report relative to the public
arms of the Territory.
Received from the United States Ordnance Department,
as donated by Act of Congress to the Territory:
In percussion muskets 1,980
In percussion rifles 100
Cavalry Sabers 30
Received by Acting Governor Mason on his requisition upon
Military Storekeeper at Columbia Barracks (Fort Vanc.) and which
are to be replaced out of future quota of arms due the Territory 150
Turned in by Volunteer officers since the disbandment
of the forces up to December 1st 174
ISSUED 2,434
To counties, on receipt of County Commissioners 1,046
To counties, for which receipts have not been received 228
To Volunteers and Naval Officer, per receipt 224
To Citizens of Counties, as per receipt 35
Retained or lost by Volunteers and charged on muster rolls 117
On Hand 784
Received – From Ordnance Department, U. S. Army 2, 110
From Columbia Barracks (Ft Vancouver) 150
From Volunteers 174
Issued – To counties 1,284
To Vols and Naval Officers 224
To Citizens 35
To Volunteer Service 117
On Hand 784
Respectfully submitted
Olympia, Wash. Terr.
Gov. I. I. Stevens
Commander in Chief, W.T.V.
Sir: In obedience to orders, I beg leave to transmit the following list of Blockhouses and Stockades
erected during the late Indian war, and whether built at public or private expense.
The following were erected either at the expense of the Quartermaster Department, or by the
Volunteer troops in the field:
BLOCKHOUSE (stockaded) at the Cowlitz Landing
do at French settlement, near Cowlitz Farms
do at Skookum Chuck
do at Chehalis River, below mouth of Skookum Chuck
do at Tenalquot Plains (Fort Miller)
do at Yelm Prairie (Fort Stevens)
do at Lowe’s, on Chambers Prairie
Two do at Olympia
do (stockaded) at Packwood’s Ferry (Fort Raglan)
Two do (Fort Hicks) at Montgomery’s, built by Pioneer Company
BLOCKHOUSE (Fort White) crossing on Puyallup River
Two do (Fort Hays) at Connell’s Prairie
Two do (Forts Pike and Posey) Crossings at White River
do (Fort McAlister) at South Prairie
do (Fort Lander) on Duwamish River, built by Volunteers
do at Seattle
do at Lone Tree Point
do (Fort Ebey) on Snohomish River
do (Fort Tilton) At head of canoe navigation 1-1/2 miles below Snoqualmie
Fall, built by Northern Battalion
do (Fort Alden) 2-1/2 miles above Snoqualmie Falls on Ranger’s Prairie, built
by Northern Battalion
do at Port Townsend
do at Wilson’s Point
do at Bellingham Bay
do at Vancouver, built by Captain Kelly’s Company
do at Fourth Prairie
do at Washougal River
do on Lewis River
do (Fort Mason) in Walla Walla valley, built by order of Col. Shaw
do (Fort Preston) Michel’s Fork of Nesqually, built by
Captain Miller’s Company.
do at Klickitat Prairie, near Cowlitz
do at Davis
STOCKADE at Cochran’s on Skookum Chuck
do (Fort Henness) near Mound Prairie
BLOCKHOUSE Tenalquot Prairie
do at Nathan Eaton’s
do at Chamber’s Prairie
STOCKADE at Bush’s Prairie
do at Goodel1’s
BLOCKHOUSE at Ruddell’s
do at Rutledge’s
Two do at Falls, near Olympia
do at Dofflemyer’s
do at Whidby Island
do at Port Gamble, built by Captain Keller
do (Fort Arkansas) on Cowlitz
do at Mime Prairie
do at Port Ludlow
do at Meig’s Mill
two do at Cascades
do at Boisfort
Built by the Regular Troops
Fort Slaughter on Muckleshoot Prairie
Fort Maloney on the Puyallup River
Fort Thomas on Green River
Blockhouse on Black River
In addition to the erection of these defenses, portions of the troops and Quartermaster’s men were
employed in opening new roads, and repairing old ones, for the transportation of stores, etc., from one
defensive point to another. Amongst these may be mentioned as the most important, a trail cut from
Porter’s Prairie to Ranger’s Prairie -wagon road from Connell’s Prairie to White River – wagon road from –
Connell’s Prairie to South Prairie – wagon road from Montgomery’s to Connell’s Prairie – Ferry established
on the Puyallup River at Ft. White, etc., performed by the Pioneer Company, equally as distinguished for
gallantry as for industry in the field, and a trail cut from Fort Tilton to Ranger’s Prairie, and thence to
Cedar River – trail from Rattlesnake Prairie to Snoqualmie Pass, etc., by the Northern Battalion, which
deserves the highest commendation for its soldier – like endurance of fatigue and hardships.
I beg leave, herewith, to transmit two maps, one exhibiting the line of march of the Right Wing of
the 2nd Regiment, W.T.V. from Puget Sound to the Grand Ronde, as well as Captain Goff’s march from
the Dalles to Burnt River, and the other showing the situation of the various blockhouses above
Respectfully, etc.,
Captain, Engineers, W.T.V.
With the presentation of the foregoing list of blockhouses and stockades, which depicts all too
clearly the seriousness of the Indian Wars of 1855-56 in Washington, this volume will be brought to a
Although the seriousness of the situation appears to have been discounted by the Regular Army
commanders, it is readily apparent that Washington’s early Citizens considered it serious enough to stand
up and fight in an effort to maintain their toe-hold in the sparsely settled territory of Washington.
It is realized that in presenting the material in this volume that it may be somewhat one-sided with
regards to the controversy which developed between the Volunteer Militia and the Regular Army
officials. However, the reasons are obvious, some of the controversial documents are not available to this
Department or to the State. Their presentation in this manner is merely to present the true story of this
controversial period in Washington’s history.
The foregoing letters and documents have been presented almost exactly as they appear in the
originals. No attempt was made to edit the long sentences in vogue during that period, although some
punctuation was added to avert complete obfuscation on the part of the reader.